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Academic achievement on first-year Portuguese college students : the role of academic preparation and learning strategies

Soares, Ana Paula; Guisande, M. Adelina; Almeida, Leandro S.; Páramo, M. Fernanda
Fonte: Psychology Press Publicador: Psychology Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.92%
This paper analyses the impact of learning strategies, gender, academic field attended and students’ entrance classification to the university on academic achievement at the end of the first academic year. The study, developed with 445 first-year college students (68.5% female), ages between 17 and 57 years old (M = 18.3; SD = 2.17), from the University of Minho (Portugal), implicated answering a questionnaire on learning strategies, which concerned five dimensions (comprehensive approach, surface approach, personal competency perceptions, intrinsc motivation and organization of study activities). Regression analyses showed that academic achievement was more related to students’ entrance classifications to the university than to their learning strategies, independently of the academic field attended. Despite the significance of the other variables, these results seem to highlight the relationship between students’ academic preparation and their achievement at the end of the first-year.; Cet article analyse le rôle de la préparation académique et des stratégies d’apprentissage dans la prediction des resultats académiques des étudiants collegiens portugais de premiere année, considerant le sexe des étudiants et le champ d’etudes poursuivies. Un échantillon de 445 etudiants collegiens de première annee (68...

Organizational Learning from Experience in High-Hazard Industries: Problem Investigation as Off-Line Reflective Practice

Rudolph, Jenny; Hatakenaka, Sachi; Carroll, John S.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 569267 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Learning from experience, the cyclical interplay of thinking and doing, is increasingly important as organizations struggle to cope with rapidly changing environments and more complex and interdependent sets of knowledge. This paper confronts two central issues for organizational learning: (1) how is local learning (by individuals or small groups) integrated into collective learning by organizations? and (2) what are the differences between learning practices that focus on control, elimination of surprises, and single-loop incremental ?fixing? of problems with those that focus on deep or radical learning, double-loop challenging of assumptions, and discovery of new opportunities? We articulate these relationships through an analysis of particular learning practices in highhazard organizations, specifically, problem investigation teams that examine the most serious and troubling events and trends in nuclear power plants and chemical plants. We first distinguish a controlling orientation from a rethinking orientation, and illustrate learning practices with three case studies from the nuclear power and chemical industries and a questionnaire study of three nuclear power plants. We then extend our framework to create a four-stage model of organizational learning: (1) local learning by decentralized individuals and work groups...

Values and learning approaches of students at an international university

Matthews, B.; Lietz, P.; Darmawan, I.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This study indicates that values are statistically significant precursors to approaches to learning in a cohort of predominantly Bulgarian, German and Romanian students studying at a German university where the language of instruction in all subject areas is English. Values have been measured with the Portrait Values Questionnaire (Schwartz et al. 2001), and approaches to learning have been assessed by the Study Process Questionnaire (Biggs, 1987). The relationships between values and approaches to learning have been estimated by canonical correlation analysis. Results of the analysis suggest that values can be linked to learning approaches in a situation where students have left their home countries to undertake tertiary studies in a new social, cultural and educational environment. Four distinct pairings between values and learning approaches emerge whereby: (a) self-aggrandisement is linked to the achievement learning variable, (b) conservatism relates to the surface learning variable, (c) self-directedness is linked to the deep learning variable and (d) benevolent change is related to the learning strategies variable.; Bobbie Matthews, Petra Lietz and I Gusti Ngurah Darmawan; The original publication can be found at www.springerlink.com

Cortical dopaminergic transmission and motor learning: Studies in a rodent motor learning model; Cortikale dopaminerge Transmission und motorisches Lernen: Studien in der Ratte als Lernmodel

Molina-Luna, Katiuska
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
Motor learning is thought to play a crucial role for the adaptation of organisms to their environment. It has been shown in animal models as well as in humans, that the motor cortex is a key structure for movement learning. In this PhD thesis, electrophysiological and pharmacological approaches were used to investigate motor skill acquisition and motor memory consolidation in a rodent model from two different aspects: (1) learning effects in structural representation change and (2) mediation of skill acquisition by aminergic neurotransmission. In both studies a surface electrode array was used to stimulate motor cortex and produce maps of cortical representations of different body areas and specifically to identify forelimb clusters. In the first study, the change in forelimb representation was followed over time in animals that were subjected to a forelimb reach training paradighm and was compared to animals that exercised the arm, but did not acquire the reaching skill. In the first study, differences between activity (exercise) and learning-dependent motor map representations were demonstrated as modeled by muscle twitches in response to electrical stimulation. This study demonstrated that structural changes in the motor cortex mediate the acquisition of skills but not the storage of the motor memory. The second study was based on previous findings of our group that dopamine receptors are up-regulated during learning. Dopamine receptor antagonists were intracortically (i.c.) administered to rats that were trained in the reaching task and the effects of transient vs. permanent dopamine depletion were compared. Furthermore...

Modelo explicativo del efecto de los enfoques de aprendizaje sobre el rendimiento y el papel modulador de la dedicación temporal; Explanatory model of the effect of learning approaches on achievement and the modulatory role of workload

López-Aguado, Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Provecho, Lourdes
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
La investigación previa pone de manifiesto cierta influencia de los enfoques de aprendizaje sobre el rendimiento, asociándose generalmente el enfoque profundo a aprendizajes de mayor calidad y el superficial a menores rendimientos. El objetivo de este estudio es profundizar en los mecanismos que intervienen en esta relación, analizando el papel modulador del tiempo de dedicación. Participan en un diseño de encuesta longitudinal de 15 semanas de duración 187 estudiantes universitarios. Los datos sobre los enfoques se recogen con el R-SPQ-2F en su versión española. Los resultados del análisis path confirman que los enfoques de aprendizaje influyen sobre el rendimiento. El enfoque superficial produce un efecto directo asociado a peores resultados y ambos influyen indirectamente a través de su efecto sobre los tiempos de dedicación. Se discute la importancia de estos resultados y la necesidad de seguir ahondando en las variables que modulan esta relación.; Previous research has shown the influence of approaches to learning on performance, with a deep approach generally associated with higher quality learning, and a surface approach with lower levels of performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in this relationship by studying the modulating role of time spent on learning tasks. A longitudinal study with a survey format lasting fifteen weeks was carried out. 187 university students took part in the study. The data on approaches were gathered with the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) in Spanish. The results from path analysis confirmed that approaches to learning do influence performance. A surface approach yields a direct effect that is linked to worse results. This paper discusses the relevance of these results and the need for further research on the variables that may influence this relationship.

Estructura latente y Consistencia interna del R-SPQ-2F: Reinterpretando los enfoques de aprendizaje en el EEES; Latent structure and internal consistency of the R-SPQ-2F: reinterpreting the approaches to learning within the EHEA

González Geraldo, José Luis; Del Rincón Igea, Benito; Del Rincón Igea, Delio Antonio
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
La investigación sobre enfoques de aprendizaje, derivada del marco teórico conocido como SAL (Student Approaches to Learning), ha sido una de las líneas de investigación más explotadas durante las últimas décadas. Pese a la repercusión de dichos enfoques en relación con la mejora de la enseñanza, este marco teórico no se encuentra libre de polémica (ver Duff y McKinstry, 2007). El presente artículo examina la estructura latente y la consistencia interna de uno de los cuestionarios más utilizados en toda Europa: el Study Process Questionnaire en su versión revisada, más conocido como R-SPQ-2F (Biggs, Kember y Leung, 2001). Los resultados obtenidos ponen en duda la consistencia del cuestionario, sobre todo, en relación con el enfoque superficial. Los resultados cobran una especial importancia dentro del incipiente Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES) pues su eficiente implementación requiere un cambio pedagógico que transforme el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en una realidad de aprendizaje-enseñanza.; Research on approaches to learning, derived from the theoretical framework known as Student Approaches to Learning (SAL), has been one of the most fruitful areas of research in recent decades. Despite the impact of these approaches on teaching...

Rendimiento académico y enfoques de aprendizaje: una aproximación a la realidad de la enseñanza superior brasileña en la Región Norte; Academic achievement and learning approaches: an approximation to the reality of higher education in the northern region of Brazil

Abalde Paz, Eduardo; Barca Lozano, Alfonso; Muñoz Cantero, Jesús Miguel; Fernando Ziemer, Marcos
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Este trabajo pretende analizar los tipos y enfoques de aprendizaje diferenciados que adoptan los alumnos de enseñanza superior en la región norte de Brasil y su relación con el rendimiento académico. Posteriormente se hacen análisis comparativos con resultados semejantes obtenidos en España. Para ello, se obtuvieron datos sobre el perfil del alumno, sus características generales y específicas a través de sus datos personales, familiares y académicos, así como a partir de los datos que informan de los estilos de aprendizaje, es decir: de la adopción por parte del alumnado de la integración de sus motivos y estrategias de aprendizaje en sus procesos de estudio. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan al hecho diferencial de que el grupo de alumnos de universidad con estilos de aprendizaje o enfoques de orientación al significado y la comprensión, obtienen un buen rendimiento académico, frente al grupo de alumnos con estilos de aprendizaje superficiales que logran un rendimiento académico bajo. Estos datos se pueden considerar relevantes y consistentes ya que coinciden con diversas investigaciones realizadas en diferentes contextos educativos y culturales a lo largo de la última década.; This paper analyses the different approaches to learning adopted by Higher Education students in the northern region of Brazil...

Interactive whiteboard: adoption and the impact of its utilization on student learning in South Australian secondary schools.

Kaur, Amrit Pal
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
This research study explored the adoption and utilization of Interactive Whiteboard(IWB) technology by teachers and students of secondary schools in South Australia, Australia and investigated the impact of its use on the student learning (learning approaches and quality of learning outcomes). This research was conducted using a mixed method design which was comprised of both the quantitative (predominant) and qualitative (supportive) approaches for collecting and analysing data. Three different survey questionnaires were used for the quantitative phase during which data were collected at school (12), teacher (30) and student (269) levels. Interviews were used to collect qualitative data from 16 teachers. The school questionnaire had some general questions to collect some information regarding the kind of Information and Communication facilities present at the schools; the teacher questionnaire included four scales which were Attitudes towards ICT (AICT), Attitudes towards IWB (AIWB), Approaches towards Teaching (ATI) and Classroom Interactions using IWB (CIIWB); and the student questionnaire was comprised of five scales which were Attitudes towards ICT (AICT), Attitudes towards IWB (AIWB), Classroom Interactions using IWB (CIIWB)...

Constructing Professional Knowledge from Teaching and Learning Experiences in a Preservice Teacher Education Course

Bullock, Shawn
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1290945 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
This study demonstrates the power of deliberate and explicit attention to teacher candidates’ prior views of teaching and learning. Focus-group and individual interviews of five individuals document their development of professional knowledge in response to the experiences of a physics methods course and their practicum placements in an 8-month preservice teacher education program. This study also explores and interprets the development of a teacher educator’s professional knowledge through a collaborative self-study between the teacher of the methods course and the researcher. While teacher candidates can readily mimic surface-level features of teaching that they have witnessed over many years, they have rarely considered the complex pedagogical decisions made by teachers. This study demonstrates that teacher candidates’ prior views of school can be challenged and extended by carefully enacting a pedagogy of teacher education that contrasts with the cultural tradition of teaching as telling. Such a pedagogy helps candidates develop authority over teaching and learning experiences in ways that facilitate the construction of principled knowledge about teaching grounded in personal experiences. As explained in the literature review...

Motivation, cultural values, learning processes, and learning in Chinese students

Ouyang, Li
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1412881 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
The purpose of this study was: (a) to examine the predictive utility of the achievement goal and Student Approaches to Learning (SAL) frameworks for characterizing Chinese students’ motivation and achievement, and (b) to investigate how Confucian-heritage culture (CHC) may combine with achievement goals or SAL to generate different learning processes and outcomes and to promote optimal motivation. A questionnaire was conducted during a two-week period with over 700 first-year students who took both of the two courses—college English classes for non-English majors and advanced mathematics classes for science students—at a university in northern China. The questionnaire consisted of students’ self-reported demographic information and the instrument that was designed to measure: (a) goal orientations, (b) attitudes towards the specified CHC values, (c) SAL constructs, and (d) two variables widely used in research in this field—metacognitive strategy and school well-being. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to examine the consistency of the extracted factor solutions with the four goal constructs postulated by the 2 x 2 conceptualization, the two SAL contructs posited by the SAL framework, and the five cultural value contructs derived from the literature review. Standard analysis procedures were used to calculate the reliability of the scales and to determine which items should be retained for further analyses. Then regression analyses were employed to examine the relationship of the goal orientation framework and SAL framework to cultural values...

O uso do planetário da UFG para o ensino das estações do ano: uma investigação sobre aprendizagem na Geografia; The use of planetarium of UFG for teaching of the seasons: an investigation about learning in Geography

Alves, Fernando Roberto Jayme
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Geografia (IESA); Instituto de Estudos Socioambientais - IESA (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Geografia (IESA); Instituto de Estudos Socioambientais - IESA (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
The seasons of the year are an astronomical topic of great relevance to geographical studies. Approach the seasons from the Earth's surface requires understanding of the apparent annual movement of the Sun on the celestial sphere. It is a broad subject that, in most cases, is not satisfactorily understood by students or even by teachers. Several studies have pointed to various problems about the teaching and learning of the seasons. The causes range from poor training of teachers regarding astronomical themes to the high level of abstraction that these contents require in order to be understood. On the other hand, the planetariums constitute prime locations for the (re)construction of knowledge, because they meet appropriate conditions for pedagogical practice of topics involving the celestial phenomena. This is a space whose function is the teaching and dissemination of interdisciplinary scientific knowledge, being the astronomical more evidenced. In this perspective, we conducted a case study within the Planetarium of UFG whose general objective is to investigate, through the learning of students evaluated, if really this space science is effective for teaching the seasons of the year and what are their contributions in this context...

O que os estudantes pensam e esperam de seus professores?: uma análise qualitativa das concepções de aprendizagem e de ensino de estudantes do nível médio; What students think and expect from their teachers? A qualitative analysis of learning and teaching conception of high school students

Ishii, Ione
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/04/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
Em 1974, Marton e Säljö introduziram conceitos qualitativos para as posturas de aprendizagem de estudantes universitários, através de uma atividade de leitura. Os resultados mostraram a presença de duas posturas de aprendizagem para o cumprimento das atividades: uma delas denominada de profunda, onde os estudantes consegue estabelecer relações com o conhecimento prévio, compreendendo de forma profunda o significado do texto; a segunda, denominada de superficial, foi adotada por estudantes preocupados apenas em reter informações, sem que conseguissem estabelecer qualquer tipo de relação com outros conhecimentos. Inspirados por esse trabalho, outros autores começaram a avaliar a presença dessas posturas em diversos países, culturas e estruturas de ensino, e sempre verificaram a presença das posturas profunda e superficial, onde os estudantes profundos obtinham melhores resultados de aprendizagem. Em trabalhos de cunho qualitativo, como os desenvolvido por Biggs, outra categoria foi encontrada e denominada de estratégica. Os estudantes presentes nesse grupo, assumem motivações e estratégias para a obtenção de bons resultados escolares. Considerando as diferenças entre esses grupos de estudantes, procuramos, primeiramente...

Abordagens à aprendizagem e controlo volitivo em alunos do 7º e 9º anos de escolaridade

Correia, Marta Mariana Babo
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia (área de especialização em Psicologia Escolar e da Educação); Atendendo à crescente preocupação com o desempenho escolar, a presente dissertação objectiva aumentar o conhecimento acerca das abordagens à aprendizagem e das competências volitivas em alunos de 7.º e 9.º anos. Nesse sentido foram tomadas 3 medidas das variáveis em análise ao longo do ano lectivo. A abordagem à aprendizagem, um dos conceitos organizadores deste trabalho, é encarada como as respostas dos alunos aos conteúdos e às exigências percebidas de uma dada tarefa numa determinada ocasião. No sentido de avaliar as variáveis motivacionais relacionadas com as abordagens à aprendizagem, é utilizado o Inventário de Processos de Estudo (IPE) (Rosário, Ferreira, & Cunha, 2003; Rosário, Mourão, Nuñez, González-Pienda, Solano & Valle, 2007). A revisão da literatura nesta área insere-se no quadro teórico das perspectivas SAL (Student Approaches to Learning) (Marton, 1976a,b; Marton e Säljö,1976a; Biggs, 1987a, 1990; Rosário, Núnez, González-Pienda,Valle, Trigo, & Guimarães, 2010). Os processos volitivos são, definidos e considerados como parte de um sistema de auto-regulação que inclui a motivação e relaciona a cognição com a emoção. Proteger e manter os objectivos académicos são duas condições necessárias à nova visão da competência volitiva. A revisão da literatura abarca a perspectiva de diversos autores...

Robotic Search & Rescue via Online Multi-task Reinforcement Learning

Lee, Lisa
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/11/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
Reinforcement learning (RL) is a general and well-known method that a robot can use to learn an optimal control policy to solve a particular task. We would like to build a versatile robot that can learn multiple tasks, but using RL for each of them would be prohibitively expensive in terms of both time and wear-and-tear on the robot. To remedy this problem, we use the Policy Gradient Efficient Lifelong Learning Algorithm (PG-ELLA), an online multi-task RL algorithm that enables the robot to efficiently learn multiple consecutive tasks by sharing knowledge between these tasks to accelerate learning and improve performance. We implemented and evaluated three RL methods--Q-learning, policy gradient RL, and PG-ELLA--on a ground robot whose task is to find a target object in an environment under different surface conditions. In this paper, we discuss our implementations as well as present an empirical analysis of their learning performance.; Comment: 7 pages

Detecting Road Surface Wetness from Audio: A Deep Learning Approach

Abdić, Irman; Fridman, Lex; Marchi, Erik; Brown, Daniel E; Angell, William; Reimer, Bryan; Schuller, Björn
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
We introduce a recurrent neural network architecture for automated road surface wetness detection from audio of tire-surface interaction. The robustness of our approach is evaluated on 785,826 bins of audio that span an extensive range of vehicle speeds, noises from the environment, road surface types, and pavement conditions including international roughness index (IRI) values from 25 in/mi to 1400 in/mi. The training and evaluation of the model are performed on different roads to minimize the impact of environmental and other external factors on the accuracy of the classification. We achieve an unweighted average recall (UAR) of 93.2% across all vehicle speeds including 0 mph. The classifier still works at 0 mph because the discriminating signal is present in the sound of other vehicles driving by.; Comment: Under review in IEEE Signal Processing Letters

Resolving the Geometric Locus Dilemma for Support Vector Learning Machines

Reeves, Denise M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/11/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
Capacity control, the bias/variance dilemma, and learning unknown functions from data, are all concerned with identifying effective and consistent fits of unknown geometric loci to random data points. A geometric locus is a curve or surface formed by points, all of which possess some uniform property. A geometric locus of an algebraic equation is the set of points whose coordinates are solutions of the equation. Any given curve or surface must pass through each point on a specified locus. This paper argues that it is impossible to fit random data points to algebraic equations of partially configured geometric loci that reference arbitrary Cartesian coordinate systems. It also argues that the fundamental curve of a linear decision boundary is actually a principal eigenaxis. It is shown that learning principal eigenaxes of linear decision boundaries involves finding a point of statistical equilibrium for which eigenenergies of principal eigenaxis components are symmetrically balanced with each other. It is demonstrated that learning linear decision boundaries involves strong duality relationships between a statistical eigenlocus of principal eigenaxis components and its algebraic forms, in primal and dual, correlated Hilbert spaces. Locus equations are introduced and developed that describe principal eigen-coordinate systems for lines...

Deep Learning for Surface Material Classification Using Haptic And Visual Information

Zheng, Haitian; Fang, Lu; Ji, Mengqi; Strese, Matti; Ozer, Yigitcan; Steinbach, Eckehard
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/12/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
When a user scratches a hand-held rigid tool across an object surface, an acceleration signal can be captured, which carries relevant information about the surface. More importantly, such a haptic signal is complementary to the visual appearance of the surface, which suggests the combination of both modalities for the recognition of the surface material. In this paper, we present a novel deep learning method dealing with the surface material classification problem based on a Fully Convolutional Network (FCN), which takes as input the aforementioned acceleration signal and a corresponding image of the surface texture. Compared to previous surface material classification solutions, which rely on a careful design of hand-crafted domain-specific features, our method automatically extracts discriminative features utilizing the advanced deep learning methodologies. Experiments performed on the TUM surface material database demonstrate that our method achieves state-of-the-art classification accuracy robustly and efficiently.; Comment: 8 pages, under review as a paper at Transactions on Multimedia

A Q-Learning Approach to Minefield Characterization from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Daugherty, Stephen Greyson
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%

The treasure hunt problem to determine how a computational agent can maximize its ability to detect and/or classify multiple targets located in a region of interest (ROI) populated with multiple obstacles. One particular instance of this problem involves optimizing the performance of a sensor mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flying over a littoral region in order to detect mines buried underground.

Buried objects (including non-metallic ones) have an effect on the thermal conductivity and heat retention of the soil in which they reside. Because of this, objects that are not very deep below the surface often create measurable thermal anomalies on the surface soil. Because of this, infrared (IR) sensors have the potential to find mines and minelike objects (referred to in this thesis as clutters).

As the sensor flies over the ROI, sensor data is obtained. The sensor receives the data as pixellated infrared light signatures. Using this, ground temperature measurements are recorded and used to generate a two-dimensional thermal profile of the field of view (FOV) and map that profile onto the geography of the ROI.

The input stream of thermal data is then passed to an image processor that estimates the size and shape of the detected target. Then a Bayesian Network (BN) trained from a database of known mines and clutters is used to provide the posterior probability that the evidence obtained by the IR sensor for each detected target was the result of a mine or a clutter. The output is a confidence level (CL)...

Changing the learning environment to promote deep learning approaches in first year accounting students

Hall, Matthew; Ramsay, Alan; Raven, John
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Developing deep approaches to learning is claimed to enhance students' engagement with their subject material and result in improved analytical and conceptual thinking skills. Numerous calls have been made for accounting educators to adopt strategies that produce such results. This paper reports on changes to the learning environment centring on the introduction of group learning activities that were designed to improve the quality of students' learning outcomes. The impact of changes in the learning environment on students' approaches to learning, as measured by the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) (Biggs, 1987b), was then assessed. Results indicate that, across the semester, accounting students exhibited a small but statistically significant increase in their deep learning approach, and a small but statistically significant reduction in their surface learning approach. The results suggest that accounting educators, through changes in the learning environment, may be able to influence the learning approaches adopted by accounting students.

Enhancing of teaching and learning through constructive alignment

Dames,G.E.
Fonte: Acta Theologica Publicador: Acta Theologica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
This article elucidates issues about practical knowledge/deep learning on the current teaching and learning preaching practices in the Department of Practical Theology at the Faculty of Theology of the University of the Free State. The action learning and action research methodology is applied. Growing evidence indicates that there is a disjunction between the level of student competencies and incongruent teaching practices in the Faculty. Failure in the operationalization of both an interdisciplinary and a constructive alignment approach is at the core of surface learning. It appears that former and current students find it difficult to align their studies and to adapt to an unfamiliar, diverse, pluralistic and complex postmodern society. We teach content and assess students on the basis of what they know. The content does not relate to students' own experiences or the broader issues in society. We are talking about a change that is deeper than surface alterations to the syllabus or to classroom teaching techniques. We are considering a radically different way of framing the ministry of preaching and of viewing the task of those who seek to learn and to teach preaching.