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Which project characteristics are important? What are the project success factors?

Moutinho, Nuno; Mouta, Helena
Fonte: School of Engineering of University of Minho Publicador: School of Engineering of University of Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
The evaluation process of real investment projects must consider not only the traditional financial approach, but also non-financial aspects that can provide additional relevant information about projects. We investigate financial and non-financial areas most relevant in project appraisal, main critical success factors and areas of analysis that lead to the perception of project success, through nine hypotheses that are empirically tested. Companies are also segmented to verify their financial and non-financial practices, considering industries, type of project, size and duration of the project. The results show that non-financial factors affect the investment decision with larger importance than financial ones, specifically the strategic, technical and commercial areas. Perceived success of a project is related to the consideration of strategic, political and human resources aspects in its evaluation. There is a greater perception of success when companies attribute greater importance to financial and commercial aspects in project appraisal. The existence of many financial and strategic factors is associated with a greater perceived success of the project. We found that there is a greater perception of success in companies with larger projects...

Which project characteristics are important? What are the project success factors?

Moutinho, Nuno; Mouta, Helena
Fonte: School of Engineering of University of Minho Publicador: School of Engineering of University of Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
The evaluation process of real investment projects must consider not only the traditional financial approach, but also non-financial aspects that can provide additional relevant information about projects. We investigate financial and non-financial areas most relevant in project appraisal, main critical success factors and areas of analysis that lead to the perception of project success, through nine hypotheses that are empirically tested. Companies are also segmented to verify their financial and non-financial practices, considering industries, type of project, size and duration of the project. The results show that non-financial factors affect the investment decision with larger importance than financial ones, specifically the strategic, technical and commercial areas. Perceived success of a project is related to the consideration of strategic, political and human resources aspects in its evaluation. There is a greater perception of success when companies attribute greater importance to financial and commercial aspects in project appraisal. The existence of many financial and strategic factors is associated with a greater perceived success of the project. We found that there is a greater perception of success in companies with larger projects...

Fatores críticos de sucesso de projetos automotivos com fornecedores: estudo de casos de desenvolvimentos sucessivos de painéis para veículos comerciais. ; Critical success factors of automotive projects with suppliers:case study of successive developments of commercial vehicles panels.

Rehder, Haraldo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/05/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
O desenvolvimento da Indústria Automobilística mundial como também a brasileira, se caracteriza pela importância cada vez maior de projetos conjuntos entre montadoras e seus fornecedores, os quais passaram de meros fornecedores de componentes, para parceiros de desenvolvimento e tecnologia, compartilhando investimentos e riscos, tornando a gestão dos projetos com fornecedores um fator estratégico de suma importância para as montadoras. Para pesquisar a evolução dos fatores críticos de sucesso na Gestão de Projetos Automotivos no Brasil, foram estudados 3 projetos sucessivos de desenvolvimento de painéis para veículos comerciais, ocorridos em uma grande montadora no período de 1988 a 2002. Baseado em avaliações bibliográficas relativas à Qualidade, à Gestão de Projetos e à Gestão de Fornecedores, definiu-se pela utilização do modelo de excelência do EFQM, o Project Excellence Model para pesquisa e classificação dos fatores críticos de sucesso dos projetos. Participantes desses três projetos e stakeholders nos diversos níveis hierárquicos da montadora e dos fornecedores foram entrevistados e através da metodologia dos incidentes críticos, levantados os principais fatores positivos que levaram à sucessos e fatores negativos que ocasionaram insucessos ao projeto. A classificação desses fatores através de Critérios e Categorias permitiu a comparação sistemática dos projetos e a definição dos fatores críticos de sucesso e dos fatores de sucesso. Pesquisas na literatura e consultas aos autores e a participantes de projetos de desenvolvimento de painéis em outras montadoras mostraram tendências semelhantes aos dos três projetos...

Gerenciamento de projetos: análise dos fatores de risco que influenciam o sucesso de projetos de sistemas de informação; Management projects: analysis of risk factors that influence the success of projects in information systems

Pinto, Sergio Augusto Orfão
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/07/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Este trabalho é sobre gerenciamento de projetos no contexto da área de sistemas de informação, onde há características específicas e relacionamentos entre elementos tais como : tecnologia, processos de negócio, gerenciamento de mudança, comportamento humano e especificação subjetiva do produto . A taxa de fracassos em projetos de sistemas de informação permanece alta em comparação com outros projetos de tecnologia. O principal objetivo desta pesquisa é contribuir para o conhecimento na área de gerenciamento de projetos de sistemas de informação, focando na investigação dos fatores de risco que podem influenciar no sucesso percebido de um projeto. Um dos desafios deste trabalho foi definir conceitos e medidas objetivas para avaliar os eventos associados com gerenciamento do risco e com o sucesso de projetos. Apoiado na revisão da literatura sobre o tema e em outras pesquisas similares, foi construído um instrumento com o qual diversas dimensões de risco e sucesso foram avaliadas em uma amostra de 180 projetos de sistemas de informação. Cada dimensão foi dividida em classes e cada classe foi detalhada em variáveis métricas em sua maioria. Depois da coleta e validação dos dados da amostra, foram aplicadas algumas técnicas estatísticas para analisar o comportamento das dependências entre fatores de risco e fatores de sucesso. A análise da direção e intensidade de influência de cada fator de risco para cada fator de sucesso reproduziu grande parte do conhecimento obtido da revisão da literatura...

A relação entre a percepção de sucesso na carreira e o comprometimento organizacional: um estudo entre professores de universidades privadas selecionadas da grande São Paulo; The relationship between perceived career success and organizational commitment: a study among teachers in selected private universities of the Greater São Paulo area

Costa, Luciano Venelli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/02/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
A presente tese trata de um estudo envolvendo dois objetivos complementares: o primeiro consiste em criar e validar um instrumento para se avaliar a percepção de sucesso na carreira; o segundo é sobre a aplicação desse instrumento em um grupo de professores de universidades selecionadas, a fim de verificar se a percepção de sucesso na carreira (PSC) como um todo tem relação com o comprometimento organizacional dos professores com uma universidade em particular. A carreira profissional tem sido avaliada de forma objetiva, por salário e promoções; e de forma subjetiva, pela maneira como o trabalhador interpreta seus avanços na área profissional. O estudo sobre a percepção de sucesso na carreira parte de um levantamento teórico sobre os métodos e instrumentos já utilizados para se avaliar a carreira e, através de análise, avaliação e reorganização, propõe a criação e validação de um instrumento para medir a percepção de sucesso na carreira, na perspectiva do próprio indivíduo, independente do seu vínculo a uma organização em particular ou a várias organizações. As carreiras desvinculadas de uma organização em particular são coerentes com as carreiras emergentes no mundo contemporâneo, como a carreira sem fronteiras e a carreira proteana. A partir de 53 variáveis...

Identificação de variáveis que impactam o sucesso de projetos nas empresas brasileiras.; Identification of variables that impact the projects success in Brazilian companies.

Berssaneti, Fernando Tobal
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/07/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Nos tempos atuais, cada vez mais as organizações têm executado projetos, seja para solucionar problemas técnicos, seja para promover mudanças e direcionar seus esforços para melhores ou novos negócios. Tradicionalmente, metas de prazo, custo e qualidade, conhecidas como triângulo de ferro, são utilizadas como critérios para medição de sucesso de projetos. Nas últimas três décadas, muitos estudos foram publicados na tentativa de entender os fatores e variáveis que levam a projetos bem sucedidos ou fracassados. Na tentativa de contribuir com esses estudos, esta tese busca analisar as relações entre aspectos organizacionais e aspectos específicos dos projetos (internos) com o sucesso dos projetos executados por organizações brasileiras, avaliado por meio da visão tradicional: conformidade com orçamento (custo); cronograma (tempo); especificações técnicas (requisitos do produto/serviço); e atendimento às demandas dos clientes. Para confirmar ou refutar as proposições de pesquisa estabelecidas, esta pesquisa adotou uma abordagem quantitativa, com um levantamento (survey) junto a 336 (trezentos e trinta e seis) profissionais da área. Para a coleta de dados, foi elaborado um instrumento de pesquisa (questionário) com base na literatura acerca do tema. Os resultados apontam diferenças estatisticamente significativas para quatro variáveis que...

A associação entre percepção de sucesso na carreira e valores individuais; Association between career success perception and individual values

Miranda, Betina Silvestri
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/07/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Mudanças no cenário econômico, tecnológico e político influenciaram a construção de novas estruturas organizacional e alterações demográficas e culturais implicaram a alteração de postura das pessoas em relação às suas carreiras. Neste contexto, teóricos modificaram o conceito de carreira para representar as trajetórias atuais, mais idiossincráticas e autodirigidas. Nesta esteira, pontuou-se que houvesse uma reavaliação do construto sucesso na carreira. Sugeriu-se ainda que valores individuais influenciassem as consequências de carreira obtidas pelos indivíduos. Assim, este estudo teve o intuito de observar se existem associações entre os valores pessoais e os critérios de sucesso na carreira. Para tanto, construiu-se e validou-se um inventário de sucesso na carreira, avaliou-se sua estrutura dimensional e sua associação com os valores individuais e observou-se a proximidade dos dois construtos em um mapa perceptual. Os resultados da validação apontaram seis fatores de critérios de sucesso na carreira utilizados pelos indivíduos. O escalonamento multidimensional permitiu identificar duas dimensões bipolares que opõem um foco no indivíduo a um relacional e aspectos factuais aos perceptivos das consequências de carreira. As associações e as representações de proximidades entre os dois construtos sugeriram que os fatores de sucesso de carreira estão orientados aos mesmos propósitos que os valores individuais. Esta tese...

Sucesso na carreira depois da graduação: estudo longitudinal prospectivo da transição universidade-trabalho; Career success after graduation: a longitudinal prospective study of university-to-work transition

Oliveira, Marina Cardoso de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/10/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
A transição da universidade para o mundo do trabalho, bem como o sucesso na carreira, são temas de interesse dos pesquisadores da psicologia vocacional. Contudo, pouca atenção tem sido dedicada ao estudo do sucesso nessa importante transição na perspectiva de recém-formados. Buscando preencher tal lacuna, esta investigação teve como objetivo geral descrever e explicar o sucesso na transição universidade-trabalho. Foram conduzidos três estudos. O primeiro, de natureza qualitativa, buscou explorar as definições de sucesso na transição universidade-trabalho. No segundo estudo, foi construído, a partir dos dados qualitativos, um instrumento multifatorial que avalia diferentes indicadores de sucesso na transição universidade-trabalho. Essa medida se mostrou psicometricamente adequada e foi utilizada como variável dependente no terceiro estudo, de natureza longitudinal, sobre os determinantes do sucesso na carreira depois da conclusão da graduação. Para cada estudo, os participantes foram recrutados por conveniência. Para o primeiro estudo, qualitativo, colaboraram nove recém-formados, organizados em dois grupos focais. Para o segundo estudo, de validação da medida, utilizou-se o procedimento de validação cruzada com duas amostras independentes...

Success rate of immediate nonfunctional loaded single-tooth implants: Immediate versus delayed implantation

Ribeiro, Fernando Salimon; Pontes, Ana Emilia Farias; Marcantonio, Elcio; Piattelli, Adriano; Neto, Rodolfo Jorge Boeck; Marcantonio, Elcio
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 109-117
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the success rate of maxillary immediate nonfunctional single-tooth loaded implants used into fresh extraction sites (immediate placement condition) or healed ridge (delayed placement condition).Materials and Methods: Eighty-two dental implants were placed in the maxilla of 64 consecutive patients from Private practice office and from a specialization course in Implantology. Forty-six implants were inserted under immediate placement condition, and 36 were inserted under delayed placement condition. The criteria used to evaluate success rate were those previously described by Albrektsson and Zarb (Int J Prosthodont 1993;6: 95-105), and follow-up period ranged from 18.0 to 39.7 months.Results: Seventy-nine implants fulfilled the success rate criteria (96.3%). Moreover, differences concerning implantation condition were not significant (P = 0.33, Qui-square test): three of the failed implants were from immediate placement group (success rate of 93.5%), and none was from delayed placement group (success rate of 100.0%).Conclusion: In the present sample, no statistically significant differences were detected for immediate nonfunctional single-tooth loaded implants under immediate placement condition in comparison with those inserted under delayed placement condition; both protocols had high success rate in maxillary incisors...

Project management success in health : the need of additional research in public health projects

Santos, Carolina; Santos, Vitor; Tavares, António J.; Varajão, João
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
PROJMAN 2014 - International Conference on Project MANagement, Procedia Technology; The research about the factors that are linked to project management performance and project management success, has been developed for several years, so the literature about this subject is relatively extensive. After a literature review about project success factors, it was found that the current research effort is mainly focused on information technology, engineering and software development projects, not yet on public health projects. Public health projects have a different focus, are concerned on providing conditions in which people can be healthy, and are essential for populations’ welfare. Their distinctive attributes justify the need of research towards the development of a specific model of success factors, to support top management and project managers in planning and operational management. A model of success factors would help in the identification, control and minimization of issues that increase the likelihood of going in the wrong direction and strengthen those that create value or increase the probability of going successfully. It would also be useful as a tool for prediction and diagnosis in evaluating objectively and gradually minimize the probability of project failure...

Multiple failed intubation attempts are associated with decreased success rates on the first rescue intubation in the emergency department: a retrospective analysis of multicentre observational data

Goto, Tadahiro; Gibo, Koichiro; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Morita, Hiroshi; Brown, David FM; Brown, Calvin A; Hasegawa, Kohei
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Background: Although the international guidelines emphasize early and systematic use of rescue intubation techniques, there is little evidence to support this notion. We aimed to test the hypothesis that preceding multiple failed intubation attempts are associated with a decreased success rate on the first rescue intubation in emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We analysed data from two multicentre prospective registries designed to characterize current ED airway management in Japan between April 2010 and June 2013. All patients who underwent a rescue intubation after a failed attempt or a series of failed attempts were included for the analysis. Multiple failed intubation attempts were defined as ≥2 consecutive failed intubation attempts before a rescue intubation. Primary outcome measure was success rate on the first rescue intubation attempt. Results: Of 6,273 consecutive patients, 1,151 underwent a rescue intubation. The success rate on the first rescue intubation attempt declined as the number of preceding failed intubation attempts increased (81% [95% CI, 79%-84%] after one failed attempt; 71% [95% CI, 66%-76%] after two failed attempts; 67% [95% CI, 55%-78%] after three or more failed attempts; Ptrend <0.001). In the multivariable analysis adjusting for age...

The effects of mutation accumulation on age-specific reproductive success in male and female Drosophila melanogaster

Hawryluk, Kelsey
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
The effects of spontaneous mutations have important ramifications in the genetic and phenotypic diversity of populations. Despite the importance of mutational effects on evolution, there is relatively little research on the effects of age-specific mutations on survival and reproductive success. The mutation accumulation protocols that have been used to-date vary from the middle class neighbourhood approach and balancer chromosome use to full-sibling mating systems. For this experiment, a cytogenetic cloning protocol was used that created clones of haploid genotypes comprised of all major chromosomes and allowed sampling of almost the entire Drosophila melanogaster genome. This allowed identical heterozygous mutations to be expressed in both males and females for the Mutation Accumulation (MA) population, which was compared to a matched Control. The mean reproductive success for both populations was measured at 1, 3 and 5 weeks of adult age. The mean reproductive success of the MA population was significantly lower than the Control population at weeks 1, 3 and 5 for males, and weeks 1 and 3 for females. The greatest difference in mean reproductive success between the MA and Control populations was at week 1 for both sexes, which may suggest that mutations with early-age expression had the greatest deleterious effects on reproductive success. There was also diversity in the level of the decline for each genotype...

GRE as a Predictor of Graduate Student Success at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education

Perez, Katherine
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
Accurately predicting the success of graduate students is an important aspect of determining which students should be admitted into graduate programs. The GRE is a pivotal factor to examine since it is one of the most widely used criteria for graduate school admission. Even though the GRE is advertised as an accurate tool for predicting first year graduate GPA, there is a lack of research on long term success factors such as time to degree and graduate rate (Luthy, 1996; Powers, 2004). Furthermore, since most studies have low minority sample sizes, the validity of the GRE may not be the same across all groups (ETS, 2008b; Kuncel, Hezlett, & Ones, 2001). Another gap in GRE studies is that few researchers analyze student characteristics, which may alter or moderate the prediction validity of the GRE. Thus, student characteristics such as degree of academic involvement, mentorship interactions, and other academic and social experiences have not been widely examined in this context. These gaps in the analysis of GRE validity are especially relevant given the high attrition rates within of some graduate programs (e.g., an estimated 68% of doctoral student never complete their programs in urban universities; Lovitts, 2001). A sequential mixed methods design was used to answer the research questions in two phases. The quantitative phase used student data files to analyze the relationship of two success variables (graduation rate and graduate GPA) to the GRE scores as well as other academic and demographic graduate student characteristics. The qualitative phase served to complement the first phase by describing a wider range of characteristics from the 11 graduate students who were interviewed. Both proximal and distal moderators influence student behaviors and success in graduate school. In the first phase of the study...

Online Education, Accrediting Standards, and Student Success: An Examination of the Relationship Between the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges Standards for Online Education and Student Success

Porter, Michael
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Prior to 2000, there were less than 1.6 million students enrolled in at least one online course. By fall 2010, student enrollment in online distance education showed a phenomenal 283% increase to 6.1 million. Two years later, this number had grown to 7.1 million. In light of this significant growth and skepticism about quality, there have been calls for greater oversight of this format of educational delivery. Accrediting bodies tasked with this oversight have developed guidelines and standards for online education. There is a lack of empirical studies that examine the relationship between accrediting standards and student success. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence of Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on College (SACSCOC) standards for online education in online courses, (a) student support services and (b) curriculum and instruction, and student success. An original 24-item survey with an overall reliability coefficient of .94 was administered to students (N=464) at Florida International University, enrolled in 24 university-wide undergraduate online courses during fall 2014, who rated the presence of these standards in their online courses. The general linear model was utilized to analyze the data. The results of the study indicated that the two standards...

A cross cultural study of entrepreneurial competencies and entrepreneurial success in SMEs in Australia and Malaysia.

Ahmad, Noor Hazlina
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2007
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
The present study examined the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies and business success in the context of SMEs in Australia and Malaysia. A “mixed-method” approach was adopted whereby two studies were conducted in a sequential fashion (Study 1 and Study 2). In Study 1, a qualitative method was adopted in which individual interviews were conducted with 20 entrepreneurs – 10 from Australia and 10 from Malaysia – who operated SMEs in the manufacturing and service sectors. The aim was to elicit behaviours that delineate competencies, and thus enable the identification of entrepreneurial competencies that are context-specific and of relevance in the current business environment. A content analysis of the interview data identified 12 competency domains: Strategic; Commitment; Conceptual; Opportunity; Organising and Leading; Relationship; Learning; Personal; Technical; Ethical; Social Responsibility; and Familism. Importantly, nine of these categories were well represented in existing models of entrepreneurial competencies, thereby providing evidence that these models offer a reasonable degree of cross-cultural generalisability. However, three new categories emerged, namely, Ethical, Social Responsibility, and Familism (broadly concerned with the role of “family” in building business success). There was evidence for Ethical and Social Responsibility competencies in both the Australian and Malaysian data...

Implementation Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for ERP: Do they contribute to implementation success and post-implementation performance?

Ram, J.; Corkindale, D.; Wu, M.L.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Frequent commentaries in the literature have stated that certain critical success factors (CSFs) have to be accomplished in an organisation for an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system project to be successful. In this study we argue and demonstrate empirically that success in implementing an ERP system and in gaining performance improvement should be conceptualised as two separate dependent variables. The distinction is made because the former aspect is based upon project delivery outcomes, while the latter assesses post-ERP project performance. We question whether some factors labelled as 'critical' success factors for ERP projects are in practice actually critical for achieving success in implementation and improving output performance. To examine this we report an empirical study that has investigated whether four major CSFs are in practice critical for achieving organisational performance improvements, and the role that successful implementation may play in influencing the relationship between CSFs and improvements in organisational performance. A conceptual model was devised and then analysed using structural equation modelling, based on data collected from 217 organisations. We found that some CSFs were not critical to achieve success in ERP implementation but were critical to help an organisational achieve performance improvement from an ERP system. Additionally...

Determinants of Chinese Students' Academic Success in Korean Universities

Yan, Wei
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The present study investigated the key determinants of Chinese students’ academic success in terms of GPA and the number of credit hours earned. The determinants investigated included gender, age, prior academic performance, academic self-efficacy, the TOPIK score, self-perceived Korean and English proficiency, and the previous length of Korean and English study. This study specifically focused on three research questions concerning the prediction of Chinese students’ academic success in Korean universities, the additional contribution of Korean and English language proficiency, and the examination of prediction patterns for undergraduate and graduate students. A questionnaire was issued and collected from 138 undergraduate and 63 graduate Chinese students studying in 27 different Korean universities. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: demographic information, academic background, language proficiency and psychological factors. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to address the proposed research questions. The findings demonstrated that traditional factors, including gender and prior academic performance, were effective predictors of academic success. However, academic self-efficacy did not play an influential role in participants’ academic success. Language proficiency had a moderate effect on Chinese students’ academic success...

Exploring the factors associated with expert systems success

Guimaraes,Tor; Yoon,Youngohc; O’Neal,Quinton
Fonte: Universidade Federal de São Carlos Publicador: Universidade Federal de São Carlos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
As the widespread use and company dependency on Expert Systems increase, so does the need to assess their value and to ensure implementation success. This study identified and empirically tested eight major variables proposed in the literature as determinants of ES success, in this case measured in terms of user satisfaction. IBM's Corporate Manufacturing Expert Systems Project Center collected information from 69 project managers to support the study. The results clearly support the hypothesized relationships and suggest the need for ES project managers to pay special attention to these determinants of ES implementation success. ES success is directly related to the quality of developers and of the ES shells used, end-user characteristics and degree of user involvement in ES development, as each has been defined in this study. For exploratory purposes, the component items for each of these major variables were correlated with the components of user satisfaction. Based on the results, several recommendations are proposed for ES project managers to enhance the likelihood of project success, including: adding problem difficulty as a criterion for ES application selection; increasing ES developer training to improve their people skills...

The effect of helpers on reproductive success in the laughing kookaburra

Legge, Sarah
Fonte: British Ecological Society Publicador: British Ecological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
1. In co-operatively breeding birds and mammals that live in family groups, helpers may gain indirect fitness benefits by increasing the number of breeding attempts in a season, by increasing the success of each nesting attempt, and by increasing the survivorship of related breeders. 2. The effects of helpers were examined in an analysis of reproductive success in the laughing kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae), where a monogamously breeding pair is assisted by offspring of both sexes. 3. Helpers could not increase the number of attempts in a season, because kookaburras are single-brooded. 4. in a paired analysis controlling for pair and territory quality, increases in group size were not matched by increases in the number or weight of fledglings in each breeding attempt, even though brood reduction was the major source of productivity loss. This concurs with previous results showing that group size does not affect overall provisioning levels to broods, because all group members reduced their provisioning effort as group size increased. 5. Because kookaburras prefer to reduce workloads during breeding rather than raise larger broods, the costs of caring for young must be high. Thus breeders with helpers may enjoy energetic savings and enhanced survivorship. 6. Helpers had different effects on nest success depending on their sex. Whereas male helpers had a neutral effect on fledgling success and fledgling weight...

Group breeding dramatically increases reproductive success of yearling but not older female scrubwrens: a model for cooperatively breeding birds?

Magrath, Robert D
Fonte: British Ecological Society Publicador: British Ecological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
1. Many studies of cooperatively breeding birds have found no effect of group size on reproductive success, contrary to predictions of most adaptive hypotheses. A model is proposed for variation in group-size effects: group size has a reduced effect on success when conditions for breeding are good, such as in good environmental conditions or in groups with older breeders. This hypothesis is tested with a case study of white-browed scrubwrens Sericornis frontalis and a review of the literature. 2. The scrubwren is a cooperatively breeding passerine with male helpers. Previous analyses revealed no effect of group size on reproductive success, but those analyses were restricted to groups with older females (Magrath & Yezerinac 1997). Here 7 years' data are used to contrast the effect of group size on reproductive success for yearling and older females. 3. Yearling females breeding in groups had more than double the seasonal reproductive success than those breeding in pairs, even after controlling for territory quality. However, group size still had no effect on the reproductive success of older females. Yearling females tended to survive better in groups, but older females tended to survive better in pairs, emphasizing this pattern. 4. Yearlings breeding in pairs were more likely to be found on poor-quality territories than those breeding in groups...