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ChangeLedge : change design and planning in networked systems based on reuse of knowledge and automation; ChangeLedge: projeto e planejamento de mudanças em sistemas de rede com base no reuso de conhecimento e automação

Cordeiro, Weverton Luis da Costa
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.54%
A gerência adequada de recursos e serviços de Tecnologia da Informação (TI) se tornou imperativa para o sucesso de organizações modernas. A Biblioteca de Infraestrutura de Tecnologia da Informação (Information Technology Infrastructure Library, ITIL) representa, nesse contexto, o framework mais popular para ajudar a alcançar esse fim. Para lidar com mudanças em TI, a ITIL define o processo de gerência de mudanças (change management), cujo principal objetivo é garantir que métodos e procedimentos padronizados são utilizados para o tratamento imediato e eficiente dessas mudanças. Para alcançar esse objetivo, é fundamental reutilizar a experiência adquirida com mudanças passadas no projeto de requisições futuras. A ITIL sugere o uso de modelos de mudanças (change models) como uma forma para permitir o reuso de tal experiência em mudanças recorrentes e similares. A criação de modelos de mudanças pode ser concretizada considerando duas abordagens distintas. Em uma abordagem top-down, operadores de TI podem projetar os modelos manualmente, com base no conhecimento adquirido no passado. Em uma perspectiva alternativa, bottom-up, esses modelos poderiam ser extraídos a partir de traços de mudanças passadas obtidos com orquestradores de mudanças. Na prática...

Sensitivity to change of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale

Blozik, Eva; Himmel, Wolfgang; Kochen, Michael M.; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Scherer, Martin
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.62%
The Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD) is a 20-item instrument to measure neck pain and related disability. The aim of this study was to assess sensitivity to change of the NPAD. A total of 411 participants from 15 general practices in the middle of Germany completed a multidimensional questionnaire including the German version of the NPAD and self-reported demographic and clinical information. Sensitivity to change was analysed by linear regression analysis of the NPAD at follow-up and educational level, age class, depression, anxiety, and deficits in social support, respectively, and by Pearson’s correlation analyses between mean change in NPAD at follow-up and mean change in prognostic markers. Those having more than basic education (regression coefficient −7.2, p < 0.001) and/or being in a younger age class (−2.9, p = 0.020) consistently reported significantly lower average NPAD scores at follow-up compared to those with basic education and/or a older age class. In contrast, those who were classified to be depressed (regression coefficient 2.1, p < 0.001), anxious (1.9, p < 0.001), or having deficits in social support (5.5, p = 0.004) reported significantly higher NPAD scores. Change in depression, anxiety, and social support scale between baseline and follow-up was significantly correlated with change in the NPAD score. Hence...

Correlates of Readiness to Change in Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

Johnson, Nicole L.; Johnson, Dawn M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.57%
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a social problem associated with significant morbidity; however, victims don’t always utilize treatment and resources. One’s readiness to change may be one variable impacting their pursuit of treatment and other resources. The current study investigated correlates of readiness to change, and readiness to change’s impact on treatment utilization. Data was collected from 223 women residing in battered women’s shelters. Correlational analyses find that generally victims with more psychopathology and distress, as well as more social support, were more ready to change. PTSD symptoms, overall distress, and social support were the strongest predictors of readiness to change. Finally, victims higher in readiness to change were more likely to seek mental health treatment and other IPV-related services.

J. A bridge between worlds: Understanding network structure to understand change strategy. (2009)

Daly, J. A. ; Finnigan, Kara S.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.58%
A number of scholars are exploring district and site relations in organizational change efforts in the larger policy context of No Child Left Behind. These studies suggest the importance of the central office as a support to the work of reform and offer strategies for building relations between district offices and sites in order to implement and sustain change efforts. What is frequently overlooked in these studies is that organizational change efforts are often socially constructed. Therefore, examining the underlying social networks may provide insight into structures that support or constrain efforts at change. This exploratory case study uses social network analysis and interviews to examine the communication and knowledge network structures of central office and site leaders in an ‘in need of improvement’ district facing sanctions under No Child Left Behind. Findings indicate sparse ties among and between school site and central office administrators, as well as a centralized network structure that may constrain the exchange of complex information and ultimately inhibit efforts at change.

Le changement organisationnel : la prédiction des comportements de soutien et de résistance par le biais des préoccupations

Meunier, Sophie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
Depuis plus de 50 ans, les chercheurs s’intéressent à la résistance au changement. Or, malgré plusieurs années de recherche, on ne sait toujours pas exactement quelles variables peuvent prédire les comportements de résistance et encore moins ceux de soutien. La présente thèse vise à pallier cette lacune en identifiant des variables pouvant expliquer à la fois les comportements de soutien et de résistance lors d’un changement organisationnel majeur. Le modèle des phases de préoccupations (Bareil 2004a) s’avère intéressant à cet effet puisqu’il intègre bien les savoirs actuels et s’adapte à différents changements. L’objectif principal de cette thèse est donc de vérifier jusqu’à quel point les comportements de soutien et de résistance peuvent être prédits par les phases de préoccupations, en tenant compte de l’engagement affectif envers le changement comme variable médiatrice et du rôle des acteurs et de l’avancement de la mise en œuvre comme variables modératrices. Pour ce faire, une étude a été menée auprès d’enseignants, de professionnels et de directeurs d’une Commission scolaire québécoise ayant implanté une réforme majeure provoquant des préoccupations d’intensité variée et des comportements divers...

Mapping Vulnerability to Climate Change

Heltberg, Rasmus; Bonch-Osmolovskiy, Misha
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.55%
This paper develops a methodology for regional disaggregated estimation and mapping of the areas that are ex-ante the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and variability and applies it to Tajikistan, a mountainous country highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The authors construct the vulnerability index as a function of exposure to climate variability and natural disasters, sensitivity to the impacts of that exposure, and capacity to adapt to ongoing and future climatic changes. This index can inform decisions about adaptation responses that might benefit from an assessment of how and why vulnerability to climate change varies regionally and it may therefore prove a useful tool for policy analysts interested in how to ensure pro-poor adaptation in developing countries. Index results for Tajikistan suggest that vulnerability varies according to socio-economic and institutional development in ways that do not follow directly from exposure or elevation: geography is not destiny. The results indicate that urban areas are by far the least vulnerable...

Social and Governance Dimensions of Climate Change : Implications for Policy

Foa, Roberto
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.59%
This paper addresses two vital concerns in the debate on adaptation to climate change. First, how can countries prepare to manage the impact of climate-change induced natural disasters? Second, how can countries ensure that they have the governmental institutions required to manage the phenomenal challenge of adaptation to climate change? A range of economic and institutional measures are tested for their potential effects on natural disaster resilience and the quality of environmental governance. The findings suggest an important role is played by social and political institutions in determining the ability of countries to adapt to climate change and respond to natural disasters, in particular in the degree to which countries have succeeded in gender empowerment and the development of a robust civil society and nonprofit sector. As the climate change challenge moves from that of "proving the facts" to that of "implementing change," the authors suggest that international policymakers, donors, and activists must increasingly focus on building domestic policy environments that are conducive to the delivery of more effective environmental legislation...

Local Institutions and Climate Change Adaptation

Agrawal, Arun; McSweeney, Catherine; Perrin, Nicolas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
This note examines the relationships between climate-related vulnerabilities, adaptation practices, institutions, and external interventions to show the role and importance of local institutions in climate change. It proposes an analytical framework to classify adaptation practices based on their relationship to different forms of environmental risks. It examines past adaptation responses to climate change, their impacts on the livelihoods of the rural poor, and the role of institutions in facilitating external support for adaptation. The discussion uses evidence from two sets of cases - those in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) coping strategies database, and in the National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPAs) - to comparatively assess the role of local rural institutions in facilitating adaptation. Focusing on three types of institutions - public, private, and civic, a review of case studies indicates that local institutions play a crucial role in shaping adaptation to climate change: they connect households to local resources and collective action; determine flows of external support to different social groups...

A randomised controlled trial of personalised decision support delivered via the internet for bowel cancer screening with a faecal occult blood test: the effects of tailoring of messages according to social cognitive variables on participation

Wilson, C.J.; Flight, I.H.; Turnbull, D.; Gregory, T.; Cole, S.R.; Young, G.P.; Zajac, I.T.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.62%
BACKGROUND: In Australia, bowel cancer screening participation using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) is low. Decision support tailored to psychological predictors of participation may increase screening. The study compared tailored computerised decision support to non-tailored computer or paper information. The primary outcome was FOBT return within 12 weeks. Additional analyses were conducted on movement in decision to screen and change on psychological variables. METHODS: A parallel, randomised controlled, trial invited 25,511 people aged 50-74 years to complete an eligibility questionnaire. Eligible respondents (n = 3,408) were assigned to Tailored Personalised Decision Support (TPDS), Non-Tailored PDS (NTPDS), or Control (CG) (intention-to-treat, ITT sample). TPDS and NTPDS groups completed an on-line baseline survey (BS) and accessed generic information. The TPDS group additionally received a tailored intervention. CG participants completed a paper BS only. Those completing the BS (n = 2270) were mailed an FOBT and requested to complete an endpoint survey (ES) that re-measured BS variables (per-protocol, PP sample). RESULTS: FOBT return: In the ITT sample, there was no significant difference between any group (χ (2)(2) = 2.57...

A holistic and integrated approach to implementing cognitive pharmaceutical services

Benrimoj, Shalom Isaac; Feletto, E.; Gastelurrutia, Miguel ??ngel; Mart??nez-Mart??nez, Fernando; Faus D??der, Mar??a Jos??
Fonte: Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Farmacia Publicador: Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Farmacia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.56%
Community pharmacy is part of the health care system which is currently under economic pressure and facing changes in demands from consumers and government. In response, the pharmacy profession is becoming more patient orientated and implementing cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS). CPS in various countries has similar objectives with different emphasis, definitions, labels and using different tools. However, they can be classified using a broad hierarchical model based on clinical decision making and the extent of change required (Box 1). The challenges faced by the profession are related the development of a new patient orientated model of pharmacy which affects health care policy, education and research, the evolution of the market, the individual and organisational approaches to change and the implementation of CPS. These issues and previous research conducted in pharmacy practice have been synthesised to provide a platform for change that can guide a holistic and integrated approach to CPS implementation. Implementation can be conceptually framed in six levels: clinical, service provision, community pharmacy, professional organisation, government and stakeholder (Figure 1). Past experience with service implementation has seen the application of programs that include one or two of these levels in practice rather than a holistic approach. A concentric model was developed to illustrate the implementation of CPS and the holistic and integrated approach required to support change. A program (conSIGUE) being conducted in Spain has attempted to integrate all six levels to support the implementation and evaluation of a medication management service (Seguimiento Farmacoterap??utico); La Farmacia Comunitaria forma parte del sistema de salud. Este sistema actualmente se encuentra sometido a presiones econ??micas y debe afrontar cambios en la demanda tanto de los consumidores como de los gobiernos. La respuesta de la profesi??n farmac??utica est?? dirigida a orientar su pr??ctica hacia el paciente y a implantar servicios cognitivos farmac??uticos (CPS). En distintos pa??ses estos servicios tiene objetivos similares aunque presentan diferencias en el ??nfasis de los servicios...

Conservation of north Australian magpie geese Anseranas semipalmata populations under global change.

Traill, Lochran William
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.63%
The magpie goose (Anseranas semipalmata) is a spectacular and unique waterbird from tropical north Australia and southern New Guinea. Due to recent human persecution, the species has been eliminated from most of its former strongholds in southern and south-eastern Australia – reduced to small conservation-dependent populations through habitat loss, exploitation and drought. Yet, genuine conservation opportunity still exists in northern Australia, in the country's Northern Territory in particular, to maintain viable populations through evidence-based management of wetlands that support the waterbirds and mitigation of the threats posed by global change. Much has been achieved over the last 50 years to understand the ecology and life history of magpie geese, but little has been done to understand important population-level interactions with wetland habitat and the likely outcomes under climate warming, wetland loss to sea level rise, altered competitive interactions among wetland plants, increased frequency and severity of epizootics, and synergies with over-hunting. My review of pathogens and parasites likely to cause morbidity and mass mortality in magpie geese shows that bacterial diseases such as avian cholera and botulism, as well as pathogenic avian influenza viruses...

Analyzing the Effects of Policy Reforms on the Poor : An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of World Bank Support to Poverty and Social Impact Analyses

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.42%
The current global financial and economic crises are likely to put enormous pressure on governments to respond with immediate measures and to undertake far-reaching reforms in the medium term, requiring a substantial increase in donor support. To protect the poor and enhance benefits to them, key policy reforms will need to be underpinned by systematic analysis of their expected poverty and social impacts. The World Bank's experience to date with the Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) approach provides useful lessons for addressing these issues. Overall, implementation of the PSIA approach has had considerable limitations. There have been tensions between the various operational objectives assigned to PSIAs. The tensions concern inconsistencies between informing country and Bank policy decisions in a timely way and building country analytic capacity. PSIAs have had limited ownership by Bank staff and managers and have often not been effectively integrated into country assistance programs. Quality assurance...

Cities and Climate Change : An Urgent Agenda

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.55%
The report discusses the link between climate change and cities, why cities should be concerned about climate change and adopt early preventative policies, and how the World Bank and other organizations can provide further support to cities on climate change issues. The report is one in a series of activities that explore the nexus of cities and climate change. This report, cities and climate change: an urgent agenda focuses on three broad issues pertaining to cities and climate change. This paper argues that climate change is an urgent agenda for cities for two reasons. First, climate change is a cumulative process. Second, embracing the climate change agenda now makes eminent sense from an individual city's perspective, be it economic, social, or political. It shows that the city is part of the global sustainable development agenda. This report presents an urgent situation. In rapidly growing cities, especially in Asia, current development paths are locking in emissions and lifestyles. Many people, particularly the poor...

The Power of Primary Schools to Change and Sustain Handwashing with Soap among Children : The Cases of Vietnam and Peru

Dutton, Pennelope; Peschiera, Rocio Florez; Nguyen, Nga Kim
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.55%
Vietnam and Peru are two of four countries taking part in the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Global Scaling up Handwashing Project. Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project aims to expand handwashing practices among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and primary school-aged children (5 to 12 in Peru; 6 to 10 in Vietnam) The project focuses on applying innovative promotional approaches to generate widespread and sustained improvement in handwashing with soap practice. Started in December 2006, the project is implemented by local and national governments with technical support from WSP, and participation from the private sector and nongovernmental organizations. The present document describes the approaches to changing children's handwashing with soap behavior, first in Vietnam, then Peru, followed by some lessons learned and conclusions.

Warming Up to Trade? Harnessing International Trade to Support Climate Change Objectives

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
This study on harnessing international trade to support climate change objectives assesses the following: 1) What are the main policy prescriptions for reducing greenhouse gases that are employed by OECD countries and how do they impact the competitiveness of their energy-intensive industries? 2) On account of the impact on competitiveness, is there is leakage of energy intensive industries from OECD countries to developing countries? 3) Under what conditions can one justify trade measures under the WTO regime? What are the impacts of levying trade measures on trade flows and emissions? 4) What are the underlying trade and investment barriers to the use of clean energy technologies in developing countries? 5) In addition to tariff and non-tariff barriers, are there other issues impacting the diffusion of clean energy technologies in developing countries? 6) Is liberalization of renewable and clean coal technologies a plausible solution to assisting developing countries in achieving a low-carbon growth path? 7) What conditions are necessary for negotiating a "climate-friendly" package under the current WTO framework? The key findings and recommendations of this report include: a) Industrial competitiveness in Kyoto implementing countries suffers more from energy efficiency standards than from carbon taxation policies; b) Industrial competitiveness affected by carbon taxation policies are often offset by "policy packages"; c) Some evidence supports leakage of carbon-intensive countries to developing countries; d) Trade measures can be justified only under certain conditions; e) The proposed EU "Kyoto Tariff" may hurt the United States' trade balance; f) Varied levels of tariffs are impediments to clean energy technology diffusion in developing countries.

Engineering change modelling using a function-behaviour-structure scheme

Hamraz, Bahram
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Engineering Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Engineering
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
Some of the work contained in this dissertation has been published and presented as below: - B.Hamraz, N.H.M.Caldwell, D.C.Wynn, and P.J.Clarkson, (2013): Requirements-based Development of an Improved Engineering Change Management Method. Journal of Engineering Design, online first, DOI: 10.1080/09544828.2013.834039. - B.Hamraz, N.H.M.Caldwell, and P.J.Clarkson, (2013): A Holistic Framework for Categorisation of Literature in Engineering Change Management. Systems Engineering 16 (4). - B.Hamraz, O.Hisarciklilar, K.Rahmani, D.C.Wynn, V.Thomson, and P.J.Clarkson, (2013): Change Prediction Using Interface Data. Concurrent Engineering 21 (2), pp. 139-154. - B.Hamraz, N.H.M.Caldwell, and P.J.Clarkson, (2012): A Multi-domain Engineering Change Propagation Model to Support Uncertainty Reduction and Risk Management in Design. Journal of Mechanical Design 134 (10), pp. 100905.01-14. - B.Hamraz, N.H.M.Caldwell, and P.J.Clarkson, (2012): A Matrix-calculation-based Algorithm for Numerical Change Propagation Analysis. Transactions on Engineering Management 60 (1), pp. 186-198. - B.Hamraz, N.H.M.Caldwell, and P.J.Clarkson, (2012): FBS Linkage Model ? Towards an Integrated Engineering Change Prediction and Analysis Method. Proceedings of the International Design Conference (DESIGN'10)...

Industrial Evaluation of FBS Linkage ? A Method to Support Engineering Change Management

Hamraz, Bahram; Clarkson, P. John
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.56%
This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Taylor & Francis via http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09544828.2015.1015783; Engineering changes are raised throughout the product lifecycle and their management can determine the commercial success of products. A well-established method to support engineering change management is the Change Prediction Method (CPM). The FBS Linkage method enhances CPM with a function-behaviour-structure (FBS) scheme and allows more detailed modelling and analysis of engineering changes. The goal of this paper is to provide an industrial evaluation of the FBS Linkage method. For that purpose, we provide first an overview of the FBS Linkage method, before applying it to a diesel engine design and evaluating it by a group of ten experienced engineers from the diesel engine manufacturer. Overall, the engineers favoured the FBS Linkage method and ranked it on average 3.7 out of 5.0 against a set of 25 different requirements for ECM methods. The evaluation underlines the benefits of the method in terms of a systematic way for capturing, explaining and transferring knowledge about the product and effects of engineering changes on it. Identified improvement areas include more guidelines on the scope of the method...

Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for the State of Oaxaca, Mexico

Muñoz, Sofia
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 19/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.62%
Policy Question: What policy strategies should the government of the state of Oaxaca implement to adapt to climate change? The Mexican government and the international community have identified climate change as one of the most difficult challenges of the century. This is especially true for developing countries and their poor populations, since climate change impacts will be a constant threat to achieve international and national development goals. Although climate change mitigation strategies are essential to reduce these impacts in the future, the historic and present emissions level will have impact in the short, medium, and long term. Therefore, adaptation strategies are critical to overcome these impacts and to be able to achieve development. The World Bank in Mexico, through the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Environmental Unit, is working with the Mexican federal and state governments to develop climate change adaptation plans. Together with the World Bank, the government of the state of Oaxaca is creating a climate change adaptation plan that will be an instrument to face the challenges that climate change will have in the state. As part of that project, this policy paper provides a broad perspective of climate change impacts for the state of Oaxaca...

Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for the State of Oaxaca, Mexico

Munoz, Sofia
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 20/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.62%
Policy Question: What policy strategies should the government of the state of Oaxaca implement to adapt to climate change? The Mexican government and the international community have identified climate change as one of the most difficult challenges of the century. This is especially true for developing countries and their poor populations, since climate change impacts will be a constant threat to achieve international and national development goals. Although climate change mitigation strategies are essential to reduce these impacts in the future, the historic and present emissions level will have impact in the short, medium, and long term. Therefore, adaptation strategies are critical to overcome these impacts and to be able to achieve development. The World Bank in Mexico, through the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Environmental Unit, is working with the Mexican federal and state governments to develop climate change adaptation plans. Together with the World Bank, the government of the state of Oaxaca is creating a climate change adaptation plan that will be an instrument to face the challenges that climate change will have in the state. As part of that project, this policy paper provides a broad perspective of climate change impacts for the state of Oaxaca...

Human response and adaptation to drought in the arid zone: lessons from southern Africa

O'Farrell,P.J.; Anderson,P.M.L.; Milton,S.J.; Dean,W.R.J.
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.55%
Human adaptation and response to drought is primarily through evasion or endurance. A review of historical agricultural practices in southern Africa demonstrates evidence of drought evasion response strategies in well-established transhumance routes, where herders move livestock on a seasonal basis in order to exploit resources subject to different climatic regimes. European settlers to the arid regions of South Africa quickly recognised the necessity of these evasion options to survive drought, and adopted the transhumance practices of indigenous farmers. Areas of geographically diverse resource bases became hotly contested by settlers and indigenous farmers. The success of evasion systems are shown to hinge on good social and institutional support structures. When movement is not an option, drought endurance is pursued by attempting to limit the damage to the natural resource base. This is through a number of means such as forage conservation, varying livestock types and numbers, water and soil conservation and taking up alternative livelihood options. State responses to drought over the last century reflect the general South African pattern of racially divided and unjust policies relating to resource access. Historically the state provided considerable support to white commercial farmers. This support was frequently contradictory in its aims and generally was inadequate to enable farmers to cope with drought. Since the advent of democracy in 1994...