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The ambivalent empire : Soviet rule in the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, 1945-1964

BECH HANSEN, Claus
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.76%
This thesis analyses the functioning of Soviet rule in the Uzbek Soviet republic from 1945 to 1964. Thereby, it focuses on the effects of two fundamental forces that characterised Soviet rule in Uzbekistan: On the one hand, the Moscow leadership held a strong claim to power resulting in quasi-imperial practices to ensure the implementation of central government interests in the Uzbek Soviet republic. On the other hand, even during the Stalinist dictatorship, the Uzbek periphery was subject to a continuous integration into the Soviet Union through central government investment in all spheres of the country in the name of communism. This ambivalence of Soviet rule was accompanied by the condition of limited statehood. Yet, instead of merely understanding limited statehood as a sign of weakness of the Soviet state or as opposition to the Soviet project on side of the Uzbeks, the thesis uses limited statehood as an analytical concept to provide a better understanding of the centre-periphery relations in the Soviet Union. The thesis thus contributes to a growing body of literature on the late-Stalin and the Khrushchev periods and sheds light not only on the tremendous changes Soviet rule had for Uzbek society, but also on the changes and continuities in its form under Stalin and Khrushchev.; Examining Board: Professor Stephen Anthony Smith...

Cuba's involvement in Angola and Ethiopia: a question of autonomy in Cuba's relationship with the Soviet Union

Kessler, Stephanie Schehara
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: viii, 116 p. ; maps.
EN_US
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This thesis examines Cuban involvement in Angola and Ethiopia in light of Cuba's Foreign policy and Cuban Soviet relations. Utilizing the two case studies, it analyzes the degree to which Cuban activities in Africa were Soviet directed or Soviet sponsored. The conclusion is that Cuba exhibited substantial relative autonomy in Angola, but limited autonomy in Ethiopia. That conclusion is applied to Cuba in the 1990's, in which the current wave of democracy spreading throughout Eastern Europe and the improved relations between the Soviet Union and the United States have resulted in increased pressures on Cuba's foreign and domestic policies. Four scenarios are posited for Cuba's future. Finally, the thesis discusses whether the levels of autonomy attained in the 1970's can be equalled in the 1990's . A superpower who supplies a country with economic and military aid does not necessarily buy the right to wield coercive influence over that country's foreign or domestic policy. However, the aid that is provided may have a significant impact on the capabilities of the country. In the case of Cuba, without Soviet assistance in the early 1970's in building up and training the Cuban Armed Forces...

The rise and fall of Soviet influence in Egypt

Bradford, Gregory Hale
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited; Russia has desired a foothold in the Middle East since the time of Peter the Great. Russia wanted access to the Middle East for both military and commerical reasons. This foreign policy objective met with varying degrees of success until the mid 1950' s when it appeared that the Soviet Union finally had her entry into the Middle East. After the Egyptian revolt of 1952 the new government turned to the West and the United States for aid and arms. Egypt was turned down repeatedly. Egypt then turned to the USSR. By 1957 Russia had the Mid East presence she so long desired. The Soviet influence in Egypt grew to enormous proportions throughout the Nasser years. After Nasser's death in 1970 it appeared that the same strong relationship would continue between Egypt and the Soviet Union, but that was not to be. Russia had failed to understand the Egyptian people and the Egyptian government and had failed to deliver the kind of arms and aid that Sadat requested. In 1972 Sadat expelled most of the Russian advisors and technicians and the relationship began a steady decline until the spring of 1976 when there was a virtual break between the Egyptians and the Russians. Now (after 1975) Egypt has turned to the West once again. The United States has an opportunity to regain valuable lost ground in Egypt and the Middle East. The US must learn from the lessons of the recent past and deal pragmatically with Egypt's requests for arms and aid in order to re-establish lost American influence and prestige in Egypt.; http://archive.org/details/risefallofsoviet00brad; Major...

Sino-Soviet detente: new challenge to American interests in Asia

Winterford, David
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 40 p.
EN_US
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56.63%
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This report was prepared in conjunction with research conducted under the Naval Postgraduate School Research Council.; This report analyzes the intensifying challenges that Sino-Soviet detente poses for American interests and policies in the Asia-Pacific. It addresses and evaluates Soviet President Gorbachev's successful efforts at making China the centerpiece of his Asian strategy. Although both Beijing and Moscow disingenuously argue that Sino-Soviet detente will not affect their relations with the U.S. this report indicates that substantial harm has already occurred to U.S. interests in Asia as a result of Soviet and Chinese rapprochement. The report examines the widening and deepening range of Sino- Soviet political and economic ties, and states that prospective cooperative military exchanges between the two Asian communist states must now be considered likely. This assessment of Sino-Soviet detente given in this report indicates that the balance of power may be shifting in Asia in ways unfavorable to the U. S. Finally, the report calls for a recognition by U.S. decision-makers that the apparent anti-Soviet coalition forged by the U.S. in Asia, consisting of the U. S....

Vietnam and the Soviet Union: implications for Europe and American foreign policy options

Boudreau, Robert Nelson
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 126 p.: ill.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.46%
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited; This thesis concludes that Soviet expenditures in Indochina, particularly Vietnam, have significantly reduced assets and options available to the USSR in Europe. Economic, military, and political expenditures are assessed. Tradeoffs between the Soviet Union's Indochina resource commitments and European limitations are established. Based on these tradeoffs, three policy options for the United States in South-East Asia are formulated -- hardline, low key, and minimal involvement. A 'low key' option, with emphasis on diplomatic and economic instruments, is recommended as preferrable to military means. (Author); http://archive.org/details/vietnamsovietuni00boud; Captain, United States Air Force

The Missing Link The Transition from Education to Labour in the Soviet Union Revisited

REITER, Herwig
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 260630 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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56.54%
The post-communist assessment of communist youth transitions to work is at risk of exaggerating the assumption of previously existing predefined and predictable channels into work. In order to allow a somewhat refined picture of the Soviet case the paper reviews the main ways, in which the Soviet system tried to take hold of young people as a human resource. They were subject to labour planning and job placement as well as education for labour. The meeting point of these two mechanisms, i.e. the intersection of labour planning and educational transitions, left considerable space for informal job matching. After introducing and discussing early roots and main institutions of Soviet labour planning, the Soviet version of educating for labour including its institutional backbone, the three-track system of education and its main destinations, is reviewed. Finally, the mechanisms and shortcomings of posteducational youth placement in the USSR are discussed. The evidence indicates that, on the one hand, educational determinism is untenable - first, due to the relative status of education within the whole complex of transition arrangements, and second due to the fact that outcome assumptions and expectations attached to the idealised internal and external 'role' of certain tracks were thwarted by its incompatibility with the economy's actual manpower needs. On the other hand...

Finding optimal design for constitutional courts: The perspective of democratization in post-soviet countries

MAZMANYAN, Armen
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
Defense date: 22/06/2009; Examining board: Ruth Rubio Marin (EUI), Wojciech Sadurski (Supervisor, EUI), Marek Safjan (University of Warsaw), András Sajo (European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg); The thesis undertakes an assessment of the institutional design of constitutional courts in postsoviet countries from the perspective of these courts' democratic contributions. After identifying the defects of the existing models frustrating a better democratic performance by these courts, the thesis proposes a perspective on their redesign. Although a variety of settings of institutional architecture of constitutional review courts is discussed throughout the text, the thesis primarily concentrates on two fundamental questions of the design of constitutional courts: 1. "political empowerment" of these courts or whether or not constitutional tribunals should have responsibilities of conflict resolving nature which de-facto involve them in partisan-type politics (such as the review of elections, jurisdictional conflicts between the separated branches of the government, impeachment cases, etc.), and 2. designation of a separate tribunal or the question whether or not the Kelsenian design of constitutional courts is optimal given the specific local challenges facing democracy and rule of law. As a point of departure...

Inventing socialist modern : a history of the architectural profession in the USSR, 1954-1971

BOCHARNIKOVA, Daria
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82%
Defence date: 22 May 2014; Examining Board: Professor Stephen Smith, EUI - Supervisor; Professor Pavel Kolář, EUI; Professor Susan E. Reid, University of Sheffield; Professor Steven E. Harris, University of Mary Washington.; This PhD thesis explores a history of multiple visions of Socialist construction as articulated by Soviet architects, mainly but not exclusively in the Khrushchev era. Most commonly, Soviet architecture of this era is associated with the return of modernist aesthetics into the architectural practice of the Soviet Union. I question both these elements: whether there was a return and whether it was to modernism. In order to examine these questions I focus on Soviet architects and their visions and trace the evolution of professional discourses and practices across the rupture of 1954 spanning the period from the early 1930s to the late 1960s. Rather than thinking of architecture simply as an aesthetic discourse and building practice that either represented the regime or failed to do so, this thesis deals with architecture as a fundamental component of the revolutionary project of building Socialism, part and parcel of the state-driven program to make the physical and social landscape of the Soviet Union modern . I refer to the professional aspirations and imperatives of Soviet architects embedded in this revolutionary project as 'Socialist Modern'. Simply put...

Satisfaction with Life and Service Delivery in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union : Some Insights from the 2006 Life in Transition Survey

Zaidi, Salman; Alam, Asad; Mitra, Pradeep; Sundaram, Ramya
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
The main objective of the Life in Transition Survey (LiTS) was to assess the impact of transition on people, and so the survey questionnaire covered four main themes. First, it collected personal information on aspects of material well-being, including household expenditures, possession of consumer goods such as a car or mobile phone, and access to local public services and utilities. Second, the survey included measures of satisfaction and attitudes towards economic and political reforms as well as public service delivery. Third, the LiTS captured individual 'histories' through transition from around 1989 to the present, especially key events and episodes that may have influenced their attitudes towards reforms, and collected information on individuals; family background, on their employment situation, and on coping strategies during transition. Finally, the survey also attempted to capture the extent to which crime and corruption are affecting peoples' lives, and the extent to which individuals' trust in other people and in state institutions has changed over time. This volume presents the main findings of three studies by World Bank economists using data from the 2006 LiTS. Chapter one examines quantitative and qualitative dimensions welfare in countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union...

Análisis de la autonomía de la política exterior cubana frente a su dependencia económica de la Unión Soviética en la década de los sesenta

Vélez Pretelt, Luis Alberto
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/07/2011 SPA
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56.46%
Esta investigación se centra exclusivamente en la relación que se dio entre Cuba y la Unión Soviética durante la década de los sesenta, situándolas no sólo en un marco estructural de dependencia, en el ámbito económico, sino también en un contexto de autonomía política en relación con dicha dependencia. Lo anterior servirá para exponer una alternativa a la idea de considerar a Cuba como un país satélite de la ex URSS, como un subordinado de la superpotencia, y más bien identificará los aspectos claves de su política exterior que permitan afirmar que efectivamente Cuba poseía autonomía política, a pesar de depender enormemente de los acuerdos comerciales con la URSS y el resto del bloque socialista.; This research focuses exclusively on the relationship between Cuba and the Soviet Union during the sixties, placing not only a structural framework of dependence in the economic sphere but also in a context of political autonomy in relation to that dependency. This will serve to present an alternative to the idea of looking at Cuba as a satellite of the former USSR, as a subordinate of the superpower, but rather identify the key aspects of its foreign policy to support the conclusion that Cuba possessed actual political autonomy despite rely heavily on trade agreements with the USSR and the rest of the socialist bloc.

Ethnic enclosure in Soviet and Post-Soviet school textbooks

Rouvinski, Vladimir
Fonte: 広島大学平和科学研究センター Publicador: 広島大学平和科学研究センター
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In this paper, we first explore the process of history writing and teaching in Soviet autonomies using the concept of ethnic enclosure as a framework to examine the way the distant past is presented in history textbooks published locally in the Soviet Union. We then show the conflicting character of ethnic historical narratives in the textbooks of rival ethnic groups and, next, discuss the legacy of the Soviet policy of ethnic enclosure as reflected in school textbooks published after the demise of the Soviet Union.

What Happened to the Soviet Superpower’s Nuclear Arsenal? Clues for the Nuclear Security Summit

Allison, Graham T.
Fonte: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Publicador: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.65%
Twenty years ago Russia and fourteen other newly-independent states emerged from the ruins of the Soviet empire, many as nations for the first time in history. As is typical in the aftermath of the collapse of an empire, this was followed by a period of chaos, confusion, and corruption. As the saying went at the time, “everything is for sale.” At that same moment, as the Soviet state imploded, 35,000 nuclear weapons remained at thousands of sites across a vast Eurasian landmass that stretched across eleven time zones. Today, fourteen of the fifteen successor states to the Soviet Union are nuclear weapons-free. When the U.S.S.R. disappeared, 3,200 strategic nuclear warheads remained in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus, most of them atop intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) that stood on alert, ready to be fired at targets in the U.S. Today, every one of the nuclear weapons in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus has been deactivated and returned to Russia, where they were dismantled and the nuclear material in the warheads blended down to produce fuel for civilian reactors. Strategic nuclear weapons are nuclear warheads aimed at an adversary’s nuclear weapons, cities and military infrastructure. Typically, they are large in yield and heavy. Of greater interest to terrorists...

Transnational Fordism. Ford Motor Company, Nazi Germany, and the Soviet Union in the Interwar Years

Link, Stefan
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
This historical dissertation investigates the international proliferation of Fordism in politically illiberal settings during the 1920s and 1930s. Based on American, German, and Soviet primary sources, it is the first archive-based study of this process. The dissertation's main finding is that the implementation of Ford's ideas and practices was a key component of illiberal modernization drives - that is, projects of state-led economic growth which explicitly fashioned themselves as alternatives to Western liberal capitalism. This point of view is a departure from previous accounts of the global success of Fordism, which subsume the story under the spread of American market capitalism or portray it as a process of quasi-self-explanatory technology transfer. It is also distinct from the well-known approach in history and the social sciences that describes Fordism as a specifically capitalist production regime (in distinction to a later post-Fordism). The argument pursued here requires a re-interpretation of Ford Motor Company's position within the American corporate arena of the 1920s and 1930s. Undertaken in the opening chapter, this re-examination characterizes the production practice of Ford Motor Company as an illiberal strategic alternative to the American business mainstream. Subsequent chapters trace the reception of Ford's political and business writings abroad...

Lecture on fieldwork in the Soviet Union, 1988-9

Gellner, Ernest
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Vídeo Formato: 437121916 bytes; application/octet-stream
EN_GB
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The lecture was given to a Cambridge Audience in the Rayleigh Lecture theatre in the Social and Political Sciences Faculty. Professor Gellner had flown in that morning from America. It was filmed, using a video 8 camera, by Humphrey Hinton. It was chaired by Dr. Alan Macfarlane. The video is unedited. The lecture lasts for about 65 minutes.; Public lecture given in October 1989 by Professor Ernest Gellner. He reflected on his year spent in the Soviet Union on the eve of the collapse of communism.

Análise histórica sobre o desenvolvimento da Arquivologia na antiga União Soviética (1918-1985); Historical analysis about the development of the Archival Science in the Former Soviet Union (1918-1985)

Santos Junior, Roberto Lopes dos
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.46%
Estudo histórico identificando a evolução da Arquivologia na antiga União Soviética entre a revolução bolchevique de 1917 até meados dos anos 1980. Inicialmente, a pesquisa analisará o desenvolvimento e constituição da Arquivologia russa, da idade média até os últimos anos do czarismo no país. Posteriormente, será discutida a consolidação da Arquivística russa nas primeiras décadas da URSS, passando pelas primeiras legislações, congressos e cursos instituídos no país, além de um longo período de fechamento e repressão promovido pelo líder Josef Stalin entre os anos 1930 e 1940. Por fim será estudado o período de parcial reestruturação da Arquivologia no país entre as décadas de 1950 e 1980, analisando as iniciativas do governo comunista em tentar reorganizar e institucionalizar as práticas arquivísticas e os acervos documentais existentes na União Soviética, além da identificação de alguns problemas e impasses em que a Arquivologia soviética sofria nesse período.; Historical study identifying the evolution of the Archival Science in the former Soviet Union, between the Bolshevik revolution in 1917 until 1985. Initially, the research will examine the development and establishment of the Archival Science in Russia...

From Massenlieder to Massovaia Pesnia: Musical Exchanges between Communists and Socialists of Weimar Germany and the Early Soviet Union

Lowry, Yana
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.76%

Group songs with direct political messages rose to enormous popularity during the interwar period (1918-1939), particularly in recently-defeated Germany and in the newly-established Soviet Union. This dissertation explores the musical relationship between these two troubled countries and aims to explain the similarities and differences in their approaches to collective singing. The discussion of the very complex and problematic relationship between the German left and the Soviet government sets the framework for the analysis of music. Beginning in late 1920s, as a result of Stalin's abandonment of the international revolutionary cause, the divergences between the policies of the Soviet government and utopian aims of the German communist party can be traced in the musical propaganda of both countries.

There currently exists no scholarly literature providing a wide-ranging view of the German and Soviet musical exchange during the 1920s and 30s. The paucity of comprehensive studies is especially apparent in the English-language scholarship on German and Russian mass music, also known as "music for the people." Even though scholars have produced works devoted to the Soviet and Weimar mass music movements in isolation, they rarely explore the musical connections between the two countries. The lack of scholarship exploring the musical exchanges between the Soviet Union and Germany suggests that scholars have not yet fully examined the influences that the Soviet and German mass songs and their proponents had on each other during the 1920s and 1930s. Exposing these musical influences provides a valuable perspective on the broader differences and similarities between the Soviet and German communist parties. The connections between Soviet and German songs went beyond straightforward translations of propaganda texts from one language to another; the musical and textual transformations--such as word changes...

The Second Economy and the Destabilizing Effect of Its Growth on the State Economy in the Soviet Union, 1965-1989

Treml, Vladimir; Alexeev, Michael
Fonte: SSRN eLibrary Publicador: SSRN eLibrary
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 224517 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1993 EN_US
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56.39%
The authors suggest that the rapid growth of the illegal underground economy in 1970s and 1980s has destabilized the Soviet state economy and weakened the mechanism of central planning. This hypothesis is advanced on the basis of the examination of striking decline in income (legal) elasticities of demand for a number of consumer goods purchased in state retail trade in Russia and Ukraine. The growth of income from illegal sources and purchases of consumer goods in black markets explains this phenomenon.

American perceptions of destalinisation and leadership change in the Soviet Union, 1953-56: from Stalin’s death to the Hungarian uprising

Ullrich, Weston
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em /12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
Destalinisation was the process of enormous change that began in the wake of Stalin’s death. Whilst it has been heavily studied from the Soviet perspective, it has not been examined from the American standpoint. This thesis fills that gap. It took until 1956 for Eisenhower and Dulles to alter their perceptions of the USSR and its ideology despite the years of change that followed Stalin’s death. This thesis explains how the majority of policymakers rejected signals of change in the USSR until 1956. There were numerous reasons for this: domestic politics, relations with allies, and public opinion all played a role. But the key factor in preventing a change in mindset was an engrained perception of the Soviet leaders as Stalinists. While the Soviet leadership after 1953 rejected the hallmarks of Stalinism, the Eisenhower administration understood such signals of change within a mindset that saw the Soviets as unreconstructed communists, expansionist in aims, conspiratorial in methods, and, above all, out to destroy the West. This perception was in effect a mental ‘dam’, which held back any substantial perception change in Washington. By 1956, however, a new perception of destalinisation, and by extension Soviet Communism, came into being. The Eisenhower administration no longer rejected out of hand the changes the Soviet leadership enacted both domestically and in foreign relations. Eisenhower and Dulles found sufficient evidence to question whether the rigid view of Soviet Communism and its aims was accurate or useful. The 20th Party Congress caused serious cracks in the ‘dam'. Two of these ‘cracks’ were in the minds if Eisenhower and Dulles...

Our sacred duty: the Soviet Union, the liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies, and the Cold War, 1961-1975

Telepneva, Natalia
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em /10/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.73%
In 1961, a series of uprisings exploded in Angola, Portugal’s largest colony in Africa. A struggle for the independence of all the Portuguese colonies in Africa followed, organized by the national liberation movements: the MPLA, FNLA, and UNITA in Angola, FRELIMO in Mozambique, and the PAIGC in Guinea-Bissau. The wars would end in 1974, following a military coup d'état in Lisbon and the dissolution of the Portuguese dictatorship during the Carnation Revolution. This thesis explores fourteen years of anti-colonial campaigns: the people who led the liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies, the cadres these leaders encountered in Moscow, East Berlin, Prague, Sofia, and Warsaw, and the international environment they faced. It begins by looking at contacts forged between Soviet cadres and African nationalist leaders from Portuguese colonies in the late 1950s, before offering detailed analysis of why the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia offered assistance to the MPLA and the PAIGC in 1961, the same year Angola erupted into spasms of racial violence and the Soviet Union and the United States locked horns over the status of West Berlin. The subsequent chapters analyze the evolution of Soviet relations with the liberation movements during the 1960s and 1970s...

Neutrality and alignment: Selected aspects of Swedish and Norweigan foreign policies toward the Soviet Union, 1987-1991.

Gunn, Trevor Julian
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.84%
The chief aim of the thesis is to develop a clearer understanding of the factors which affect a state leadership's tendencies to behave in particular ways towards other states. It seeks to compare and contrast the effect of different security policy choices upon the Swedish and Norwegian leaders' attitudes, approach and diplomatic style towards the Soviet Union. The aim is to observe important differences and similarities in the responses to largely equivalent stimuli across a cross-section of issue areas most relevant for the Scandinavians' respective bilateral relationships with the Soviet Union. More precisely, what difference does Sweden's choice to pursue neutrality and Norway's decision to become a member of NATO make in their respective relations to a superpower. Based upon the secondary literature on alliances and neutrality, several working hypotheses which are proposed to affect Sweden's and Norway's relationship with the Soviet Union were generated: most important to a neutral power is that it be seen to pursue a credible policy of indifference in relation to the East-West Cold War; actions which may be interpreted as being partial to either side of East-West conflict will be avoided; as a neutral Sweden must defend its territorial integrity. Finally...