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Contribuições ao estudo do direito internacional da propriedade intelectual na era Pós-Organização Mundial do Comércio: fronteiras da proteção, composição do equilíbrio e expansão do domínio público; Contributions to the study of international law of intellectual property in post-world trade organization era: frontiers of protection, balance reshape and expansion of public domain

Polido, Fabrício Bertini Pasquot
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/07/2010 PT
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Após 15 anos de sua adoção pelos Membros da Organização Mundial do Comércio, o Acordo sobre os Aspectos da Propriedade Intelectual Relacionados ao Comércio (TRIPS) ainda permanece como um dos pilares das modernas instituições do sistema internacional da propriedade intelectual e merece contínua análise de seus efeitos sobre países em desenvolvimento. Nesse sentido, tendências expansionistas e níveis mais elevados de proteção dos direitos de propriedade intelectual, nas distintas esferas do multilareralismo, bilateralismo e regionalismo, são, no entanto, confrontadas com as necessidades reais dos países em desenvolvimento, que ainda devem explorar as flexibilidades existentes no Direito Internacional da Propriedade Intelectual. Isso parece ser evidente após a fase de transição do Acordo TRIPS. A implementação de obrigações relacionadas à proteção substantiva e procedimentos de aplicação efetiva da proteção (observância) dá lugar para controvérsias resultantes das demandas pelo acesso aos bens do conhecimento - bens da tecnologia e informação na ordem internacional. O presente trabalho oferece contribuição para o estudo do Direito Internacional da Propriedade Intelectual na Era Pós-OMC e propõe uma análise e reavaliação de seus elementos...

O nexo de causalidade em eventos complexos : uma perspectiva filosófico-jurídica atual

Nodari, Régis João
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
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O propósito desta monografia é investigar a questão da verificação do nexo de causalidade, bem como do nexo de imputação, suas distinções e suas respectivas valorações no Direito Penal, em especial em casos judiciais que apresentam fatos de elevada complexidade. Para o escopo da investigação, selecionou-se um caso contido nos autos de um processo judicial em crime de homicídio culposo na direção de veículo automotor, que será debatido após a inquirição dos fundamentos dogmático-jurídicos e científico-filosóficos das teorias da imputação e da causalidade utilizadas atualmente no Direito Penal Brasileiro. Tendo em vista que o Direito Penal é orientado à proteção de bens jurídicos sob a máxima da proporcionalidade, incumbe à dogmática não ultrapassar os limites de sua proteção, proibindo-se o excesso da intervenção na liberdade individual. Assim, para que resulte justa, deverá a dogmática jurídica ser orientada de modo racional, para que conceitos dela fundamentais como o nexo de causalidade e imputação não sejam definidos de maneira contraditória à causalidade proposta pela ciência física e pela filosofia, nem tampouco a não promover a proteção dos bens jurídicos adequadamente. Diante disto...

The Impact of DSM-IV Mental Disorders on Adherence to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Among Adult Persons Living with HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review

Springer, Sandra A.; Dushaj, Azem; Azar, Marwan M.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This is a systematic review of eighty-two published studies investigating the impact of DSM-IV mental disorders on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence and persistence among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Sixty-two articles examined depression, with 58 % (N = 32/62) finding lower cART adherence and persistence. Seventeen articles examined one or more anxiety disorders, with the majority finding no association with cART adherence or persistence. Eighty percent of the studies that evaluated the impact of psychotic (N = 3), bipolar (N = 5) and personality disorders (N = 2) on cART adherence and persistence also found no association. Seven out of the nine studies (78 %) evaluating the impact of antidepressant treatment (ADT) on cART adherence found improvement. Adherence and depression measurements varied significantly in studies; common research measurements would improve data harmonization. More research specifically addressing the impact of other mental disorders besides depression on cART adherence and RCTs evaluating ADT on cART adherence are also needed.

Draft programme of regional statistical work for Latin America and the Caribbean, July 2005-June 2007

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
EN
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Includes bibliography; Documento de trabajo (Español e Inglés); / Working document (Spanish and English); Third meeting of the SCA-ECLAC. Santiago, Chile, 1-3 June 2005 1. The Executive Committee of the Statistical Conference of the Americas of ECLAC has the task, inter alia, of preparing a draft biennial programme of regional statistical work which is submitted to the Conference for  consideration and subsequent approval. The two meetings of the Executive Committee held  in  2004  were  chaired  by  Chile  (in  Santiago, Chile,  in  May  and  in  Dallas, United  States, in December);. The members had  been elected at the second meeting of the Conference (Santiago, Chile, June 2003);.2. At  its  second  meeting  in  Dallas,  on  31  November  and  1  December  2004,  the  Executive Committee decided to give a new impetus to the Conference in complying with its mandate: to be the intergovernmental body that promotes and guides the development of statistics in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. It therefore proposed that at its third meeting the Conference adopt a strategic plan for 2005-2015 to serve as the framework for future biennial programmes.3. In the context of the strategic plan and making use of the input from the debates and exchanges that will take place during consideration of the three substantive topics at the third plenary meeting of the Conference...

Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

Kessides, Ioannis N.; Noll, Roger G.; Benjamin, Nancy C.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition that significant welfare gains could be realized through deep forms of regional integration which entail harmonization of legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks. Reforms that reduce cross-border transaction costs and improve the performance of backbone infrastructure services are arguably even more important for the creation of an open, unified regional economic space than trade policy reforms narrowly defined. This paper assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. To this end, the paper: (i) discusses how regional cooperation can overcome national limits in technical expertise, enhance the capacity of nations credibly to commit to stable regulatory policy, and ultimately facilitate infrastructure investment in the region; (ii) identifies trade-distorting regulations that inhibit opportunities for regional trade and economic development, and so are good candidates for regional trade negotiations to reduce indirect trade barriers; and (iii) describes substantive elements of a harmonized regional regulatory policy that can deliver immediate performance benefits.

Why Trade Facilitation Matters to Africa

Portugal-Perez, Alberto; Wilson, John S.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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This paper reviews data and research on trade costs for Sub-Saharan African countries. It focuses on: border-related costs, transport costs, costs related to behind-the border issues, and the costs of compliance with rules of origin specific to preferential trade agreements. Trade costs are, on average, higher for African countries than for other developing countries. Using gravity-model estimates, the authors compute ad-valorem equivalents of improvements in trade indicators for a sample of African countries. The evidence suggests that the gains for African exporters from improving the trade logistics half-way to the level in South Africa is more important than a substantive cut in tariff barriers. As an example, improving logistics in Ethiopia half-way to the level in South Africa would be roughly equivalent to a 7.5 percent cut in tariffs faced by Ethiopian exporters.

Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional cooperation can overcome national limits in technical expertise, can enhance the capacity of countries credibly to commit to stable regulatory policy, and ultimately can facilitate infrastructure investment in the region; (ii) identifies trade-distorting regulations that inhibit opportunities for regional trade and economic development, and so are good candidates for regional trade negotiations to reduce indirect trade barriers; and (iii) describes substantive elements of a harmonized regional regulatory policy that can deliver immediate performance benefits.

Developing Countries and a New Round of WTO Negotiations

Hertel, Thomas W.; Hoekman, Bernard M.; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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This article summarizes some of the results and findings emerging from an ongoing World Bank a research and capacity-building project that focuses on the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiating agenda from a developing country perspective. Recent research suggests that the potential gains from further multilateral liberalization of trade remain very large. The payoffs associated with attempts to introduce substantive disciplines in the WTO on domestic regulatory regimes are much less certain. This suggests that the focus of current and future negotiations should be primarily on the bread and butter of the multilateral trading system-the progressive liberalization of barriers to trade in goods and services on a nondiscriminatory basis. In addition, priority should be given to ensuring that rules are consistent with the development needs of poorer countries and to helping developing countries implement WTO obligations.

Can OHADA Increase Legal Certainty in Africa?

Beauchard, Renaud; Kodo, Mahutodji Jimmy Vital
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper describes the origins, structure, and practical impact of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). It analyzes the institutional framework created via the OHADA treaty and the legal, jurisprudential, and functional challenges that OHADA member states are still grappling with. Details of the nine substantive laws that have so far been ratified as uniform acts by means of the treaty have also been provided. The authors conclude that in making OHADA law effective, member states face continuing and substantial resource deficits, institutional deficiencies, language ambiguities, and intransigent official attitudes toward the need for appropriate mechanisms for the pursuance and enforcement of OHADA laws and processes.

Environmental Protection Policy

REHBINDER, Eckard; STEWART, Richard B.
Fonte: Berlin, De Gruyter Publicador: Berlin, De Gruyter
Tipo: Livro
EN
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The Florence Integration Through Law Series is the product of a research project centered in the Law Department of the European University Institute, and as such it reflects the research interests of the Department: it is a contextual examination of European legal developments in comparative perspective. In the general introduction to the Series (published in Book One of Volume I), we explained fully the philosophy, methodology and scope of the Project. Here we wish merely to recapitulate some of the principal themes of special relevance to this Volume on Environmental Protection. The European Legal Integration Project set out to examine the role of law in, and the legal impact of, integration in Europe, using the United States federal system as a comparative point of reference. The Project was conceived and executed in two parts. In Part One (published in Volume I entitled "Methods, Tools and Institutions") a number of teams of American and European scholars examined a wide range of legal techniques and mechanisms for integration and undertook an overall general analysis of law and integration. The first book of Volume I ("A Political, Legal, and Economic Overview") establishes the comparative and interdisciplinary context, providing background studies on the political...

International Reservation of Title Clauses : A study of Dutch, French, and German private international law in the light of European law

RUTGERS, Jacobien W.
Fonte: T.M.C. Asser Press/Kluwer Law International Publicador: T.M.C. Asser Press/Kluwer Law International
Tipo: Livro
EN
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The rules of substantive law relating to the reservation of title clause differ from country to country. This book addresses problems which may arise if a reservation of title clause is employed within international transactions, especially transactions between Germany, France, and the Netherlands. The author seeks the solution in private international law, since other means of addressing the problem, such as harmonization and unification of substantive law rules, have failed so far. This book is strong in its analysis of the various conflict of laws solutions and pioneering in how it deals with the question of the extent to which rules of private international law in this field must be in compliance with European law. The consequences of the various modes in which such compliance may be achieved are carefully analysed. This study is an important contribution to the understanding of European integration in a hitherto relatively neglected subject area.; --Preface --List of abbreviations --Introduction --1. Substantive law --1.1 Dutch substantive law --1.2 German substantive law --1.3 French substantive law --1.4 Conclusions --2. Private international law and international jurisdiction --2.1 Introduction --2.2 International jurisdiction rules --2.3 Dutch private international law --2.4 German private international law --2.5 French private international law --2.6 Conclusions --3. The influence of European law on the conflict rules governing a reservation of title clause --3.1 Introduction --3.2 Private international law and the four freedoms --3.3 The applicable provision of the EC treaty --3.4.1 The scope of Article 30 --3.5 Exceptions to the free movement of goods --3.6 Mutual recognition --3.7 Conclusions --4. Conclusions --Table of cases --Bibliography --Index; (Published version of EUI PhD thesis...

El Convenio de aplicación de Schengen y el Convenio de Dublín: una aproximación al asilo desde la perspectiva comunitaria

Escobar Hernández, Concepción
Fonte: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales Publicador: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
SPA
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RÉSUMÉ. La Convention d'application de l'accord de Schengen, signée le 19 juin 1990, et la Convention de Dublin relative a la détermination de l'État responsable de l'examen d'une demande d'asile présentée dans l'un des États membres des Communautés européennes, du 15 juin 1990, constituent les deux premieres manifestations d'une approche normative du droit d'asile depuis la perspective communautaire. Ces instruments ont tous deux une portee tres réduite, puisqu'ils se limitent á definir les critéres permettant d'identifier l'Etat responsable de l'étude d'une demande d'asile concrete. lis n'ont done pas pour finalité d'établir une réglementation matérielle commune en matiére de droit d'asile; mais de fixer un ensemble de critéres objectifs permettant d'éliminer dans le domaine communautaire á la fois le phénoméne des refugies «en orbite» et celui de la présentation de demandes múltiples. Le fait qu'ils ont été elabores dans le cadre des travaux réalisés par les Etats membres en vue de garantir la libre circulation des personnes a une incidence directe sur ces deux instruments, á la fois d'un point de vue matériel et d'un point de vue méthodologique. Sous l'angle matériel, il se traduira par la consolidation d'un lien étroit entre la politique d'asile et celle d'immigration...

Civil Procedure and EU law: a policy area uncovered

STORSKRUBB, Eva
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Livro
EN
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(Published version of EUI thesis, 2006.); This book examines a burgeoning policy area of the EU - the regulation of cross border civil and commercial litigation. The book analyses the EU's specific legislative measures regulating civil procedure and assesses their impact on litigation, particularly due process rights. The policy is then placed in the broader contexts of European integration and the international codification of civil procedure.; Introduction; I. Setting the Scene - Background Developments; 2. Introduction; 3. The Doctrine of the ECJ - National Procedural Autonomy v Harmonization; 4. Substantive Regulation - Ad hoc Creation of European Procedural Rules; 5. Rome, Maastricht, Amsterdam and Nice - The Evolution of a Legal Basis; 6. The Broader Context; 7. Conclusion; II. Current Regulation and Initiatives - Judicial Cooperation in Civil Matters; 8. Political Impetus; 9. Institutional and Structural Characteristics; 10. Categories of Measures; 11. Transnational Litigation; 12. Further Measures; 13. General Structures; III. The Legitimacy of a Policy Area & Rethinking the Procedural Landscape; 14. Brave New World; 15. The Inside Perspective - "How" and "Why" Regulate?; 16. Looking Outward - Interaction with Procedural and International Development; 17. The Way Forward; 18. Conclusion

Cases, Materials and Text on Consumer Law

Fonte: Hart Publicador: Hart
Tipo: Livro
EN
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The objective of this casebook, like others in the Ius Commune Series, is to help uncover common roots, notwithstanding differences in approach, of the European legal systems, with a view to strengthening the common legal heritage of Europe. It covers the big legal families in the EU and contains judgments from the supreme courts and other courts of the Member States. In view of the importance of EC legislation (eg harmonisation directives and regulations) in this field, the consumer law casebook contains much material derived from Community law, such as extracts from directives (eg on unfair contract terms, distance selling, doorstep selling, product liability, unfair commercial pratices etc) and judgments of the ECJ and national court decisions. Furthermore, attention is paid to the way in which, when interpreting EC directives in the consumer field, the ECJ refers to concepts common to the legal systems of the Member States and how the courts of the Member States incorporate the concepts found in the directives (as interpreted by the ECJ) in their legal systems. The casebook also compares harmonised and pre-harmonised law, especially in the case law of the Member States. It concentrates on private law in the field of consumer protection but also addresses topics...

European competition law annual 2010 : merger control in European and global perspective

Fonte: Hart Publishing Publicador: Hart Publishing
Tipo: Livro
EN
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Every year, top-level market regulators, academics and legal and economic practitioners contribute to the Annual Competition Workshop organised at the European University Institute in Florence. The Co-Directors of the Workshop are Philip Lowe, Mel Marquis and Giorgio Monti. Workshop participants address and critically analyse a particular set of topical issues in the field of competition law and policy. The proceedings are published in Hart's European Competition Law Annual series. This is the fifteenth in the ECLA series. It encompasses numerous chapters that examine the field of merger control from a variety of perspectives. In these chapters the contributors discuss legal and economic issues of substantive analysis, procedure, comity and best practices, as well as matters relating to the litigation of merger cases, particularly before the European Courts. The discussion also benefited from the perspectives of policy makers and experts from Canada, China, Japan, Korea, the United States and other jurisdictions and regions.; • List of Sponsors • List of Participants • Introduction – regulating Mergers: substantive and Procedural Issues, Judicial review, International convergence and best Practices, Mel Marquis • Introduction to the workshop • Panel 1 : Merger enforcement across Jurisdictions: substantive Issues (Market definition...

La responsabilidad civil por «abuso de mercado» en el mercado de valores

Upegui Villegas, Carolina
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 SPA
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Este trabajo examina la regulación del abuso de mercado (predominantemente penal y administrativa) para luego proponer un régimen material especial de responsabilidad civil por abuso de mercado en los mercados de valores que, a diferencia de los regímenes penales y administrativos, atienda directamente los intereses de quienes resulten afectados por el abuso de información privilegiada (insider trading) y la manipulación del mercado. La responsabilidad civil por abuso de mercado, además de reforzar la protección de la libre formación de los precios en los mercados de valores, encara directamente la cuestión de la reparación o indemnización por el menoscabo causado a los inversores o, a quienes sin serlo, desarrollan una actividad o tienen un patrimonio que muta o depende de la evolución de los mercados financieros. Las diferencias legislativas existentes entre los regímenes de la responsabilidad civil de los Estados miembros y la inexistencia de un régimen particular de la responsabilidad civil por abuso de mercado que se adecue a la regulación del abuso de mercado por parte de la UE, pueden generar vacíos y conflictos de leyes en los supuestos de abuso de mercado con carácter transfronterizo. Por lo tanto, disponer de un régimen específico de la responsabilidad civil por abuso de mercado reforzará la regulación del abuso de mercado en cada uno de los Estados miembros y...

European Union Data Protection Law and Media Expression: Fundamentally Off Balance

Erdos, David O.
Fonte: Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge Publicador: Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication of the final version.; The European Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC requires all European Economic Area (EEA) jurisdictions to provide an equivalent regime protecting the privacy and other fundamental rights and freedoms of natural persons in relation to personal data processing, whilst also shielding media expression from the default substantive requirements as necessary to ensure a balance between fundamental rights. Through a comprehensive coding of the derogations set out in each jurisdiction?s data protection laws, this paper provides the first systematic analysis of whether this has in fact been achieved. It is demonstrated that there is a total lack of even minimal harmonization in this area, with many laws providing for patently unbalanced results especially as regards the publication of sensitive information, which includes criminal convictions and political opinion, and the collection of information without notice direct from the data subject. This reality radically undermines European data protection?s twin purposes of ensuring the free flow of personal data and protecting fundamental rights, an outcome which remains largely unaddressed by the proposed new Data Protection Regulation. Practical suggestions are proposed to ameliorate these troubling inconsistencies within the current process of reform.; The author acknowledges funding support from the Leverhulme Trust.