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Evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from human infections

Domingues, Andréa
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 521
ENG
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Multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important public health problem, especially in view of its possible spread in nosocomial environments. In the present work, we analyzed the susceptibility profile of 80 S. aureus stains from human infections resistant to at least 10 drugs. For this study, the techniques used were the disk method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the following drugs: cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamycin, imipenem, oxacillin, rifampicin, tetracycline and vancomycin, according the criteria of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Methicillin was included in the antibiogram as a marker, which is usually used in drugs selection for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. Results indicated that the most effective drug was vancomycin. For the other 10 drugs, the percentage of resistant strains ranged from 85% to 93.75%. In relation to the MICs, it was observed that vancomycin (MIC 90% = 0.615ug/ml) was the most effective drug; followed by rifampicin (MIC 90% = 2.6ug/ml) and ciprofloxacin (MIC 90% = 26.6ug/ml). The drugs that showed the least effective activity were cefuroxime, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamycin, and oxacillin. On the other hand...

Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci: Epidemiological and molecular aspects

Martins, André; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes R.S.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 787-795
ENG
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Infections caused by the genus Staphylococcus are of great importance for human health. Staphylococcus species are divided into coagulase-positive staphylococci, represented by S. aureus, a pathogen that can cause infections of the skin and other organs in immunocompetent patients, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) which comprise different species normally involved in infectious processes in immunocompromised patients or patients using catheters. Oxacillin has been one of the main drugs used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections; however, a large number of S. aureus and CNS isolates of nosocomial origin are resistant to this drug. Methicillin resistance is encoded by the mecA gene which is inserted in the SCCmec cassette. This cassette is a mobile genetic element consisting of five different types and several subtypes. Oxacillin-resistant strains are detected by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Epidemiologically, methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains can be divided into five large pandemic clones, called Brazilian, Hungarian, Iberian, New York/Japan and Pediatric. The objective of the present review was to discuss aspects of resistance, epidemiology, genetics and detection of oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus spp....

Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections and nasal carriage at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital Center, Casablanca, Morocco

Zriouil,Sanaâ Bouhali; Bekkali,Mohammed; Zerouali,Khalid
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
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Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are a major problem in hospitals. The multidrug resistance and the nasal carriage of S. aureus play a key role in the epidemic of these infections. In this prospective study, 160 S. aureus strains were isolated from pathological samples of patients (79 cases) and nasal swabs (81) of cases and controls from January to July 2007. The susceptibility to 16 antibiotics, including cefoxitin, was determined by the agar diffusion method, and methicillin resistance was confirmed by amplifying the mecA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of methicilin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was high in the burns (57.7%) and dermatology (39.4%) wards, and the MRSA strains isolated were extremely multi-resistant, but all of them were still susceptible to vancomycin. The rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was high in both cases and controls, in state, MRSA nasal carriage was more common among people infected with S. aureus.

Therapy of staphylococcal infections with cefamandole or vancomycin alone or with a combination of cefamandole and tobramycin.

Coppens, L; Hanson, B; Klastersky, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1983 EN
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Eighty adult patients with microbiologically demonstrated staphylococcal infections were included in a comparative trial of cefamandole and cefamandole plus tobramycin. Patients with cefamandole-resistant pathogens were treated with vancomycin, if the initial therapy consisted of cefamandole, but were continued on cefamandole plus tobramycin if already started on that combination. Of the patients infected with cefamandole-susceptible strains, 91% (20/22) responded favorably to treatment with cefamandole alone, and 88% (30/34) responded favorably to cefamandole plus tobramycin. Of the patients infected with cefamandole-resistant staphylococci, 70% (7/10) responded to treatment with cefamandole plus tobramycin, and 86% (12/14) responded to treatment with vancomycin, even though vancomycin therapy was started 24 to 48 h later than cefamandole-plus-tobramycin therapy. No major side effects were observed; however, cefamandole plus tobramycin was associated with a rise in the serum creatinine level in 11% (4/44) of the patients. The bactericidal activity of the serum in cefamandole-treated patients and in cefamandole-plus-tobramycin-treated patients was identical against cefamandole-susceptible strains. Against cefamandole-resistant strains...

Antibodies to staphylococcal peptidoglycan and its peptide epitopes, teichoic acid, and lipoteichoic acid in sera from blood donors and patients with staphylococcal infections.

Wergeland, H I; Haaheim, L R; Natås, O B; Wesenberg, F; Oeding, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1989 EN
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Antibodies to the staphylococcal antigens peptidoglycan, beta-ribitol teichoic acid, and lipoteichoic acid, as well as to the peptidoglycan epitopes L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala, L-Lys-D-Ala, and pentaglycine, were found over a wide range of concentrations in sera from both blood donors and patients with verified or suspected staphylococcal infections. The patient group was heterogeneous with regard to both age and type of staphylococcal infections, being representative for sera sent to our laboratory. In single-antigen assays antibodies to pentaglycine had the highest predictive positive value (67%), although only 32% of the patients had elevated levels of such antibodies. Combinations of test antigens could yield positive predictive values as high as 100%, but then the fraction of positive sera was low. Indeed, the fraction of patient sera which was positive in multiple-antigen tests never exceeded 61%. The clinical usefulness of these seroassays for identifying Staphylococcus aureus as a causative agent was limited, owing to the considerable overlap in the range of antibody concentrations between patient and blood donor sera.

Clinical comparative study on the activity of cefamandole in the treatment of serious staphylococcal infections caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant strains.

Frongillo, R F; Donati, L; Federico, G; Martino, P; Moroni, M; Ortona, L; Palumbo, M; Pasticci, B M; Pizzigallo, E; Privitera, G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1986 EN
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Ninety-two microbiologically documented staphylococcal infections were treated with cefamandole in an open comparative study on the clinical efficacy of this cephalosporin in the therapy of infections caused by both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. The majority of the episodes (86 of 92) were treated with cefamandole alone, and six were treated with cefamandole in association with other antibiotics. In the evaluable S. aureus infections, 34 of 46 (73.9%) due to methicillin-susceptible strains and 12 of 16 (75%) due to methicillin-resistant strains responded to therapy. In particular, among the patients infected by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus 6 of 9 cases of septicemia, 0 of 2 cases of endocarditis, 2 of 2 cases of pneumonia, 2 of 3 osteoarticular infections, 8 of 12 cases of peritonitis in patients with chronic renal failure in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 13 of 15 skin-soft tissue infections, and 3 of 3 urinary tract infections responded to therapy. Among those due to methicillin-resistant strains, cure was achieved in 2 of 4 cases of septicemia, 0 of 1 case of endocarditis, 9 of 10 skin-soft tissue infections, and 1 of 1 urinary tract infection. In the evaluable infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci...

EFFECT OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL SERUM FACTOR ON STAPHYLOCOCCAL INFECTIONS

Yotis, William W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1962 EN
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Yotis, W. W. (Loyola University Medical School, Chicago, Ill.). Effect of the antibacterial serum factor on staphylococcal infections. J. Bacteriol. 83:137–143. 1962—Intracerebral injections of mice with 1 to 5 × 106 washed viable cells previously exposed for 1 hr at 4 C to 2 mg/ml of the serum factor resulted in 0 to 30% mortality when three recent isolates of yellow, hemolytic, coagulase-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus were used. Mice inoculated in the same manner with the above strains, but exposed to an inactive preparation of the serum factor, showed a 60 to 90% mortality.

Effects of ω-Amino Acids and Related Compounds on Staphylococcal Infections in Mice: a Combined Prophylactic-Therapeutic Procedure 1

Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Tanaka, Kinji; Cook, Elton S.; Nutini, Leo G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1970 EN
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By a short-term combined prophylactic-therapeutic procedure, the following compounds were found to be active against staphylococcal infections in Swiss mice: γ-aminobutyric acid, γ-amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), δ-amino-valeric acid (DAVA), ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA), trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (trans-AMCHA), taurine, and cysteic acid. Many of these compounds had displayed limited or no activity by a previously used prophylactic procedure. Although DAVA and GABOB were the most potent of the straight-chain ω-amino acids, trans-AMCHA displayed the greatest antistaphylococcic activity of the ω-amino acids thus far investigated. Homocarnosine (γ-aminobutyrl histidine, which also was active by the prophylactic procedure) equalled trans-AMCHA in activity. Taurine was similar in potency to DAVA, and the activity of cysteic acid approximated that of EACA.

Prophylactic Effects of γ-Aminobutyrylhistidine (Homocarnosine) on Experimental Staphylococcal Infections in Mice

Mukkada, Antony J.; Nutini, Leo G.; Cook, Elton S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1969 EN
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Prophylactic administration of the dipeptide homocarnosine induced a high degree of resistance to staphylococcal infections in Swiss albino mice. It expressed its antistaphylococcal properties 1 hr after administration, and this protection lasted for at least 1 month. Although 5 mg per animal (approximately 200 to 250 mg/kg) was routinely used in our studies, experiments showed that comparable results could be obtained with 1.5 mg per animal. Rechallenge experiments indicated that an active infection by itself may confer immunity up to 4 weeks, but an infection after treatment with homocarnosine gave complete immunity to reinfection for at least 2 months. Studies in vitro showed that homocarnosine had no effect on the growth or certain other characteristics (ability to ferment mannitol, liquefy gelatin, and to produce coagulase, deoxyribonuclease, and pigment) of S. aureus. It appears that resistance induced by this peptide is an indirect effect mediated by some nonimmunological host reaction. The possible involvement of homocarnosine, among other compounds, in the protective action of deproteinized beef extract against staphylococcal infections is suggested.

II. Some Controversial Aspects in the Epidemiology of Hospital Nursery Staphylococcal Infections

Gezon, Horace M.; Rogers, Kenneth D.; Thompson, Donovan J.; Hatch, Theodore F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1960 EN
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46.18%

V. Nursing Procedures in the Management of Staphylococcal Infections

Thomas, Margaret W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1960 EN
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46.18%

Neutrophil pyruvate kinase deficiency with recurrent staphylococcal infections: first reported case.

Burge, P S; Johnson, W S; Hayward, A R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/1976 EN
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46.18%
A woman with an intracellular killing defect in the neutrophils had neutrophil pyruvate kinase deficiency. She had had recurrent staphylococcal infections throughout her life. The enzyme present was unstable and its kinetics were abnormal.

Antibiotic Therapy of Staphylococcal Infections

Hawks, Gordon H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/10/1965 EN
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46.55%
The antibiotic treatment of staphylococcal infections remains a problem. Isolation of the organism and sensitivity testing are necessary in the choice of antibiotic. Penicillin G is the most effective penicillin against non-penicillinase-producing staphy-lococci; for the penicillinase producers there is very little to choose between the semisynthetic penicillins, methicillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin and oxacillin. For patients who are hypersensitive to penicillin, the bacteriostatic drugs (erythromycin, novobiocin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, oleandomycin) are useful for mild infections, while for more severe illness the bactericidal drugs (vancomycin, ristocetin, kanamycin, bacitracin, neomycin) have been used successfully. Acute staphylococcal enterocolitis is probably best treated by a semisynthetic penicillin. Other antibiotics which have been found useful, with clinical trials, for staphylococcal infections are cephalosporin, fucidin, cephaloridine and lincomycin. The latter drug has been reported of value in the treatment of osteomyelitis. There is little justification for the prophylactic use of antibiotics to prevent staphylococcal infection. Surgical drainage is still an important adjunct in the treatment of many staphylococcal infections.

Interferons Increase Cell Resistance to Staphylococcal Alpha-Toxin▿

Yarovinsky, Timur O.; Monick, Martha M.; Husmann, Matthias; Hunninghake, Gary W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Many bacterial pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, use a variety of pore-forming toxins as important virulence factors. Staphylococcal alpha-toxin, a prototype β-barrel pore-forming toxin, triggers the release of proinflammatory mediators and induces primarily necrotic death in susceptible cells. However, whether host factors released in response to staphylococcal infections may increase cell resistance to alpha-toxin is not known. Here we show that prior exposure to interferons (IFNs) prevents alpha-toxin-induced membrane permeabilization, the depletion of ATP, and cell death. Moreover, pretreatment with IFN-α decreases alpha-toxin-induced secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β). IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ specifically protect cells from alpha-toxin, whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-4 have no effects. Furthermore, we show that IFN-α-induced protection from alpha-toxin is not dependent on caspase-1 or mitogen-activated protein kinases, but requires protein synthesis and fatty acid synthase activity. Our results demonstrate that IFNs may increase cell resistance to staphylococcal alpha-toxin via the regulation of lipid metabolism and suggest that interferons play a protective role during staphylococcal infections.

Treatment of Generalized Staphylococcal Infections

Kirby, William M. M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1964 EN
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46.18%

Safety and Efficacy of Moxifloxacin Monotherapy for Treatment of Orthopedic Implant-Related Staphylococcal Infections ▿

San Juan, Rafael; Garcia-Reyne, Ana; Caba, Pedro; Chaves, Fernando; Resines, Carlos; Llanos, Fernando; López-Medrano, Francisco; Lizasoain, Manuel; Aguado, Jose Maria
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The rifampin-ciprofloxacin combination is recommended for treatment of orthopedic implant-related staphylococcal infections to avoid the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance; however, the efficacy of this combination is limited by the tolerability problems associated with the use of rifampin. Moxifloxacin is a quinolone up to 10 times more active against staphylococci than ciprofloxacin and the risk of resistance development during monotherapy against staphylococci is theoretically lower for moxifloxacin, but information regarding its use in bone infections is lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of moxifloxacin monotherapy in patients with orthopedic implant-related staphylococcal infections. From June 2006 to April 2009, all patients with culture-proven infection by quinolone-sensitive staphylococcal strains associated with orthopedic implants at our institution were included in a management protocol that mostly included specific surgery, 1 to 2 weeks of an intravenous course of cloxacillin-cefazolin or vancomycin, and long-term therapy with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 3 months). Cure was defined as (i) a lack of clinical signs and symptoms of infection, (ii) a C-reactive protein level less than 5 mg/liter...

Repurposing ebselen for treatment of multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections

Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/06/2015 EN
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46.45%
Novel antimicrobials and new approaches to developing them are urgently needed. Repurposing already-approved drugs with well-characterized toxicology and pharmacology is a novel way to reduce the time, cost, and risk associated with antibiotic innovation. Ebselen, an organoselenium compound, is known to be clinically safe and has a well-known pharmacology profile. It has shown potent bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and VRSA). We demonstrated that ebselen acts through inhibition of protein synthesis and subsequently inhibited toxin production in MRSA. Additionally, ebselen was remarkably active and significantly reduced established staphylococcal biofilms. The therapeutic efficacy of ebselen was evaluated in a mouse model of staphylococcal skin infections. Ebselen 1% and 2% significantly reduced the bacterial load and the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in MRSA USA300 skin lesions. Furthermore, it acts synergistically with traditional antimicrobials. This study provides evidence that ebselen has great potential for topical treatment of MRSA skin infections and lays the foundation for further analysis and development of ebselen as a potential treatment for multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections.

Induction of Acute Inflammation in vivo by Staphylococcal Superantigens II. Critical Role for Chemokines ICAM-i and TNF-alpha

Tessier, P.; Naccache, P.; Diener, K.; Gladue, R.; Neote, K.; Clark-Lewis, I.; McColl, S.
Fonte: AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS Publicador: AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Superantigens such as staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B (SEA and SEB) activate the immune system by stimulating a large proportion of T lymphocytes through specific Vbeta regions of the TCR and activating macrophages by binding to MHC class II molecules. While the mechanisms by which superantigens activate T lymphocytes have been elucidated, their role in the generation of local immune responses to bacterial invasion is still unclear. In this study we have examined the ability of the superantigens SEA and SEB to elicit an inflammatory reaction in vivo, in s.c. air pouches in the mouse. Upon injection into the s.c. air pouch, the two superantigens stimulated a time-dependent increase in the number of leukocytes appearing in the pouch exudate. The leukocytes migrating into the pouch exudate were predominantly neutrophils, with some mononuclear phagocytes and eosinophils present. No T lymphocytes were detected either in the pouch lining tissue or in the exudate cells. Injection of SEA resulted in increased ICAM-1 expression, as detected by immunohistochemistry, on endothelial cells in the tissue surrounding the air pouch and accumulation of TNF-alpha and the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), MIP-1alpha, and JE in the pouch exudate. In addition...

Knowledge and Perceptions About Community-acquired Staphylococcal Infections Among Health Care Workers in Hawai‘i

Dunn, Brandyn S; Tice, Alan D; Hurwitz, Eric L; Katz, Alan R
Fonte: University Clinical, Education & Research Associate (UCERA) Publicador: University Clinical, Education & Research Associate (UCERA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 EN
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46.54%
Since the early 1990s, national rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have increased dramatically.1,2 Initially identified in health care settings, community-acquired MRSA is now a major public health concern. With Hawai‘i's expanding S. aureus and MRSA epidemic closely approximating the national trend in inpatient and outpatient settings,7,8 a high level of knowledge and awareness among health care workers is essential to successfully control this evolving epidemic. Health care and related workers were surveyed to assess their knowledge and perceptions about staphylococcal and MRSA infections. Knowledge was estimated by demonstrated ability to correctly identify risk factors including diabetes and obesity, as well as to demonstrate awareness of a growing staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic.9,10 Perceptions were estimated by level of concern of antibiotic resistance as well as of the severity of the staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic. Variations in knowledge and perception concerning basic principles associated with S. aureus infections as well as characteristics of the evolving S. aureus and MRSA epidemic were observed among various occupations (advance clinical practitioners, nurses, public health professionals...

Staphylococcal infections in childhood dermatomyositis--association with the development of calcinosis, raised IgE concentrations and granulocyte chemotactic defect.

Moore, E C; Cohen, F; Douglas, S D; Gutta, V
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1992 EN
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There is a high incidence of staphylococcal infection in children with dermatomyositis, which is limited to those children who either already have or subsequently develop calcinosis. Of 15 children followed up for 3-10 years after diagnosis, all nine who developed calcinosis had infections with Staphylococcus aureus compared with none of six without calcinosis. Of these nine, the occurrence of staphylococcal infections before calcinosis was observed in four, suggested by history in two, and unclear in three children. Granulocyte chemotaxis to Staphylococcus aureus was more severely depressed in those children with calcinosis, whereas those without calcinosis did not differ significantly from controls. The chemotactic defect was due to a serum factor (patients' serum depressed control chemotaxis and control serum corrected the patients' chemotaxis). The nine children with calcinosis also had significantly higher serum IgE concentrations than non-atopic age matched controls; the six without calcinosis did not differ from controls. The increased IgE concentrations appeared to develop after staphylococcal infection and before calcinosis. Two of five patients with calcinosis had increased antistaphylococcal IgE antibodies; neither of the two patients without calcinosis had such increased antibodies. This suggests preceding immunological differences in patients with dermatomyositis who do and do not subsequently develop calcinosis...