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Business R&D Policy in Spain and Portugal: Objectives, Incentives and Outcomes

Carvalho, Adão; Corchuelo, Beatriz
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
Spain and Portugal are two EU countries of different size but similar structural problems of science and technology (S&T) to address. Over recent years, the R&D policy of both countries has been designed to tackle analogous R&D structural problems and challenges aiming to increase the historical low-level expenditures on R&D (GERD), business R&D expenditures (BERD), and BERD/GERD ratio. This paper compares and discusses the R&D policy strategy of Spain and Portugal to promote R&D, with particular attention to R&D objectives and business R&D incentives. In this sense, the paper focuses on the characteristics and differences of the two main tools used by governments to stimulate business R&D: direct funding (subsidies and loans) and indirect support (fiscal incentives for R&D). The scope and design of these instruments are likely to condition the firms’ decision on how and when to invest in R&D and be able to partly reduce the problems with business underinvestment in R&D. The paper shows the differences and similarities of these tools in Portugal and Spain. Paradoxically, these countries have two of the most generous fiscal systems for R&D of the OECD but their S&T indicators of remain comparatively low. Despite the governments’ efforts...

View of trees and the roof tops of Port of Spain buildings in Trinidad; The Bryant Slides Collection; The Bryant Slides Collection, Trinidad

Unknown ( Photographer )
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: still image Formato: 35 mm
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The slides were taken on collecting trips sponsored by the William L. Bryant Foundation, where books, music and art indigenous to the regions were gathered. The are organized by geographical location.; Trees and the roof tops of buildings in Port of Spain, Trinidad. Nearby is a mountain road with automobiles. Slide labeled Trin. 1.

South view of Frederick Street, Port of Spain, Trinidad; The Bryant Slides Collection; The Bryant Slides Collection, Trinidad

Unknown ( Photographer )
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: still image Formato: 35 mm
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The slides were taken on collecting trips sponsored by the William L. Bryant Foundation, where books, music and art indigenous to the regions were gathered. The are organized by geographical location.; This image shows a busy Frederick Street in Port of Spain, Trinidad. Many automobiles and people are on the street in front of various retail stores. Some of the retail stores include Y. De Lima & Co. Ltd. (jewelers), W. C. Ross & Co. Ltd. (pharmacy), Bata (shoe store), Pereira’s, and Taurel Appliances. W. C. Ross and Co. Ltd. was established in 1843 by William Clayton Ross on Frederick Street as the Colonial Dispensary. In the far distance, at the end of the street, is the Port of Spain lighthouse. Slide labeled Trin. 3.

North view of Frederick Street, Port of Spain, Trinidad; The Bryant Slides Collection; The Bryant Slides Collection, Trinidad

Unknown ( Photographer )
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: still image Formato: 35 mm
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The slides were taken on collecting trips sponsored by the William L. Bryant Foundation, where books, music and art indigenous to the regions were gathered. The are organized by geographical location.; This image shows a busy Frederick Street in Port of Spain, Trinidad. Many automobiles and people are on the street in front of various retail stores. Some of the retail stores include Northern Optical, The United Grocers Ltd., Plimmer, and Royal Bank of Canada. The painted iron rod gates of Woodford Square can be seen on the left. In the far distance, at the end of the street, is a view of the mountains. Slide labeled Trin. 4.

Men gathered on the street in front of the Jinnah Memorial Mosque, Port of Spain, Trinidad; The Bryant Slides Collection; The Bryant Slides Collection, Trinidad

Unknown ( Photographer )
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: still image Formato: 35 mm
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The slides were taken on collecting trips sponsored by the William L. Bryant Foundation, where books, music and art indigenous to the regions were gathered. The are organized by geographical location.; The Jinnah Memorial Mosque, completed by 1954, was named for the founder of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. The mosque serves as the headquarter for the Trinidad Muslim League, established in 1947. The mosque’s design includes South Asian Islamic architectural elements, for example the main dome is topped with a crescent and star and flanked by two minarets. The mosque is located in the Saint Joseph neighborhood of Port of Spain. In the image, three men are gathered near a bicycle on the side walk in front of the mosque. Slide labeled Trin. 5.

Care for the Elderly in Spain during Democracy. New social risks, welfare modernisation and territorial politics

RODRIGUEZ GARCIA, Carla
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1764827 bytes; application/pdf; digital
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This thesis highlights the importance of new social risks, welfare modernisation, and territorial changes on current welfare states. The interaction of these factors, which I have decided to label as “Tris Syndrome”, is fundamental pillar of this analysis. In this respect, this work investigates how the answer to one of these new risks namely, care for the elderly, has evolved in Spain within the context of the evolution of the Spanish welfare state and noteworthy transformations of the territorial structure of the country since the beginning of the democratic period (mid-70’s) to present. More precisely, this work poses the following questions: What factors have motivated change in the Spanish system of social services for the elderly, in the face of the apparent lack of mobilisation or demand from risk-bearers? What spurred the system to undertake radical reform following the authoritarian downturn, despite the fact that it is only very recently that care for the elderly has started to be defined as a challenge, and has taken a visible, but though timid, place on the political agenda? What have been the factors that have given voice to this “silent” demand? Why, despite the reforms undertaken, does the Spanish system of social (care) services for the elderly show comparatively little development in comparison with other countries and other areas of the Spanish welfare state? In relation to these issues...

The Rise of Old Age Insurance in a Peripheral Economy, Spain 1908-1966

ELU-TERÁN, Alexander
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis aims at understanding the origins, evolution and economic meaning of public pensions, by looking at the particular case of Spain during the first two thirds of the twentieth century. The only way of adequately framing the particularities of this national case is to place the Spanish experience in the wider context of social protection systems in other countries. At the same time, this is the most suitable strategy in order to engage the dominant debate among specialised scholars of Southern Europe welfare states and particularly so in Spain. This debate concerns the poor Spanish performance in the area of social protection, a phenomenon which is commonly attributed to two facts. Firstly, it stems from the country’s position as a peripheral economy, at least since the advent of modern economic growth. Secondly, and more decisively, the welfare gap is believed to be related to Franco’s dictatorship and the big slump that it represented for state engagement with welfare issues. Therefore, even if the country has experienced significant improvements in this sector during the last quarter of the twentieth century in terms of welfare state standards, the roots of the still existent gap in welfare provision have concentrated significant research efforts on Spanish social policy; Defense Date: 12/10/2009; Examining Board: Prof. Giovanni Federico (European University Institute) - supervisor Prof. Peter H. Lindert (University of California...

Consumer Behaviour and International Trade in the Western Mediterranean: South-Eastern Spain in a trans-national perspective (1730/1808)

PÉREZ-GARCÍA, Manuel
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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How to focus the analysis of the birth of mass consumption society has been a scholarly obsession over the last few decades. This thesis suggests that an analytical approach must be taken in studies on consumption paying special attention to the socio-cultural and economic transfers which occur when different commodities are introduced to territories with diverse socio-cultural values and identities. Therefore one of the key questions of such an analysis is to examine the role of merchants, who have a very important influence on consumer decisions. This thesis describes the new necessities created by merchants, as “vicarious consumers”, inserted in local, national and international market circuits in the Western Mediterranean area. The increase in the consumption of new goods during the eighteenth century in south-eastern Spain, especially during the second half of the century, entailed changes in household economies through some improvements in everyday life. The systematic analysis of probate inventories demonstrates potential shifts in the consumption of new durable and semi-durable goods in urban and rural families. Certainly, in south-eastern Spain, there was an interest in consuming new, exotic and foreign goods. The desires...

Inter-American Musical Encounters During the Cold War: Festival of Spain and the Americas, Madrid, 1964 [full paper]

Payne, Alyson
Fonte: Latin American Music Center Publicador: Latin American Music Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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The renewal of the Pact of Madrid in 1963 brought the United States and Spain into a closer rapport as well as strengthened Spain???s connection to the Organization of American States (OAS). No longer politically isolated, Spain began to host inter-American exhibits of music and art to promote more amicable relations with the American republics. One such event, the Festival of Music of the Americas and Spain, held in Madrid in 1964 and sponsored by the OAS and the Institute for Hispanic Culture, showcased the latest avant-garde music of the U.S., Latin America, and Spain. In addition to promoting new music, this display of compositions by Aaron Copland, Juan Orrego Salas, Roque Cordero, Aurelio de la Vega and others aided the political relations among the countries involved. Since the start of the Cold War, the U.S. had tried to strengthen its inter-American relations, while at the same time, deterring Communism in the region. Avant-garde music, in stark contrast to Soviet musical policies, could unite the Americas in a cosmopolitan embrace. Spain, eager to rehabilitate its international reputation, also promoted its own avant-garde compositions in addition to those from the Americas. This demonstration of musical goodwill also helped Spain to secure needed economic assistance from the U.S. and Latin America. This paper examines the cooperation of the U.S. and Latin America with Spain on this festival in order to explore the myriad political uses of music...

Business network and new distribution methods: the spread of franchises in Spain; Redes empresariales y nuevas formas de distribución: la expansión de las franquicias en España

Gámir Orueta, Agustín; Méndez Gutiérrez del Valle, Ricardo
Fonte: CNRS Publicador: CNRS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em /05/1999 ENG
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Summary: Over the last few years, the phenomenon of the franchise as a new way of doing business has been undergoing a notable increase in Spain, with year on year growth rates of around 40%. As a result, Spain’s retail trade is suffering considerable transformations and growing ever closer to a similar profile to that dominant in other countries of the EU. This phenomenon of franchises in Spain, however, goes far beyond a mere modification of business manners, as it can only be correctly understood if it is placed in a framework of other processes with much wider dimensions linking the economies, and even the societies, of the developed world: economic globalisation, management innovations, the creation of network organisations or the progress towards standardisation, among others. Behind this conceptual structure, the authors attempt to demonstrate how the franchise networks are being implemented in Spain, what their main features are and what behaviour they follow as regards distribution of franchises throughout the territory and within the major cities of Spain. Finally, after pointing out the potential impacts of the franchise system on Spain’s business fabric, some research lines are indicated for further analysis.; Resumen: En los últimos años está adquiriendo una notable importancia en España el fenómeno de la franquicia como una nueva forma comercial llegando a alcanzar tasas de crecimiento interanual cercanas al 40%. Como resultado...

Geopolítica de la quimera. Modernización de la "Pagan Spain" en la Guerra Fría; Geopolitics of the chimera. Modernization of "Pagan Spain" in the Cold War

Huguet, Montserrat
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /05/2014 SPA
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Las relaciones hispano estadounidenses durante los dos últimos siglos pueden ser conceptuadas de poco significativas. El sentimiento de los españoles hacia los Estados Unidos a lo largo del siglo XX y especialmente en las últimas décadas del mismo ha sido débil cuando no hostil. En el origen del así llamado antiamericanismo de los españoles, se han señalado algunos procesos históricos. Resulta más espinoso en cambio obtener una referencia certera del valor que para los ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos ha tenido el vínculo histórico con España a lo largo el siglo XX. De hecho, hasta épocas recientes no se dio un cruce de intereses que mereciera el esfuerzo de un acercamiento y aprecio mutuos, rasgos fundamentales en unas relaciones intensas y duraderas. El texto, un recorrido cultural por la percepción estadounidense de la modernidad española en las décadas centrales del siglo XX, se organiza en los siguientes temas: entre el recelo a la invención y el desprecio a lo americano, los escenarios overseas, de la farsa anti americana al franquismo ficcionado y finalmente, una mirada al enfoque de Richard Wright, la España Pagana, que da título al artículo.; The international relations between Spain and the US in the last two centuries can be seen as non relevant ones. The Spaniards feeling to the United States throughout the twentieth century and especially in its last decades has been weak...

NATO's new members: what can they learn from Spain?

Weed, Alicia G.
Fonte: Monterey, California ; Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California ; Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 77 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; When Spain joined NATO, the country was very different from those initial signatories or even those that aligned themselves with the Organization after the original treaty establishment of 1949. Like the three countries currently embarking on NATO integration, Spain was a newly formed democracy still in the process of democratic consolidation when the NATO accession papers were filed. However, in contrast to Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, for several decades Spain had looked to the west and even though not a member of NATO, Spain maintained close ties with several NATO countries. Even with these differences, there is still much to be learned from Spain's integration into NATO. Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland should carefully study the path Spain followed into NATO and determine what may or may not suit them from this experience in their current undertaking. Can Spain serve as an example for the three new members? A look at the differences and similarities between Spain and the three may provide insight for the way Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland proceed in their integration process.; http://www.archive.org/details/natosnewmembersw00weed; Captain, United' States Army

A Toledo mill dam - Spain; Image 145 of 338

Fonte: Rice University Publicador: Rice University
Tipo: photographs; Image
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A mill dam in Toledo, Spain, with a bridge in the background. Various buildings are on the opposite side of the river, along the road and also in the distance. Original resource is a black and white photograph.; In 1908, the Rice Institute Board of Trustees sent their newly chosen President, Edgar Odell Lovett, on a world tour seeking out the best aspects of the leading colleges and universities. Dr. and Mrs. Lovett traveled in the company of their secretary, Mr. Carrington Weems, who took these photos to document their travels. They are images of places, more so than people. Dr. and Mrs. Lovett themselves are generally not featured. Each image has an image number that reflects the order in which it was taken on the trip, from number 1 (beginning in Canada and going east around the world) through number 338 (returning to the U.S. through California and ending in Texas), ranging in date from 1908-1909. The names of each image were recorded by Carrington Weems, with the only exception being a county name added in parenthesis when the place name was not present in Weems' original title.

The Tobacco Factory - Seville - Spain; Image 166 of 338

Fonte: Rice University Publicador: Rice University
Tipo: photographs; Image
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The inside of a tobacco factory in Seville, Spain. A large group of women are sitting on tables in a long corridor hallway, working with tobacco. Original resource is a black and white photograph.; In 1908, the Rice Institute Board of Trustees sent their newly chosen President, Edgar Odell Lovett, on a world tour seeking out the best aspects of the leading colleges and universities. Dr. and Mrs. Lovett traveled in the company of their secretary, Mr. Carrington Weems, who took these photos to document their travels. They are images of places, more so than people. Dr. and Mrs. Lovett themselves are generally not featured. Each image has an image number that reflects the order in which it was taken on the trip, from number 1 (beginning in Canada and going east around the world) through number 338 (returning to the U.S. through California and ending in Texas), ranging in date from 1908-1909. The names of each image were recorded by Carrington Weems, with the only exception being a county name added in parenthesis when the place name was not present in Weems' original title.

National Security – a Trump Card? The European Court of Human Rights decisions in Herri Batasuna and Batasuna v. Spain, Etxeberria and Others v. Spain and Herritarren Zerrenda v. Spain

LETNAR CERNIC, Jernej
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
On 30 June 2009, the European Court of Human Rights delivered three decisions deriving from the situation in the Basque country, Herri Batasuna and Batasuna v. Spain, Etxeberría and Others v. Spain and Herritarren Zerrenda v. Spain. In Herri Batasuna and Batasuna v. Spain, the European Court of Human Rights upheld the dissolution of the political parties Herri Batasuna and Batasuna, whereas it held in Etxeberría and Others v. Spain and Herritarren Zerrenda v. Spain that the political groups, which wished to continue the activities of the illegal political parties, are also prohibited from presenting candidates in municipal, regional and autonomous community elections. This article will briefly explore some of the basic legal questions arising from the above decisions. It attempts to demonstrate that the Court's analysis is entirely at odds with the functioning of democratic society, and it argues that the extreme measure of dissolution of Herri Batasuna and Batasuna, Etxeberría and Herritarren Zerrenda may have been avoided by employing less drastic and individualized measures. Despite the Court holding that the dissolution of the political parties and groups was necessary and proportionate, it may have failed to establish the factual basis and therefore also its conclusions are subjected to criticism.

Redefining Nations: Nationhood and immigration in Italy and Spain

FREITAS CORREIA, Any
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Defense date: 08/07/2010; Examining Board: Maurizio Ambrosini (Univ. Milan), Margarita Gomez-Reino Cachafeiro, UNED, Madrid), Virginie Guiraudon (CERAPS-CNRS, Lille Centre for Politics) (External Co-Sipervisor), Peter Mair (EUI) (Supervisor); In the early 1990s, Italy and Spain, traditional labor exporters, started to acknowledge their new position as ‘immigration countries’. This dissertation examines how both states have coped with the consequences of this rapid and unexpected shift. Combining discourse and policy analysis, we look mainly at political elites’ (parties and their members) discourses and practices, during the first decade of the immigration turn (from early 1990s until the early 2000s). The literature has often treated Italy and Spain as examples of the same ‘Mediterranean’ group, also usually assuming that they have followed a very similar route towards immigrants’ criminalization and a populist mobilization of the immigration theme. Adopting an innovative analytical perspective, this thesis arrives at an original understanding of both immigrants’ representation and immigration politics in Italy and Spain. The predominant categories mobilized by Spanish and Italian political elites in the construction of the immigration ‘problem'...

Atlantic Threads: Singer in Spain and Mexico, 1860-1940

de la Cruz-Fernández, Paula A.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This dissertation examines the role of Singer in the modernization of sewing practices in Spain and Mexico from 1860 to 1940. Singer marketing was founded on gendered views of women’s work and gendered perceptions of the home. These connected with sewing practices in Spain and Mexico, where home sewing remained economically and culturally important throughout the 1940s. "Atlantic Threads" is the first study of the US-owned multinational in the Hispanic World. I demonstrate that sewing practices, and especially practices related to home sewing that have been considered part of the private sphere and therefore not an important historical matter, contributed to the building of one the first global corporation. I examine Singer corporate records and business strategies that have not been considered by other scholars such as the creation of the Embroidery Department in the late nineteen-century. Likewise, this dissertation challenges traditional narratives that have assumed that Spain and Mexico were peripheral to modernity. I look at Singer corporate records in Spain and Mexico and at regional government and cultural sources to demonstrate how Singer integrated Spain and Mexico within its business organization. Singer's marketing was focused on the consumer...

Scientific production in pharmaceutical care: comparison between Brazil, USA and Spain

Andrade,Tadeu Uggere de; Barbosa,Jaqueliny Louback da Cunha; Laignier,Lívia Lopes Moura; Mata,Elizangela Faustino da; Cassaro,Karla Oliveira dos Santos; Lenz,Dominik; Sampaio,Karla Nivea; Boëchat,Giovanna Assis Pereira; Endringer,Denise Coutinho
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The aim of this study was to estimate the evolution of the field of Pharmaceutical Care (PC) by measuring the quality and quantity of the scientific production on the topic of PC in Brazil compared to two pioneering countries in the field, the United States of America (USA) and Spain. The databases Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO were used as sources for the literature search. Pharmaceutical Care, or the appropriate translations, was used as the search term for the literature search, which was limited to articles published between 1990 and 2009. A score of quality (SQ) was calculated using variables such as impact factor and the frequency of the citations. We included 3265 articles published in 544 journals. We found that there was a steady increase in scientific production since 1990 and that the USA had a higher quality of scientific production than Spain, whereas the Spain produced the highest quantity of articles. In comparison, the Brazilian production of scientific publications on PC is low in terms of both quality and quantity but has increased steadily since 2002. Nevertheless, Brazil has not yet reached the level of the USA or Spain. In conclusion, Brazil's scientific production has evolved over the second decade studied in this work...

Information transfer in the agricultural sector in Spain

Mu??oz-Ca??avate, Antonio; H??pola, Pedro
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article examines the structures of information transfer to the agricultural (production) and agro-alimentary (transformation and commercialization of the products) sector within Spain. An historical perspective is provided to better illustrate the reality and complexity of Spain with regard to the systems of agrarian extension, agricultural research, the resources provided by Spain???s central administration, and the use of information by related enterprises. The Service of Agrarian Extension appeared in Spain in the 1950s, and new political-administrative structures (agribusiness associations, cooperatives) were founded when Spain became a democratic nation in the late 1970s and with the arrival of electronic information, largely in the 1990s. We describe the research and technological centers supporting innovation in the agro-alimentary sector and the communication media dedicated to the agricultural sector. The article illustrates that the systems of agricultural information in Spain have been largely derived from initiatives of the Public Administration, with few private initiatives.

Scientific production in pharmaceutical care: comparison between Brazil, USA and Spain

Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Barbosa, Jaqueliny Louback da Cunha; Laignier, Lívia Lopes Moura; Mata, Elizangela Faustino da; Cassaro, Karla Oliveira dos Santos; Lenz, Dominik; Sampaio, Karla Nivea; Boëchat, Giovanna Assis Pereira; Endringer, Denise Coutinh
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a evolução da área de atenção farmacêutica (AF) através da medição da qualidade e quantidade da produção científica na área de AF no Brasil, comparando-a com os países pioneiros no ramo: Estados Unidos da América (EUA) e Espanha. Os bancos de dados Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Lilacs e SciELO foram usados como fontes para a pesquisa. AF ou as respectivas traduções foram usadas como descritor para a pesquisa bibliográfica sendo incluídos artigos publicados no período de 1990 a 2009. A pontuação da qualidade (PQ) foi calculada, utilizando variáveis como fator de impacto e frequência das citações. Foram cincluídos 3.265 artigos publicados em 544 revistas. Verificou-se um aumento constante na produção científica desde 1990 sendo que os EUA possuíam maior qualidade, enquanto a maior quantidade de artigos foi produzida na Espanha. Em comparação, a produção brasileira na AF é baixa em qualidade e quantidade, mas tem aumentado desde 2002. Apesar disso, o Brasil ainda não atingiu o nível dos EUA ou Espanha. Em conclusão, o Brasil apresentou expressiva evolução na última década com maior desenvolvimento nos últimos cinco anos. Entretanto, melhoria na quanitdade e qualidade das publicações deve ser incentivada.; The aim of this study was to estimate the evolution of the field of Pharmaceutical Care (PC) by measuring the quality and quantity of the scientific production on the topic of PC in Brazil compared to two pioneering countries in the field...