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Estrutura de tarifas de energia elétrica - análise crítica e proposições metodológicas.; Eletric energy tariffs - critical analysis and methodological proposition.

Fugimoto, Sérgio Kinya
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/10/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Atualmente, o setor elétrico se prepara para o terceiro ciclo de revisões tarifárias das distribuidoras. Com o cenário regulatório mais consolidado em termos de definição da receita requerida, os agentes estão voltando suas atenções para a necessária adequação e correção da estrutura de tarifas. De fato, a ANEEL definiu temas para os projetos de pesquisa e desenvolvimento (P&D) considerados estratégicos para o desenvolvimento do setor elétrico nacional, dentre eles, o de Estrutura Tarifária. Recentemente, a agência também divulgou consultas públicas que tratam da alocação dos custos de referência que formam as tarifas, dos sinais de preço e das tarifas para os consumidores atendidos em BT. Em sintonia com a discussão atual do setor de distribuição de energia elétrica, a tese defendida neste trabalho procura analisar a metodologia de cálculo das tarifas, sistematizando um conhecimento disperso em várias referências bibliografias. Para isso são discutidos os principais aspectos da teoria de precificação de ponta, abrangendo as abordagens americana, britânica e francesa, e pesquisada a conexão entre a lógica embutida na alocação horária dos custos e os critérios de dimensionamento do sistema de distribuição de energia elétrica. Visando refletir os custos decorrentes do atendimento de cada tipo de consumidor...

A utilidade da contabilidade de custos nas autarquias : o caso da fixação das tarifas e preços municipais; Cost accounting applications in local governments : the case of municipal tariffs and prices settings

Costa, Teresa Carmo Salgueiro
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 17/01/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
Dissertação de mestrado em Contabilidade e Auditoria.; As autarquias locais deparam-se actualmente com um cenário de escassez de recursos para fazer face ao acréscimo constante das necessidades locais. As receitas em relação às quais as autarquias têm maior margem de manobra financeira são as oriundas das taxas, tarifas e preços. Deste modo, importa analisar a informação que é utilizada como base de trabalho na ponderação dos valores a cobrar aos utentes dos bens e serviços. O POCAL veio responder a esta necessidade ao estabelecer a obrigatoriedade da Contabilidade de Custos no apuramento dos custos das funções e dos custos subjacentes à fixação de tarifas e preços de bens e serviços. Neste contexto, o principal objectivo desta dissertação consiste, por um lado, em verificar se as entidades pertencentes à Administração Local já têm implementado um sistema de Contabilidade de Custos e, por outro lado, verificar se a informação proporcionada por este ramo da contabilidade auxilia as tarefas conducentes à fixação das tabelas de tarifas e preços municipais. Neste sentido, para o desenvolvimento do estudo empírico, realizámos um questionário aplicado a todos os Municípios, Serviços Municipalizados e Empresas Municipais da região norte do país. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo evidenciam que a maioria das entidades analisadas ainda não implementou um sistema de Contabilidade de Custos. Apesar da quase totalidade dos inquiridos reconhecer a importância da informação proporcionada por este sistema...

Water tariffs : Methods for an Efficient Cost Recovery and for the Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Portugal

Monteiro, Henrique Pedro Currais
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em /11/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Doutoramento em Economia; This work is a contribution to the study of how the Portuguese water industry can meet the goals of cost recovery and water use efficiency set out by the Water Framework Directive. We describe the Portuguese water and wastewater tariffs implemented from 1998 to 2005 and the cost recovery levels for that period. The tariff revenues collected by the water utilities are insufficient to meet the financial costs of their activities, especially regarding wastewater, and the situation has worsened in recent years. We review the existing water pricing models, highlighting some important results like the fact that efficiency requires marginal cost pricing, which may not be feasible while respecting a revenue requirement. It is not evident whether the best scheme is a two-part tariff or some other pricing mechanism like increasing block tariffs (IBT), which are abundantly used in Portugal. We incorporate the scarcity cost associated with insufficient water availability into the optimal tariff design. We show that when both demand and costs respond to climate factors, increasing marginal prices may come about as a combined result of scarcity and customer heterogeneity when the fixed charge is only allowed to cover fixed costs and the utility is required to maintain a balanced budget. Ultimately...

The adoption of advanced feed-in tariffs in Ontario : a case of institutional layering

Fontaine, Jacques
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
En mai 2009, l’Ontario a adopté la Loi sur l’énergie verte et devint ainsi la première juridiction en Amérique du Nord à promouvoir l’énergie renouvelable par le biais de tarifs de rachat garantis. En novembre 2010, dans son Plan énergétique à long terme, la province s’est engagée à déployer 10,700 MW en capacité de production d’énergie renouvelable non-hydroélectrique par 2018. Il s’agit de la cible de déploiement la plus élevée dans ce secteur au Canada. Les infrastructures de production et de distribution d’électricité comprennent des coûts d’installation élevés, une faible rotation des investissements et de longs cycles de vie, facteurs qui servent habituellement à ancrer les politiques énergétiques dans une dynamique de dépendance au sentier. Depuis le début des années 2000, cependant, l’Ontario a commencé à diverger de sa traditionnelle dépendance aux grandes centrales hydroélectriques, aux centrales à charbon et aux centrales nucléaires par une série de petits changements graduels qui feront grimper la part d’énergie renouvelable dans le mix énergétique provincial à 15% par 2018. Le but de ce mémoire est d’élucider le mécanisme de causalité qui a sous-tendu l’évolution graduelle de l’Ontario vers la promotion de l’énergie renouvelable par le biais de tarifs de rachat garantis et d’une cible de déploiement élevée. Ce mémoire applique la théorie du changement institutionnel graduel de Mahoney et Thelen au cas du développement de politiques d’énergie renouvelable en Ontario afin de mieux comprendre les causes...

Implications of the Doha Market Access Proposals for Developing Countries

Laborde, David; Martin, Will; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.42%
This paper uses detailed data on bound and applied tariffs to assess the consequences of the World Trade Organization s December 2008 Modalities for tariffs levied and faced by developing countries, and the welfare implications of these reforms. The authors find that the tiered formula for agriculture would halve tariffs in industrial countries and lower them more modestly in developing countries. In non-agriculture, the formulas would reduce the tariff peaks facing developing countries and cut average industrial country tariffs by more than a third. The authors use a political-economy framework to assess the implications of flexibilities for the size of the tariff cuts and find they are likely to substantially reduce the outcome. However, despite the flexibilities, there are likely to be worthwhile gains, with applied tariffs facing developing countries cut by about 20 percent in agriculture and 27 percent in non-agriculture, and sizeable cuts in tariffs facing industrial countries. The welfare impacts of reform are evaluated using a new approach to aggregation that improves on the traditional...

Coordinating Tax Reforms in the Poorest Countries : Can Lost Tariffs be Recouped?

Wagle, Swarnim
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
A revenue-neutral switch from trade taxes to domestic consumption taxes is fraught with implementation challenges in countries with a large informal sector. It is shown for a sample of low-income countries over 25 years that they have had a mixed record of offsetting reductions in trade tax revenue. The paper then analyzes the specific case of Nepal, using a unique data set compiled from unpublished customs records of imports, tariffs and all other taxes levied at the border. It estimates changes to revenue and domestic production associated with two sets of reforms: i) proportional tariff cuts coordinated with a strictly enforced value-added tax; and ii) proposed tariff cuts under a regional free trade agreement. It is shown that a revenue-neutral tax reform is conditional on the effectiveness with which domestic taxes are enforced. Furthermore, loss of revenue as a result of intra-regional free trade can be minimized through judicious use of Sensitive Lists that still cover substantially all the trade as required by Article XXIV of the GATT.

Cost Recovery, Equity, and Efficiency in Water Tariffs : Evidence from African Utilities

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Foster, Vivien; Ying, Yvonne; Skilling, Heather; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.37%
Water and sanitation utilities in Africa operate in a high-cost environment. They also have a mandate to at least partially recover their costs of operations and maintenance (O&M). As a result, water tariffs are higher than in other regions of the world. The increasing block tariff (IBT) is the most common tariff structure in Africa. Most African utilities are able to achieve O&M cost recovery at the highest block tariffs, but not at the first-block tariffs, which are designed to provide affordable water to low-volume consumers, who are often poor. At the same time, few utilities can recover even a small part of their capital costs, even in the highest tariff blocks. Unfortunately, the equity objectives of the IBT structure are not met in many countries. The subsidy to the lowest tariff-block does not benefit the poor exclusively, and the minimum consumption charge is often burdensome for the poorest customers. Many poor households cannot even afford a connection to the piped water network. This can be a significant barrier to expansion for utilities. Therefore...

Rain, Agriculture, and Tariffs

Bastos, Paulo; Straume, Odd Rune; Urrego, Jaime A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
This paper examines whether and how rainfall shocks affect tariff setting in the agricultural sector. In a model of strategic trade policy, the authors show that the impact of a negative rainfall shock on optimal import tariffs is generally ambiguous, depending on the weight placed by the domestic policy maker on tariff revenue, profits and the consumer surplus. The more weight placed on domestic profits, the more likely it is that the policy maker will respond to a rainfall shortage by reducing import tariffs. These findings are robust to alternative assumptions about market structure and the timing of the game. Using detailed panel data on applied tariffs and rainfall for 70 nations, the authors find robust evidence that rainfall shortages generally induce policy makers to set lower tariffs on agricultural imports.

Eliminating Excessive Tariffs on Exports of Least Developed Countries

Hoekman, Bernard; Ng, Francis; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Although average Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) tariffs on imports from the least developed countries are very low; tariffs above 15 percent have a disproportional effect on their exports. Products subject to tariff peaks tend to be heavily concentrated in agriculture and food products and labor intensive sectors, such as apparel and footwear. Although the least developed countries benefit from preferential access, preferences tend to be smallest for tariff peak products. A major exception is the European Union, so that the recent European initiative to grant full duty free and quota free access for the least developed countries will result in only a small increase in their exports of tariff peak items. However, as preferences are less significant in other major OECD countries, a more general emulation of the European Union initiative would increase the least developed countries total exports of peak products by US dollar 2.5 billion. Although almost half of this increase is at the expense of other developing country exports...

Tariffs, quality reversals and exit in vertically differentiated industries

Herguera, Iñigo; Kujal, Praveen; Petrakis, E.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf; text/plain
Publicado em //2002 ENG
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In a vertically differentiated industry a domestic and a foreign firm first choose the quality of their goods and then compete in quantities, or prices, in the home market. We investigate the cases in which a tariff is chosen before, or after, the firms’ quality decision. These cases are referred to as the ex-ante and the ex-post game, respectively. Optimal ex-post tariffs are positive and ensure that the domestic firm always produces the high quality good. The optimal ex-ante tariff is prohibitive and welfare under domestic monopoly is lower than under ex-post tariffs, unless firms compete in prices and the domestic firm is high quality.; The authors would like to thank Jim Markusen and the participants at the meetings in Aix-en-Provence, The International Conference in Industrial Organization (Carlos III), Bellatera (Barcelona), ASSET (Alicante), ETSG (Erasmus) and seminars at Bologna and Vigo universities. The paper was written when Herguera and Petrakis were at Carlos III. The authors would like to thank an anonymous referee, Berthold Herrendorf, and especially the Editor, Jonathan Eaton, for detailed comments that led to a complete rewrite of the paper. Kujal acknowledges support from grants DGESIC [PB98/0024 and CAM 06/0058/2001. Herguera acknowledges support from grant [PB93-236. All remaining errors are our own

Wright tariffs in the spanish electricity industry: The case of residential consumption

Castro Rodríguez, Fidel
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/1997 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
This paper develops a capacity price model for the Spanish electricity industry and presents utilization level tariffs as an example of duration tariffs (Wright tariffs) when duration is aproximated by the ratio of consumption to power used. With this model and with the data on residential consumption of electricity several optimal t\\'o part tariffs for the residential level of utilization considering several hypothesis on the configuration of the generating equipment are computed. This allows for the estimation of the degree of optimality of the current tariff and to obtain an aproximation of efficiency losses caused by the existing regulatory regime.

Reducing Agricultural Tariffs versus Domestic Support : What's More Important for Developing Countries?

Hoekman, Bernard M.; Ng, Francis; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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High levels of protection and domestic support for farmers in industrial countries significantly affect many developing countries, both directly and through the price-depressing effect of agricultural support policies. High tariffs--in both rich and poor countries--and domestic support may also lower the world price of agricultural products, benefiting net importers. The authors assess the impact of reducing tariffs and domestic support in a sample of 119 countries. Least developed countries (LDCs) are disproportionately affected by agricultural support policies. More than 18 percent of LDC exports are subject to domestic support in at least one World Trade Organization (WTO) member, as compared to only 9 percent of their imports. For other developing countries the figures are around 4 percent for both their exports and imports. So, the prevailing pattern of trade suggests the world price-reducing effect of agricultural domestic support policies may induce a welfare loss in LDCs. The authors develop a simple partial equilibrium model of global trade in commodities that benefit from domestic support in at least one WTO member. The simulation results suggest there will be large differences between LDCs and other developing economies in terms of the impact of a 50 percent cut in tariffs as compared to a 50 percent cut in domestic support. Developing countries as a group would suffer a welfare loss from a cut in support...

The Structure of Import Tariffs in the Russian Federation : 2001-05

Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Tarr, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Russian tariff structure contains over 11,000 tariff lines of which about 1,700 use the so-called "combined" tariff rate system. For the combined system tariff lines, the actual tariff applied by Russian customs is the maximum of the ad valorem or specific tariff. The lack of available data and the difficulty in calculating the ad valorem equivalence of the specific tariffs have resulted in some previous efforts that have simply ignored the specific tariffs. This is the first paper to accurately assess the tariff rates. The authors show that ignoring the specific tariffs results in an underestimate of the actual tariff rates by about 1 to 3 percentage points, depending on the year. The average tariff in Russia has increased between 2001 and 2003 from about 11.5 to between 13 and 14.5 percent, but it has held steady in 2004 and 2005. This places Russia's tariffs at a level slightly higher than other middle-income countries and considerably higher than the OECD countries. The trade weighted standard deviation of the tariff approximately doubled from 9.5 percent in 2001 to 18 percent in 2003...

Trade Policy Flexibilities and Turkey : Tariffs, Antidumping, Safeguards, and WTO Dispute Settlement

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
Trade policy commitments to lower import tariffs and to maintain tariffs at low levels entail short and long-run political-economic costs and benefits. Empirical work examining the relationship between such commitments and the exercise of trade policy flexibilities is still relatively nascent, especially for emerging economies. This paper provides a rich, empirically-based assessment of ways that Turkey exercised trade policy flexibilities during the global economic crisis of 2008-11. First, and despite multilateral and customs union commitments that might limit changes to applied tariffs, Turkey made changes to both its applied Most Favored Nation and preferential tariffs that cumulatively affect nearly 9 percent of manufacturing imports and 10 percent of import product lines. Second, Turkey's cumulative application of temporary trade barrier (TTB) policies -- antidumping, safeguards and countervailing duties -- are estimated to impact by 2011 an additional 4 percent of imports and 6 percent of product lines. Other surprising results on Turkey's use of flexibilities include: extending the duration of previously imposed antidumping and safeguards beyond expected removal dates...

Power Tariffs : Caught between Cost Recovery and Affordability

Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Shkaratan, Maria
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.35%
This is the first paper to build a comprehensive empirical picture of power pricing practices across Sub-Saharan Africa, based on a new database of tariff structures in 27 countries for the years 2004-2008. Using a variety of quantitative indicators, the paper evaluates the performance of electricity tariffs against four key policy objectives: recovery of historic power production costs, efficient signaling of future power production costs, affordability to low income households, and distributional equity. As regards cost recovery, 80 percent of the countries in the sample fully recover operating costs, while only around 30 percent of the countries are practicing full recovery of capital costs. However, due to the fact that future power development may be based on a shift toward more economic technologies than those available in the past, existing tariffs look as though they would be consistent with Long Run Marginal Costs in nearly 40 percent of countries and hence provide efficient pricing signals. As regards affordability...

Politically Optimal Tariffs : An Application to Egypt

Madani, Dorsati; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.46%
Egyptian economic history has been influenced by the import-substitution industrialization approach to development, dating back to Gamal Abdel Nasser's Pan-Arabic and socialist movement in the 1950s. Two major waves of liberalization have marked the government's efforts to rationalize and modernize the economy-the Infitah (opening) promoted by Anwar Sadat in the 1980s, and further trade and privatization efforts by Hosni Mubarak in the 1990s. Nonetheless, the extent of trade liberalization does not compare well with similar countries. Despite a decade of liberalization, the trade regime is characterized by deliberate and gradual reforms. By 1999 these reforms had led to average tariffs close to 30 percent, with high dispersion and escalation, well above those in comparable countries. provide a political economy analysis of the difficulties of liberalizing tariffs in Egypt in general, and in its specific industries. They present the theoretical and empirical models and discuss the results. The authors also explore the potential effects of the Euro-Med agreement for Egypt The authors provide a political economy analysis of the difficulties of liberalizing tariffs in Egypt in general...

Eliminating Excessive Tariffs on Exports of Least Developed Countries

Hoekman, Bernard; Ng, Francis; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Most goods imported from developing countries, enter Quad markets duty-free, and, average tariffs in Quad markets are very low. But tariffs for some commodities are over one hundred percent. Such "tariff peaks" are often concentrated in products developing countries want to export: agricultural, and food products - especially such staples as sugar, cereals, and fish; fruits and vegetables; food products with a high sugar content; and, tobacco, and alcoholic beverages - and products from such labor-intensive sectors as apparel, and footwear. Giving least developed countries full duty- and quota-free access in the Quad for peak-tariff products would increase their total annual exports by eleven percent - or roughly $ 2.5 billion. Exports to Quad countries of peak-tariff products, would expand by 30-60 percent. Considering that peak-tariff items account for only a small share of developing countries' exports, granting lest developed countries duty-free access, would have only a negligible impact on other developing countries. For the same reason...

Transmission tariffs in competitive electricity markets

Ferreira, Judite; Vale, Zita; Morais, H.
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
In context of electricity market, the transmission price is an important tool to an efficient development of the electricity system. The electricity market is influenced by several factors; however the transmission network management is one of the most important aspects, because the network is a natural monopoly. The transmission tariffs can help to regulate the market, for that reason evaluate tariff must have strict criterions. This paper explains several methodologies to tariff the use of transmission network by transmission network users. The methods presented are: Post-Stamp Method; MW-Mile Method; Distribution Factors Methods; Tracing Methodology; Bialek’s Tracing Method and Locational Marginal Price.

A reversal in the historical role of tariffs in economic growth? The cases of Brazil and Portugal

Mata,Maria Eugénia; Love,Joseph L.
Fonte: Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas - FIPE Publicador: Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas - FIPE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
This paper discusses the comparative role of protectionism on Brazilian and Portuguese economic growth for the period 1860-1950 in the context of the available theoretical approaches from international economics. Although the role of tariffs has long been debated in the historiography of both countries, this paper provides the first exercise that uses a methodology based on a macro-econometric approach for long-run time-series. Given Clemens' and Williamson's conclusion that the world environment matters, we test their claim for two countries on the tariff reversal paradox. The Brazilian and the Portuguese experiences confirm that protection was correlated with growth in the period before World War I, and it is unlikely that freer trade would have increased Portuguese growth, contrary to the established thesis. The First World War, however, was a turning point for Brazil. In carrying out this study, we have used the best data available to us, occasionally departing from those used by Clemens and Williamson. Our conclusions hold for alternative data sets.

A reversal in the historical role of tariffs in economic growth? The cases of Brazil and Portugal

Mata, Maria Eugénia; Love, Joseph L.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
This paper discusses the comparative role of protectionism on Brazilian and Portuguese economic growth for the period 1860-1950 in the context of the available theoretical approaches from international economics. Although the role of tariffs has long been debated in the historiography of both countries, this paper provides the first exercise that uses a methodology based on a macro-econometric approach for long-run time-series. Given Clemens' and Williamson's conclusion that the world environment matters, we test their claim for two countries on the tariff reversal paradox. The Brazilian and the Portuguese experiences confirm that protection was correlated with growth in the period before World War I, and it is unlikely that freer trade would have increased Portuguese growth, contrary to the established thesis. The First World War, however, was a turning point for Brazil. In carrying out this study, we have used the best data available to us, occasionally departing from those used by Clemens and Williamson. Our conclusions hold for alternative data sets.; Este artigo discute o papel comparativo do protecionismo sobre o crescimento econômico brasileiro e português no período 1860-1950 no contexto das aproximações teóricas disponíveis da Economia Internacional. Embora o papel das tarifas tenha sido longamente discutido na historiografia dos dois países...