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Aplicação de um procedimento usando preferência declarada para a estimativa do valor do tempo de viagem de motoristas em uma escolha entre rotas rodoviárias pedagiadas e não pedagiadas.; Application of a procedure using stated preference for value of travel time estimation in a choice context involving tolled and non-tolled routes.

Brito, André Nozawa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/03/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.26%
Esta dissertação baseia-se na aplicação de um procedimento empírico envolvendo técnicas de preferência declarada para a estimativa do valor do tempo de viagem de motoristas em deslocamentos regionais, em um contexto de escolha entre rotas pedagiadas e não pedagiadas. Inicialmente é feita uma revisão das abordagens teórica e empírica sobre a valoração do tempo. São também revistos os conceitos básicos de outros dois elementos fundamentais na metodologia aqui utilizada: a teoria da escolha e técnicas de preferência declarada. Uma aplicação a um estudo de caso específico é feita usando informações coletadas em ampla pesquisa de preferência declarada, realizada em 2005 com motoristas de automóvel em diversos pontos da malha rodoviária do estado de São Paulo. O desenho experimental da preferência declarada envolvia três atributos: tempo de viagem por uma rota pedagiada, custo tarifário e tempo de viagem por uma rota não pedagiada. O conjunto das informações foi analisado e utilizado na obtenção de modelos de escolha discreta do tipo logit multinomial; os valores do tempo de viagem foram obtidos a partir dos coeficientes estimados em funções de utilidade aditivas e lineares nos parâmetros. Analisou-se também a variação do valor do tempo em função de características do motorista e da viagem...

O comportamento de viagens de acesso a aeroportos considerando a confiabilidade do tempo de viagem; Airports access travel behavior considering travel time reliability

Alves, Bianca Bianchi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/05/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
A confiabilidade do tempo de viagem é atualmente considerada como um fator de elevada importância nos estudos de demanda por transportes, com base no reconhecimento que sistemas congestionados são uma realidade inevitável nos grandes centros urbanos, gerando incertezas nas estimativas do tempo de viagem e tornando sua representação através de uma variável de tempo médio excessivamente simplista. O acesso terrestre aos aeroportos em São Paulo constitui um contexto interessante para o estudo da confiabilidade, considerando os altos custos atribuídos à eventual perda do voo e o ambiente de alta variabilidade de tempos de viagem na região. O estudo da confiabilidade do tempo de viagem tem sido em geral desenvolvido com um enfoque exclusivamente quantitativo, usando modelos matemáticos que se baseiam em teorias de maximização da utilidade estimados a partir de dados de preferência declarada. Em geral, são ignorados: (i) os efeitos de fatores latentes no comportamento, (ii) o fato de que o comportamento nem sempre reflete as intenções, (iii) a complexidade dos fatores envolvidos nas escolhas e (iv) os fatores que descrevem o contexto em que ocorre a decisão. O trabalho utiliza métodos mistos para a coleta e análise dos dados...

Uma análise empírica sobre as preferências do consumidor brasileiro de cervejas artesanais

Santos, Vinicius Cassar Kfuri
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Um dos produtos mais consumidos do mundo vem passando por grandes transformações, e a cerveja que conhecemos como tipo Pilsen (Light Lager) deixou de ser opção única nas prateleiras. Dado o potencial de crescimento do setor no Brasil, o objetivo deste trabalho é mapear as preferências do consumidor de cerveja artesanal, usando técnicas de preferência declarada, a partir da aplicação de questionários que convidam o entrevistado a elencar suas preferências diante das combinações dos atributos Cor, Paladar, Aroma e Álcool. A partir da estratificação da amostra em Idade e Experiência, os resultados indicam que Paladar, seguido da Cor e, por último, o Aroma são os atributos mais relevantes para o entrevistado Experiente, enquanto o Não Experiente atribui maior peso à Cor, seguida do Paladar, sendo o Aroma um atributo irrelevante em suas escolhas. O atributo Álcool revelou-se insignificante em todas as estratificações realizadas.; One of the most popular products of the world is going through severe transformations and, as a consequence, the beer style we know as Pilsner (Light Lager) is no longer the only available option in the market. Given that this sector has a strong growth potential in Brazil, the main objective of this dissertation is to reveal the craft beer consumers preferences using stated preference methods through questionnaires that invite the subject to choose among options related to Color...

Socio-Cultural and Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Mediterranean Mountain Agroecosystems

Bernués, Alberto; Rodríguez-Ortega, Tamara; Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; Alfnes, Frode
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.75%
The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice modelling) to, first, identify the perceptions of farmers and other citizens on the most important ecosystem services and, second, to value these in economic terms according to the willingness to pay of the local (residents of the study area) and general (region where the study area is located) populations. Cultural services (particularly the aesthetic and recreational values of the landscape), supporting services (biodiversity maintenance) and some regulating services (particularly fire risk prevention) were clearly recognized by both farmers and citizens, with different degrees of importance according to their particular interests and objectives. The prevention of forest fires (≈50% of total willingness to pay) was valued by the general population as a key ecosystem service delivered by these agroecosystems, followed by the production of specific quality products linked to the territory (≈20%), biodiversity (≈20%) and cultural landscapes (≈10%). The value given by local residents to the last two ecosystem services differed considerably (≈10 and 25% for biodiversity and cultural landscape...

INNOVATIONS IN REAL ESTATE APPRAISAL FOR URBAN RENEWAL

MURRO, ROCCO
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%

Using Contingent Valuation in the Design of Payments for Environmental Services Mechanisms : A Review and Assessment

Whittington, Dale; Pagiola, Stefano
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
As the use of payments for environmental services (PES) programs for conservation has grown in developing countries, the use of stated preference methods, particularly contingent valuation (CV) surveys, to estimate the maximum amount that users of environmental services (“buyers”) would be willing to pay has also increased. This paper reviews 25 CV studies conducted in the context of PES programs (CV-PES) and assesses their quality and usefulness for designing PES programs. Almost all these studies attempt to estimate the demand of downstream water users for upstream watershed protection and, more generally, for improved water services. Most studies were methodologically uninspired and generally low-quality applications of stated preference methods, with limited policy relevance. The quality and usefulness of CV-PES studies could be substantially improved at only a modest increase in costs.

Using Contingent Valuation in the Design of Payments for Environmental Services Mechanisms : A Review and Assessment

Whittington, Dale; Pagiola, Stefano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
As the use of payments for environmental services (PES) programs for conservation has grown in developing countries, the use of stated preference methods, particularly contingent valuation (CV) surveys, to estimate the maximum amount that users of environmental services (buyers) would be willing to pay has also increased. This paper reviews 25 CV studies conducted in the context of PES programs (CV-PES) and assesses their quality and usefulness for designing PES programs. Almost all these studies attempt to estimate the demand of downstream water users for up-stream watershed protection and, more generally, for improved water services. Most studies were methodologically uninspired and generally low-quality applications of stated preference methods, with limited policy relevance. The quality and usefulness of CV-PES studies could be substantially improved at only a modest increase in costs.

Preferences for REDD+ Contract Attributes in Low-Income Countries

Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.; Beyene, Abebe Damte; Bluffstone, Randall; Gebreegziabher, Zenebe; Martinsson, Peter; Mekonnen, Alemu; Toman, Michael; Vieider, Ferdinand M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
This paper informs the national and international policy discussions related to the adoption of the United Nations Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Programme. Effective program instruments must carefully consider incentives, opportunity costs, and community interactions. A choice experiment survey was applied to rural Ethiopian communities to understand respondents’ preferences toward the institutional structure of the program contracts. The results show that respondents have particular preferences about how Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation programs are structured with regard to the manner in which the payments are divided between the households and the communities, the restrictions on using grazing land, and the level of payments received for the program. Surprisingly, restrictions on firewood collection do not significantly impact contract choice. The paper further analyzes the structure of the preferences by using attribute interaction terms and socio-demographic interaction terms. The analysis finds significant regional variation in preferences...

Recensi??n del Libro: "Beneficios ambientales del agua del Guadalquivir: un an??lisis econ??mico" por Julia Mart??n-Ortega

Alcon, Francisco; Navarro, Nuria
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Outros
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
La entrada en vigor de la Directiva Marco del Agua (DMA) supone un cambio importante en la gesti??n del agua en Europa, dado que se deber?? alcanzar un buen estado ecol??gico para todas las masas de agua antes de 2015. Dentro de este proceso de planificaci??n h??drica, la Directiva introduce instrumentos econ??micos para la consecuci??n de sus objetivos, y es en estos instrumentos donde se centra la obra de Martin-Ortega. En ella se estiman los beneficios ambientales no de mercado derivados de la mejora de la calidad del agua como consecuencia de la implementaci??n de la DMA en la Demarcaci??n Hidrogr??fica del Guadalquivir. Estos beneficios son estimados utilizando m??todos de preferencias expresadas que permiten asignar valores monetarios a bienes para los que no existe un mercado.; The Water Framework Directive, which came into force in 2000, represents an important change in the European water management due to its environmental objectives, i.e. the achievement of the good ecological status of all water bodies by 2015. In this new water planning process, the Directive introduces economic instruments to achieve its aims and it is precisely on theses economic instruments where the work of Dr. Martin-Ortega is focused. In this work...

Valuing Global Public Goods : A European Delphi Stated Preference Survey of Population Willingness to Pay for Amazon Rainforest Preservation

Navrud, Ståle; Strand, Jon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
The Amazon Rainforest is a global public good. As such, and given that 15 percent of the original Amazon forest area has already been lost, households worldwide might be willing to pay to reduce or avoid additional losses. A full elicitation of global preferences for valuing preservation of the current forest, using stated-preference population surveys, would be costly and time consuming. Alternatively, this paper uses a Delphi stated-preference technique in which 48 European environmental valuation experts were asked to provide "best guesses" on the possible outcomes of population surveys in their own countries and Europe as a whole. The expert judgments indicate willingness to pay in Europe for preserving the current Amazon Rainforest of about 28 Euro per household per year on average; a slightly lower value is inferred for a plan that allows a 10 percent future reduction from the current rainforest area. The income elasticity of experts' stated willingness to pay with respect to per-capita income in their own countries is in the range 0.5-0.8. These findings indicate that Delphi studies might be used more widely as a tool for global benefit transfer.

Cost-benefit analysis methods for assessing air pollution control programs in urban environments—A review

Voorhees, S. Scott; Sakai, Ryoji; Araki, Shunichi; Sato, Hajime; Otsu, Akiko
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
The most common method of evaluating beneficial impacts of environmental policies is cost-benefit analysis (CBA). In the present review, CBA methods for air pollution impacts are reviewed. Three types of air pollution effects are identified, including health, productivity, and amenity. Market valuation, stated preference methods, and revealed preference methods are identified for valuing benefits. Three types of costs are deseribed, including private sector costs, societal costs, and governmental regulatory costs. A benefits valuation approach based on Freeman's principals is described. A costs valuation approach based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Dixon et al. principals is deseribed. Limitations associated with estimates of benefits and costs are summarized. Input assumptions and results are compared for several existing air pollution control analyses. The importance of CBA in environmental policy studies is discussed. Our conceptual approaches should be useful in analyses of urban air pollution impacts and air pollution prevention policies.

Preference uncertainty in stated preference studies: Facts and artefacts

Akter, Sonia; Bennett, Jeffrey
Fonte: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
The ordinal scale and polychotomous choice methods are two widely used techniques for estimating preference uncertainty in stated preference studies. This article presents the results of two experiments that apply these estimation techniques. The first ex

Using stated preference methods to assess environmental impacts of forest biomass power plants in Portugal

Botelho, Anabela; Gomes, Lina Lourenço; Pinto, Lígia; Sousa, Sara; Valente, Marieta
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /11/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.18%
As a renewable energy source, the use of forest biomass for electricity generation is advantageous in comparison with fossil fuels, however the activity of forest biomass power plants causes adverse impacts, affecting particularly neighbouring communities. The main objective of this study is to estimate the effects of the activity of forest biomass power plants on the welfare of two groups of stakeholders, namely local residents and the general population and we apply two stated preference methods: contingent valuation and discrete choice experiments, respectively. The former method was applied to estimate the minimum compensation residents of neighbouring communities of two forest biomass power plants in Portugal would be willing to accept. The latter method was applied among the general population to estimate their willingness to pay to avoid specific environmental impacts. The results show that the presence of the selected facilities affects individuals’ well-being. On the other hand, in the discrete choice experiments conducted among the general population all impacts considered were significant determinants of respondents’ welfare levels. The results of this study stress the importance of performing an equity analysis of the welfare effects on different groups of stakeholders from the installation of forest biomass power plants...

Three essays on bounded rationality and strategic behavior

Manrique Chaparro, Olga Lucía
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament d'Economia Aplicada, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament d'Economia Aplicada,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Descripció del recurs: 21 gener 2013; La tesis está conformada por tres papers, el primero titulado Some Strategic Aspects of Private Information: An Experimental Analysis, el segundo titulado Comportamiento Estratégico y Manipulabilidad en los Métodos de Preferencias Declaradas para la Valoración de Bienes sin Mercado. Tres Experimentos de Laboratorio, y el tercero titulado Mistakes and Reciprocity Promote Cooperation in Public Good Games: An agent-based Approach. El objetivo principal de la tesis es testar mediante herramientas experimentales y simulaciones las hipótesis de perfecta racionalidad y comportamiento estratégico en tres diferentes contextos. En el primero nos preocupamos por estudiar aspectos informacionales de juegos repetidos con información incompleta. El marco teórico es relativamente simple, un juego 2x2, con información incompleta que se repite infinitamente. Nos preguntamos si los jugadores que tienen información privada en la práctica toman ventaja de ello (comportamiento estratégico) y si los jugadores desinformados pueden adivinar el juego que están jugando cuando se les ha revelado información importante, tal como la teoría predice. En el segundo contexto, nos interesa testar el supuesto de manipulabilidad (strategy proffness) en los métodos de preferencias declaradas para la valoración de bienes sin mercado. Diseñamos tres experimentos de laboratorio para diferentes formatos de valoración de preferencias declaradas: un referéndum puro...

The Economics of Malaria Vector Control

Brown, Zachary Steven
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%

In recent years, government aid agencies and international organizations have increased their financial commitments to controlling and eliminating malaria from the planet. This renewed emphasis on elimination is reminiscent of a previous worldwide campaign to eradicate malaria in the 1960s, a campaign which ultimately failed. To avoid a repeat of the past, mechanisms must be developed to sustain effective malaria control programs.

A number of sociobehavioral, economic, and biophysical challenges exist for sustainable malaria control, particularly in high-burden areas such as sub-Saharan Africa. Sociobehavioral challenges include maintaining high long-term levels of support for and participation in malaria control programs, at all levels of society. Reasons for the failure of the previous eradication campaign included a decline in donor, governmental, community, and household-level support for control programs, as malaria prevalence ebbed due in part to early successes of these programs.

Biophysical challenges for the sustainability of national malaria control programs (NMCPs) encompass evolutionary challenges in controlling the protozoan parasite and the mosquito vector, as well as volatile transmission dynamics which can lead to epidemics. Evolutionary challenges are particularly daunting due to the rapid generational turnover of both the parasites and the vectors: The reliance on a handful of insecticides and antimalarial drugs in NMCPs has placed significant selection pressures on vectors and parasites respectively...

Meta-Analysis of Stated Preference Environmental Valuation Studies in China, with Implications for Benefit Transfer

Wang, Zhan
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2014 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
As an approach for nonmarket valuation, benefit transfer uses the results of existing studies to predict the values of goods and services at sites where original valuation studies have not been conducted. It has the advantage of saving time and funding, but it depends heavily on the characteristics of the original studies as well as the transfer method. Considering the increasing demand for environmental valuation in China, benefit transfer may play an important role in assisting natural resource and environment management. This Master’s project created a database of stated preference studies on environmental valuation in China (Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), and it applied a meta-analytic benefit transfer approach to the database to study factors that influence willingness to pay and the accuracy of alternative benefit transfer methods. The results indicated that the number of stated preference valuation studies in China has increased in recent decades, but the studies are distributed unevenly across the country and focus on different environmental assets in different regions and time periods. The meta-analysis found that several variables, including response format, research format, payment interval, payment vehicle...

Comparing willingness-to-pay and subjective well-being in the context of non-market goods

Dolan, Paul; Metcalf, Robert
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2008 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
In order to value non-market goods, economists estimate individuals’ willingness to pay (WTP) for these goods using revealed or stated preference methods. We compare these conventional approaches with subjective well-being (SWB), which is based on individuals’ ratings of their happiness or life satisfaction rather than on their preferences. In the context of a quasi- experiment in urban regeneration, we find that monetary estimates from SWB data are significantly higher than from revealed and stated preference data. Stigma in revealed preferences, mental accounting in stated preferences and unspecified duration in SWB ratings might explain some of the difference between the valuation methods.

Non-market valuation using stated preferences: applications in the water sector

Metcalfe, Paul J.
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
This thesis is concerned with the application of stated preference methods to non-market valuation problems. It reviews the literature on the state of the art of the method, and applies the techniques to three applications in the water sector. In the first application, estimates are presented of the value to households in England and Wales of improvements to the quality of water in the natural environment. The need for value estimates arises from the European Community Water Framework Directive, which drives water policy across the European Union. Area based values were generated to maximise the potential for subsequent policy incorporation and value transfer. These were found to vary from £2,263 to £39,168 per km 2 depending on the population density around the location of the improvement, the ecological scope of that improvement, and the value elicitation method employed. The second application investigates the cost of drought water use restrictions to households and businesses in London. Estimates of willingness to pay for service quality increments often play an important role in the decisions of regulators and regulated companies in industries where consumers have little opportunity to exercise their preferences for service quality. The estimates presented in this chapter are particularly applicable to regulatory appraisals of water company investment expenditure and to planning applications for projects to improve the resilience of urban water supply systems. The final application examines the reliability of values measured before an economic downturn for application during the downturn via analysis of near identical surveys conducted before...

Assessing the Value of Delay to Short-Haul Carriers

Miao,Q.; Wang,X.B.; Adams,T.M.
Fonte: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico Publicador: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
This paper aims at examining the commercial vehicle operators' value of delay (VOD) due to highway congestion in urban area. The VOD is a fundamental parameter that influences the private sector's response to public freight projects and policies. This paper adopts two methods to estimate the VOD; one being the stated preference (SP) survey and the other being simulation of a carrier's fleet operations. The former applies a Logit model and estimates a driver perceived VOD as $56.48 per vehicle per hour for the regular short-haul delivers. The latter gauges the economic impact of delay on carrier's fleet operations in the Houston highway network. The operations essentially reflect more of a just-in-time system due to the rather stringent time window constraints. The simulation is conducted on a rolling time horizon with a heuristic algorithm for dispatching trucks. The major findings include, but are not limited to as follows. The drivers paid by miles perceive a significantly higher VOD than the others; the drivers are more willing to pay for a faster trip when the toll charges do not come out of their own pockets; VOD increases with uncertainty and demand for capacity. The comparison between the survey and the simulation results also indicates that the interviewed drivers perceive a significantly lower VOD than they may actually experience as a fleet...

Finding the Social Value of Forests Through Stated Preference Methods: A Mediterranean Forest Valuation Exercise

Riera,Pere; Mogas,Joan
Fonte: Unidade de Silvicultura e Produtos Florestais Publicador: Unidade de Silvicultura e Produtos Florestais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
There are several methods to estimate the social value of forests or forest attributes, the most widely used being the stated preference methods. This paper illustrates the use of such methods to estimate some recreational functions of Mediterranean forests, as well as CO2 sequestration and soil erosion prevention. It also compares the results from a contingent ranking and a choice experiment method application.