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Epistasia para a produção de grãos em soja; Epistasis for grain yield in soybeans

BARONA, Marco Antonio Acevedo; COLOMBARI FILHO, José Manoel; GERALDI, Isaias Olivio
Fonte: Instituto Agronômico de Campinas Publicador: Instituto Agronômico de Campinas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
Em soja [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], a produção de grãos é o caráter de maior importância econômica, com herança quantitativa e altamente influenciado pelo ambiente. As estratégias de seleção utilizadas para o desenvolvimento de cultivares em soja poderiam ser otimizadas por meio do estudo da importância relativa dos componentes de variância, particularmente a proporção de variação devida às interações não alélicas (epistasia). Com o objetivo de estudar a variação epistática para a produção de grãos em soja utilizou-se o delineamento "Triple Test Cross Modificado" (TTC) de Jinks et al. Uma amostra de 32 linhas puras (Pi) derivadas de um cruzamento biparental foi cruzada com duas linhagens divergentes (L1 e L2) contrastantes para PG, derivadas da mesma população. O experimento de avaliação foi desenvolvido no ano agrícola de 2006/2007 em um delineamento em látice triplo triplicado (9 repetições), contendo 100 tratamentos: 32 cruzamentos Pi x L1 (L1i), 32 cruzamentos Pi x L2 (L2i), 34 linhas puras (32 Pi mais dois testadores) e duas testemunhas comerciais. A variação entre os contrastes de médias (L1i + L2i - Pi) foi altamente significativa na análise de variância (P<0,01), indicando a ocorrência de epistasia. Os resultados gerais indicam...

Comportamento da soja RR em distintos ambientes de produção, submetida a diferentes manejos, formulações e doses de glyphosate; Behavior of RR soybeans in different production environments, subjected to different managements, formulations and rates of glyphosate

Albrecht, Alfredo Junior Paiola
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Os benefícios advindos da tecnologia Roundup Ready são expressivos, e a aceitação desta tecnologia pelos produtores rurais é inegável, dando suporte para o rápido crescimento das áreas da soja RR. Mas ao mesmo tempo resultados de pesquisas recentes indicam que o glyphosate aplicado em pós-emergência, em soja RR, pode em algumas situações, além de gerar efeitos fitotóxicos, influenciar o balanço nutricional, afetar a fotossíntese, a rizosfera, o acúmulo de biomassa, a síntese de aminoácidos e compostos secundários, a eficiência no uso da água, e ainda a qualidade das sementes produzidas. Porém, persistem muitas especulações e dúvidas que precisam ser melhores elucidadas, no âmbito científico e técnico, envolvendo a questão da soja transgênica (RR). Em virtude deste fato faz-se necessária a busca de informações que permitam diagnosticar as reais consequências do uso do glyphosate. Deste modo, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o impacto da aplicação de diferentes doses, manejos e formulações de glyphosate, na soja RR, em distintos ambientes de produção. Para isso foram conduzidos dois experimentos principais, em duas safras, em diferentes locais, e alguns experimentos complementares. Foi utilizado...

Avaliação de linhagens de soja derivadas de dois cruzamentos com diferentes níveis de divergência genética; Evaluation of soybean lines derived from two crosses with different levels of genetic divergence

Shirahige, Fernando Hoshino
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/09/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Existem poucas informações relacionadas com a comparação de populações de soja derivadas de cruzamentos com diferentes níveis de divergência genética (DG). Os objetivos deste trabalho foram comparar o desempenho de duas populações de soja derivadas de genitores com baixa e alta DG. Foram realizados dois cruzamentos com genitores diferindo quanto à divergência genética baseada em marcadores moleculares AFLP: baixa DG (IAC-12 x IAC-100) e alta DG (EMBRAPA-60 x EMGOPA-315). Para cada cruzamento foram obtidas 100 progênies F2:3, que foram avaliadas experimentalmente em três ambientes e, posteriormente, selecionadas as 25 progênies mais produtivas. Em seguida foram obtidas 10 linhas puras F5:7 de cada uma das 25 progênies, originando aproximadamente 250 linha puras de cada cruzamento. No ano agrícola 2012/13 foram conduzidos os experimentos de avaliação, utilizando um delineamento em parcelas subdivididas, onde as progênies foram alocadas nas parcelas e as linhas puras dentro de progênies nas subparcelas, e as parcelas arranjadas em um látice balanceado 5x5 (seis repetições). As subparcelas foram constituídas de linhas de 2 m, espaçadas de 0,5 m, contendo 30 plantas após o desbaste. Os caracteres avaliados foram: número de dias para a maturação (DM)...

Parâmetros de solo e máquinas na semeadura direta de milho e soja em duas coberturas de solo sobre campo natural; Soil and machine parameters direct drilling maize and soybeans on cover crops and natural pasture lands

Beutler, Josué Fernando
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.11%
Os campos naturais permanentes ou utilizados como pastagem, representam cerca de 60% da área do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e é, seguramente, a maior área potencial para utilização com agricultura. Mesmo assim, são raros os trabalhos que estudaram mais detalhadamente a possibilidade da conversão direta do campo em lavoura utilizando a técnica da semeadura direta. Poucas pesquisas têm mostrado o comportamento do conjunto trator-semeadora, quando da realização da semeadura diretamente sobre campo natural e seus resultados quanto à produtividade, rentabilidade e demanda energética. Este trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o comportamento do conjunto trator-semeadora, operado diretamente sobre o campo natural, na implantação das culturas do milho e da soja, bem como avaliar sua produtividade, de modo a obter subsídios que permitam, ou não, a recomendação desta técnica para a conversão dos campos da região da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul em terras agricultáveis. O ensaio foi conduzido na EEA-URGS, em Eldorado do Sul, sobre Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico, utilizando o delineamento blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas. Inicialmente se demarcou 4 blocos (repetições), com 6 parcelas de 25m x 5m cada um. Em cada bloco implantou-se 2 parcelas com o consórcio aveia preta+ervilhaca (A+E)...

Interferência de picão-preto e guanxuma com a soja : efeitos da densidade de plantas e época relativa de emergência; Interference of hair beggarticks and arrowleaf sida with soybeans: effects of plant density and relative emergence time

Fleck, Nilson Gilberto; Rizzardi, Mauro Antonio; Agostinetto, Dirceu; Balbinot Júnior, Alvadi Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as influências de densidades de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.) e guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia L.) e de épocas de sua emergência em relação à da soja, no grau de interferência que ocasionam à cultura. Foram realizados experimentos em duas condições em Porto Alegre - RS, em 1998/99 e 1999/00. Os fatores testados foram espécies e densidade de plantas daninhas e épocas de emergência. A convivência das plantas daninhas com a soja deu-se durante a fase vegetativa da cultura. Em experimentos em vasos, avaliaram-se cinco épocas de emergência das plantas daninhas (11, 7, 2 dias antes e 4 e 8 dias após a emergência da soja). Em microparcelas, avaliaram-se três épocas de emergência das plantas daninhas em relação à soja (4 dias antes, no mesmo dia e 4 dias após) e seis densidades de plantas daninhas (0, 4, 8, 16, 32 e 64 plantas m-2). Verificou-se que a época de emergência das plantas daninhas em relação à soja modifica as relações de competição entre essas espécies e que picão-preto exerce maior efeito de competição à soja e é menos afetado pela presença da cultura do que guanxuma. O atraso na emergência da soja em relação às plantas daninhas aumenta os efeitos negativos dessas sobre a cultura...

Influence of the sample area in the variability of losses in the mechanical harvesting of soybeans

Loureiro Júnior, Antônio M.; Silva, Rouverson P. Da; Cassia, Marcelo T.; Compagnon, Ariel M.; Voltarelli, Murilo A.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola (SBEA) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola (SBEA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 76-85
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The mechanical harvesting is an important stage in the production process of soybeans and, in this process; the loss of a significant number of grains is common. Despite the existence of mechanisms to monitor these losses, it is still essential to use sampling methods to quantify them. Assuming that the size of the sample area affects the reliability and variability between samples in quantifying losses, this paper aimed to analyze the variability and feasibility of using different sizes of sample area (1, 2 and 3 m²) in quantifying losses in the mechanical harvesting of soybeans. Were sampled 36 sites and the cutting losses, losses by other mechanisms of the combine and total losses were evaluated, as well as the water content in seeds, straw distribution and crop productivity. Data were subjected to statistical analysis (descriptive statistics and analysis of variance) and Statistical Control Process (SCP). The coefficients of variation were similar for the three frames available. Combine losses showed stable behavior, whereas cutting losses and total losses showed unstable behavior. The frame size did not affect the quantification and variability of losses in the mechanical harvesting of soybeans, thus a frame of 1 m² can be used for determining losses.; A colheita mecanizada é uma fase importante no processo produtivo da soja...

Chemical composition and lipoxygenase activity in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) submitted to gamma irradiation

Barros, Erica Amanda de; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Sartori, Maria M. P.; Costa, Vladimir E.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 29-32
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Soybeans are an important food due to their functional and nutritional characteristics. However, consumption by western populations is limited by the astringent taste of soybeans and their derivatives which results from the action of lipoxygenase, an enzyme activated during product processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and specific activity of lipoxygenase in different soybean cultivars. Soybeans were stored in plastic bags and irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, lipids, ashes, crude fiber, and carbohydrates) and lipoxygenase specific activity were determined for each sample. Gamma irradiation induced a small increase of protein and lipid content in some soybean cultivars, which did not exceed the highest content of 5% and 26%, respectively, when compared to control. Lipoxygenase specific activity decreased in the three cultivars with increasing gamma irradiation dose. In conclusion, the gamma irradiation doses used are suitable to inactivate part of lipoxygenase while not causing expressive changes in the chemical composition of the cultivars studied. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Análise sistêmica da segregação na cadeia logística da soja após o advento e a difusão dos transgênicos; Systemic analysis of segregation in supply chain after the advent and spread of transgenic soybeans

Leitão, Fabrício Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Tese
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.11%
Tese (doutorado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental, 2014.; Este trabalho buscou identificar as mudanças ocorridas na Cadeia Logística da Soja bem como os impactos aos elos que a compõe (produtores, armazenadores/processadores, transportadores rodoviários, operadores ferroviários e portuários), em decorrência do advento e da difusão da soja transgênica, sob uma ótica sistêmica dos problemas que envolvem sua segregação. Para isso, foram identificados os pontos críticos, os cuidados e procedimentos, e os tempos e custos adicionais necessários para a não contaminação da soja ao longo da Cadeia. A pesquisa apoiou-se nas contribuições teóricas trazidas pela Nova Economia Institucional e Economia dos Custos de Transação (emblematicamente a teoria dos contratos e a especificidade dos ativos necessários à segregação), e na literatura relacionada à Logística. O estudo foi de natureza exploratória, com abordagem qualitativa. Para a coleta de dados, foram utilizadas, como fontes primárias, entrevistas, utilizando como instrumento os questionários semiestruturados e, como fonte secundária, a documentação indireta. Foram realizadas 57 entrevistas aplicadas aos elos supracitados...

Analysis and forecast of the storage needs of soybeans in Brazil

Patino,Marco T. O.; Machado,Marina F.; Nascimento,Geraldo T. do; Alcantara,Milla R. de
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The existence of a minimum storage capacity of grains as a condition for the maintenance of regulator physical stocks has been used as a strategic factor in the agribusiness expansion. However, in Brazil the storage infrastructure has not followed the growth of the agricultural sector. This fact is evident in the case of soybeans that currently represent 49% of grain production in the country, whose volume production has been increasing significantly over the years. This study aimed to predict the futureneeds of static storage capacity of soybeans from historical data to estimate the investment needed to install storage units in Brazil for the next five years. A statistic analysis of collected data allowed a forecast and identification of the number of storage units that should be installed to meet the storage needs of soybeans in the next five years. It was concluded that by 2015 the soybean storage capacity should be 87 million tons, and to store 49% of soybeans produced, 1,104 storage units should be installed at a cost of R$ 442 million.

Influence of the sample area in the variability of losses in the mechanical harvesting of soybeans

Loureiro Júnior,Antônio M.; Silva,Rouverson P. da; Cassia,Marcelo T.; Compagnon,Ariel M.; Voltarelli,Murilo A.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
The mechanical harvesting is an important stage in the production process of soybeans and, in this process; the loss of a significant number of grains is common. Despite the existence of mechanisms to monitor these losses, it is still essential to use sampling methods to quantify them. Assuming that the size of the sample area affects the reliability and variability between samples in quantifying losses, this paper aimed to analyze the variability and feasibility of using different sizes of sample area (1, 2 and 3 m²) in quantifying losses in the mechanical harvesting of soybeans. Were sampled 36 sites and the cutting losses, losses by other mechanisms of the combine and total losses were evaluated, as well as the water content in seeds, straw distribution and crop productivity. Data were subjected to statistical analysis (descriptive statistics and analysis of variance) and Statistical Control Process (SCP). The coefficients of variation were similar for the three frames available. Combine losses showed stable behavior, whereas cutting losses and total losses showed unstable behavior. The frame size did not affect the quantification and variability of losses in the mechanical harvesting of soybeans, thus a frame of 1 m² can be used for determining losses.

Variations in weed population densities, rate of change and community diversity in RR-soybeans and RR-maize strip crops under two herbicide strategies

Leguizamón,E.S.; Verdelli,D.M.; Acciaresi,H.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Concerns about the sustainability of large-scale, direct-drilled RR-soybeans (Glycine max), and RR-maize (Zea mays) under monoculture in central Argentina are growing steadily. An experiment was conducted during three consecutive years to determine the effects of crops and systems (monocultures and strips) and herbicide strategy on weed density, population rate of change (l), b community diversity (H´), crop yields and Land Equivalent Ratio (LER). Not only crops but also crop systems differentially influenced weed densities along their growth and development. For crop harvests, weed densities increased in both maize crop systems as compared to in the one for soybeans, but the lowest increase occurred in soybean strips. Differences were leveled by both herbicide strategies, which achieved 73% efficacy during the critical periods in both crops. l of annual monocotyledonous increased, thus shifting the weed community composition. Species richness and H´ were not affected by crop systems, but both herbicide strategies, particularly POST, either in soybeans in monoculture or in maize strips, significantly enhanced H´. Crop yields significantly increased in the maize-strip system with POST (Year 1) or PRE (Years 2 and 3) strategies, thus increasing LER above 1. Herbicide Environmental Load treatments fall within very low or low field use rating.

Impacts of the U.S. subsidy to soybeans on World prices, production and exports

Brandão,Antônio Salazar P.; Lima,Elcyon Caiado Rocha
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2006 EN
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This paper specifies and estimates an econometric model of the soybean market (grain, oil and meal) to assess the effects of U.S. domestic support to soybeans on world soybean prices, production and exports. The model divides the world into five regions (modules): Argentina, Brazil, the European Union, the United States (US) and the Rest of the World (ROW). There are interactions between the modules through the international prices and the net exports of each soybean product. The international prices of grain, oil and meal are endogenous and are determined equating net exports of the first four modules (Argentina, Brazil, European Union and the U.S.) to net imports of the ROW. The analysis is conducted eliminating the U.S. domestic support to soybeans and simulating the impacts on the variables of interest. The simulations show a significant impact of the US subsidy to soybeans on world prices and net exports of the four selected regions.

Production of Aflatoxin on Soybeans

Gupta, S. K.; Venkitasubramanian, T. A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1975 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Probable factors influencing resistance to aflatoxin synthesis in soybeans have been investigated by using cultures of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 3240. Soybeans contain a small amount of zinc (0.01 μg/g) bound to phytic acid. Autoclaving soybeans at 15 pounds (6803.88 g) for 15 min increases the aflatoxin production, probably by making zinc available. Addition of zinc to both autoclaved and nonautoclaved soybeans promotes aflatoxin production. However, addition of varying levels of phytic acid at a constant concentration of zinc depresses aflatoxin synthesis with an increase in the added phytic acid. In a synthetic medium known to give good yields of aflatoxin, the addition of phytic acid (10 mM) decreases aflatoxin synthesis.

Soybeans Ameliolate Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

Choi, Young Eun; Ahn, Soo Kyung; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong Eun; Park, Seung Hwa; Yoon, Bang Bu; Park, Kyung Ah
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent and serious complications of diabetes mellitus. Soybeans have been shown to reduce urinary albumin excretion and total cholesterol in non-diabetic patients with nephrotic syndrome. However, reports focusing specifically on diabetic nephropathy are scarce and the available results are inconsistent. It was reported that soybean consumption reduced urinary protein excretion in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy, whereas it was found to elicit an increase in urinary protein excretion when soybeans were consumed by type 2 diabetic patients. This study aims to investigate the effects of soybean in diabetic nephropathy, particularly the effects of consuming soybeans on the histopathology of diabetic nephropathy, using aquaporin (AQP) and osteopontin (OPN) expression as diagnostic markers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three groups: control, diabetic with red chow diet and diabetic with soybean diet. For histological examination, the expression of OPN and AQP, renal function and hemoglobin A1c were evaluated at the end of the study. Improvements in glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were demonstrated in the diabetic rat group given a soybean diet. OPN and AQP expression were suppressed in the kidney specimens of diabetic rats with the soybean diet. In conclusion...

Distribution of the Long-Horned Beetle, Dectes texanus, in Soybeans of Missouri, Western Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas

Tindall, Kelly V.; Stewart, Scott; Musser, Fred; Lorenz, Gus; Bailey, Wayne; House, Jeff; Henry, Robert; Hastings, Don; Wallace, Milus; Fothergill, Kent
Fonte: University of Wisconsin Library Publicador: University of Wisconsin Library
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/10/2010 EN
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The long-horned beetle, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a stem-boring pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill (Fabales: Fabaceae). Soybean stems and stubble were collected from 131 counties in Arkansas, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee and dissected to determine D. texanus infestation rates. All states sampled had D. texanus present in soybeans. Data from Tennessee and Arkansas showed sample infestations of D. texanus averaging nearly 40%. Samples from Missouri revealed higher infestation in the twelve southeastern counties compared to the rest of the state. Data from Mississippi suggested that D. texanus is not as problematic there as in Arkansas, Missouri, and Tennessee. Infestation rates from individual fields varied greatly (0–100%) within states. In Tennessee, second crop soybeans (i.e. soybeans planted following winter wheat) had lower infestations than full season soybeans. A map of pest distribution is presented that documents the extent of the problem, provides a baseline from which changes can be measured, contributes data for emergency registration of pesticides for specific geographic regions, and provides useful information for extension personnel, crop scouts, and growers.

Standardized chungkookjang, short-term fermented soybeans with Bacillus lichemiformis, improves glucose homeostasis as much as traditionally made chungkookjang in diabetic rats

Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Suna; Kim, Da Sol; Daily, James W.; Jeong, Do Youn; Kwon, Dae Young; Park, Sunmin
Fonte: the Society for Free Radical Research Japan Publicador: the Society for Free Radical Research Japan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.11%
As the traditional homemade chungkookjang is replaced by standardized chungkookjang fermented by inoculating Bacillus spp., it is desirable to maintain the anti-diabetic efficacy of the most potent traditional varieties. Preliminary in vitro research suggested that anti-diabetic efficacy can be achieved by using B. lichemiformis as a starter and fermenting for 48 h. Experimental type 2 diabetic male rats induced by partial pancreatectomy and high fat diets were administered either control diet, 10% cooked soybeans, 10% traditional chungkookjang with potent anti-diabetic efficacy, or standardized chungkookjang fermented with B. lichemiformis for 48 h. Rats were fed their respective diets for 8 weeks after surgery. Cooked soybeans as well as both chungkookjangs partially restored fasting serum glucose concentrations, but only the chungkoojangs increased fasting insulin levels. That trend was also seen in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamp and was explained by the greater β-cell mass and BrdU incorporation indicating increased proliferation of β-cells. The euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp indicated that all soy products improved insulin sensitivity. Phosphorylation of Akt and AMPK in the liver increased in an ascending order of the control...

Evaluation of the Relative Ureide Content of Xylem Sap as an Indicator of N2 Fixation in Soybeans: GREENHOUSE STUDIES 1

McClure, Peter R.; Israel, Daniel W.; Volk, Richard J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1980 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The use of the relative ureide content of xylem sap [(ureide-N/total N) × 100] as an indicator of N2 fixation in soybeans (Merr.) was examined under greenhouse conditions. Acetylene treatments to inhibit N2 fixation were imposed upon the root systems of plants totally dependent upon N2 fixation as their source of N and of plants dependent upon both N2 fixation and uptake of exogenous nitrate. Significant decreases in the total N concentration of xylem sap from plants of the former type were observed, but no significant decrease was observed in the total N concentration of sap from the latter type of plants. In both types of plants, acetylene treatment caused significant decreases in the relative ureide content of xylem sap. The results provided further support for a link between the presence of ureides in the xylem and the occurrence of N2 fixation in soybeans. The relative ureide content of xylem sap from plants totally dependent upon N2 fixation was shown to be insensitive to changes in the exudation rate and total N concentration of xylem sap brought about by diurnal changes in environmental factors. There was little evidence of soybean cultivars or nodulating strains affecting the relative ureide content of xylem sap. `Ransom' soybeans nodulated with Rhizobium japonicum strain USDA 110 were grown under conditions to obtain plants exhibiting a wide range of dependency upon N2 fixation. The relative ureide content of xylem sap was shown to indicate reliably the N2 fixation of these plants during vegetative growth using a 15N method to measure N2 fixation activity. The use of the relative ureide content of xylem sap for quantification of N2 fixation in soybeans should be evaluated further.

Metabolite changes during natural and lactic acid bacteria fermentations in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna Austen; Østlie, Hilde Marit; Mwangwela, Agnes Mbachi; Wicklund, Trude
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The effect of natural and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation processes on metabolite changes in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends was studied. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and were fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LFP). LAB fermentation processes were facilitated through back-slopping using a traditional fermented gruel, thobwa as an inoculum. Naturally fermented pastes were designated 100S, 90S, and 75S, while LFP were designated 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS. All samples, except 75SBS, showed highest increase in soluble protein content at 48 h and this was highest in 100S (49%) followed by 90SBS (15%), while increases in 100SBS, 90S, and 75S were about 12%. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in total amino acids throughout fermentation were attributed to cysteine in 100S and 90S; and methionine in 100S and 90SBS. A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed. Increases in free amino acids throughout fermentation were observed in glutamate (NFP and 75SBS), GABA and alanine (LFP). Lactic acid was 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher in LFP than in NFP...

Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Østlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude
Fonte: Wiley Periodicals Inc Publicador: Wiley Periodicals Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans.

The Effects of Temperature on Pratylenchus scribneri and P. alleni Populations on Soybeans and Tomatoes

Dickerson, O. J.
Fonte: Society of Nematologists Publicador: Society of Nematologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1979 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.11%
In soil temperature tests, rates of Pratylenchus scribneri and P. alleni reproduction were measured at various lemperatures on 'Clark 63' and 'Cutler 71' soybeans and 'Rutgers' tomatoes. Recovered P. scribneri equaled or exceeded initial inoculum levels at temperatures of 27.5 C or higher on soybeans, and at 20 C or higher on tomatoes. Population increases were greatest at 3.5 C on both hosts. Populations increased on soybeans, but not on tomatoes, when soil temperature was raised from 25 to 35 C for either 3 or 9 days. Recovered P. alleni were less than the initial inoculum at 27.5 C but higher at 32 and 37.5 C and at 27.5 C on tomatoes, the lowest temperature tested for this nematode. In the field, soil temperatures 10 cm deep in eastern Kansas soybean growing areas reach 27.5 C only occasionally and for relatively short periods, which probably explains the relatively low and variable populations of P. scribneri and P. alleni on soybeans there.