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A intervenção cubana em Angola revisitada

Silva, Sérgio Vieira da
Fonte: Edições Universitárias Lusófonas Publicador: Edições Universitárias Lusófonas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Documentos entretanto desclassificados nos arquivos cubanos e russos permitem um novo olhar sobre a intervenção cubana em Angola. Esta não só foi decidida autonomamente pelos cubanos, como teve, evidentemente o beneplácito sociético. Porém, essa mesma operação político-militar não foi produto das circunstâncias, antes se enquadrando nas tradicionais linhas orientadoras da política externa do regime castrista.; Declassified documents released by Cuban and Russion archives allow a new look at the Cuban intervention in Angola. Not only the intervention was not decided autonomously by the Cubans, but it was not product of circumstances, rather integrating the traditional guiding lines of the foreign policy of the Castrist regime.

Soviet and Western Bloc Competition in the Less Developed World and the Collapse of Détente

Rivero, Douglas
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.86%
The purpose of my dissertation was to examine the competition between the U.S.-led Western bloc and the Soviet bloc in the less developed world during Détente. I assessed whether or not the Soviet bloc pushed for strategic gains in the less developed world in the middle-to-late 1970’s and whether this contributed to the U.S. decision to abandon Détente in 1979. I made the attempt to test the international relations theory of balance of threat realism (Walt, 1992). I accomplished the test in two ways. First, I measured the foreign aid allocations (military and economic) made by each respective bloc towards the Third World by using a quantitative approach. Second, I examined U.S. archives using the process-tracing/historical method. The U.S. archives gave me the ability to evaluate how U.S. decision-makers and U.S. intelligence agencies interpreted the actions of the Soviet bloc. They also gave me the chance to examine the U.S. response as we evaluated the policies that were pushed by key U.S. decision-makers and intelligence agencies. On the question of whether or not the Soviet bloc was aggressive, the quantitative evidence suggested that it was not. Instead, the evidence found the Western-bloc to have been more aggressive in the less developed world. The U.S. archives also showed Soviet actions to have been defensive. Key U.S. decision-makers and intelligence agencies attested to this. Finally...

Socialist High Modernity and Global Stagnation: A shared history of Brazil and the Soviet Union during the Cold War

RUPPRECHT, Tobias
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.49%
This article questions a prevailing bipolarity of traditional Cold War History by examining commonalities and interactions between the Soviet Union and Brazil in the 1950s and 60s. After outlining the common characteristics of both states around 1960, it analyses the cultural diplomacy of the post-Stalinist Soviet Union towards Brazil. Transforming its hitherto prevailing image as the cradle of world revolution and communist class struggle, the USSR now represented itself as a role model for the quick industrialisation of the economy and education of the masses. Many Brazilian intellectuals and political reformers from Presidents Kubitschek to Goulart shared with the Soviets an interest in what is called here Socialist High Modernity. Contacts with the Soviet Union were a chief reason for the putsch and the end of Brazilian democracy in 1964. But the new military leaders also had their own interests in and surprisingly good relations with the stagnating Soviet Union – again based on a set of commonalities in the historical development of the two ostensibly idiosyncratic and distant states on either side of the Iron Curtain. Eschewing teleological interpretations of the period and exploring the ideational basis of actors in the conflict...

NPS Professor Given Rare Access to Turkmen Archives

Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office
Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Faculty Showcase News Article; Nestled among the high plains, nearly impenetrable mountains, and black sands of Central Asia sits an ancient, but little known nation. Turkmenistan is one of the five countries of former Soviet Central Asia, and like its neighbors, it is struggling to redefine itself and take its place in the region and the world.

German disruption of Soviet Command, Control and Communications in Barbarossa, 1941

Stolfi, Russel H.S.; Ratley, Lonnie O.; O'Neill, John F.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The authors examine the German plans for Operation Barbarossa and the combat operations of the first five weeks of war in the East in June-July. The Germans achieved enormous success i n the opening stages of the offensive including the shattering o f Soviet command, control, and communications (c3). The purpose of the study was to determine the means by which the Germans disrupted Soviet C3 and the resulting possible use of Barbarossa as a model for the Soviets in disrupting NATO C3 in the opening stages of a Warsaw Pact offensive in Central Europe today. The study is based on interviews with German participants in Barbarossa and documents in the federal German military archives at Freiburg. The study supports the following generalizations: (1) The German planners of Barbarossa did not have sufficient intelligence of the Soviet armed forces, their relatively primitive C3 system, and the communications system of the Soviet states to consider as a vital part of their planning the deliberate paralysis of the Soviet armed forces. (2) The Germans were determined, particularly in the central front opposite their most powerful concentration of forces, to prevent the escape of the powerful peacetime armies in to the hinterland of Russia. (3) German military operations concentrated...

Cultural Heritage in States of Transition: Authorities, Entrepreneurs and Sound Archives in Ukraine

Potoczniak, Anthony G.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 232 p.; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
Since Ukraine's independence, a burgeoning private sector has been increasingly encroaching in cultural spaces that previously were conceived of as "property of the state." This dissertation is an ethnographic account of how objects of cultural heritage are being re-configured within the new post-Soviet economy. Specifically, it focuses on sound archive field recordings of traditional music and how they are being transformed into cultural commodities. Regarding the jurisdiction of culture - who controls cultural heritage and how it is used to represent ethnic and national identity - my research shows how these boundaries are increasingly being negotiated within structures of social, cultural and political power. Thus, culture becomes a contested object between competing ideological systems: cultural heritage as a means to salvage and reconstruct repressed histories and to revive former national traditions, on the one hand, and cultural heritage as a creative, future-oriented force to construct new identities in growing consumer marketplaces.

New light on the Russo-Japanese territorial dispute

Hara, Kimie
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 95464 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
The territorial dispute between Japan and Russia, known as the 'Northern Territories' problem, is the biggest obstacle preventing the two nations from improving their relations. In 1994 an important and long-sealed document regarding this issue was found at the Australian Archives. Published not long after the end of World War II, this Japanese Government booklet might shed new light towards understanding the nature of this problem over the passage of a half century. The paper discusses the territorial problem, including the findings from the booklet, especially in the context of the shifting balance between the bilateral and multilateral dimensions of the problem.; no

Soviet and Western bloc competition in the less developed world and the collapse of Detente

Rivero, Douglas
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
The purpose of my dissertation was to examine the competition between the U.S.-led Western bloc and the Soviet bloc in the less developed world during Détente. I assessed whether or not the Soviet bloc pushed for strategic gains in the less developed world in the middle-to-late 1970's and whether this contributed to the U.S. decision to abandon Détente in 1979. I made the attempt to test the international relations theory of balance of threat realism (Walt, 1992).^ I accomplished the test in two ways. First, I measured the foreign aid allocations (military and economic) made by each respective bloc towards the Third World by using a quantitative approach. Second, I examined U.S. archives using the process-tracing/historical method. The U.S. archives gave me the ability to evaluate how U.S. decision-makers and U.S. intelligence agencies interpreted the actions of the Soviet bloc. They also gave me the chance to examine the U.S. response as we evaluated the policies that were pushed by key U.S. decision-makers and intelligence agencies.^ On the question of whether or not the Soviet bloc was aggressive, the quantitative evidence suggested that it was not. Instead, the evidence found the Western-bloc to have been more aggressive in the less developed world. The U.S. archives also showed Soviet actions to have been defensive. Key U.S. decision-makers and intelligence agencies attested to this. Finally...

Le système et la législation archivistiques en Russie : 20 ans après la fin de l’Union Soviétique

Barreau, Ivan
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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26.57%
Pour gérer les complexes documentaires générés au cours de son histoire, chaque pays crée un système archivistique constitué d’organes directeurs, de centres de conservation ainsi que d’institutions auxiliaires. Ce système interagit avec les gouvernements pour la gestion des documents des organismes d’État ainsi que des archives historiques. Il se développe différemment suivant les aléas de l’évolution politique, sociale et économique nationale. Au XXe siècle, l’Union Soviétique possédait un système archivistique original, basé sur des principes maximalistes de centralisation totale des archives. Au début des années 1990, la transition politique et économique a provoqué une série de changements pour le système archivistique russe : introduction d’une législation archivistique, apparition d’un secteur privé, etc. Plus largement, le cas russe a posé la question de l’adaptation des systèmes archivistiques face au changement historique. Ce mémoire veut donner un aperçu des changements survenus dans le système archivistique russe de 1991 à 2011, à travers une étude du contexte historique, une analyse quantitative et qualitative de l’évolution de la législation archivistique, une analyse de contenu des principaux actes de cette législation...

Egon Bahr, l'Ostpolitik et la place de l'Allemagne dans un nouvel ordre européen, 1945-1975

Juneau, Jean-François
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
Cette thèse porte sur les conceptions d’Egon Bahr dans le domaine de la politique à l’Est (Ostpolitik) de la République fédérale d’Allemagne (RFA) entre 1945 et 1975. L’analyse se concentre sur le lien entre l’Ostpolitik et l’idée que Bahr se fait de la place et du rôle de l’Allemagne en Europe. Plus précisément, cette étude veut cerner les buts poursuivis par Bahr dans le cadre de la politique orientale. La première partie traite du développement conceptuel de l’Ostpolitik (1945-1969), tandis que la seconde examine sa mise en application entre l’élection de Willy Brandt comme chancelier de la RFA et la conclusion des accords d’Helsinki (1969-1975). Les principales sources utilisées sont les écrits de Bahr ainsi que des documents inédits se trouvant dans divers centres d’archives non seulement en Allemagne, mais aussi aux États-Unis, en France et en Grande-Bretagne. Pour Bahr, l’Ostpolitik ne saurait se résumer à l’élimination des obstacles qui gênent la diplomatie ouest-allemande durant la guerre froide. Bahr poursuit plutôt un projet nationaliste ambitieux dans le contexte des relations avec le bloc soviétique : créer les conditions d’une redéfinition de la place de l’Allemagne en Europe. Pour lui...

Politiques canadienne et soviétique lors de la seconde crise de Berlin 1958-1961

Rheault-Campeau, Alexis
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.49%
La seconde crise de Berlin (1958-1961) est un évènement majeur de la guerre froide. L'hypothèse de notre recherche remet en question le rôle du Canada et les perceptions négatives de l'Occident envers l'URSS durant cette crise. La recherche se divise en trois volets : premièrement, une revue de l'historiographie de la politique canadienne; deuxièmement, une présentation de la chronologie des évènements de la crise de Berlin, l'importance de la diplomatie multilatérale canadienne et la politique nucléaire de Diefenbaker; enfin, un examen de la politique étrangère soviétique. À partir de sources primaires et d'un bilan historiographique,il fut démontré que, durant la crise de Berlin, le Canada a réussi à influencer l'OTAN et à ménager les gouvernements américains et soviétiques. Quant à l'URSS, contrairement à l'image négative que l'Occident en avait, celle-ci a manifesté durant cette crise des intentions pacifiques envers l'Occident, contredisant les interprétations orthodoxes de la guerre froide.; The second Berlin crisis(1958-1961)is a major event of the Cold War. The hypothesis of our research revises the role of Canada and the negative perception of the occidental countries toward USSR during this crisis. This study is divided in three parts : firstly...

La chute et ses leçons : la métamorphose des sciences en Russie

Carette, Nicolas
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
Mémoire numérisé par la Division de la gestion de documents et des archives de l'Université de Montréal

La perception de l'URSS dans quatre quotidiens français lors de l'émergence de l'Allemagne nazie, juin 1932 — mars 1934

Dubois, Emmanuel
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.54%
Les relations franco-soviétiques font l'objet de nouvelles études depuis l'ouverture des archives russes après la chute du communisme au début des années 1990. La présente étude vise à cerner comment la presse française percevait l'URSS et ses relations avec la France entre 1932 et 1934. Cette période est cruciale, car elle correspond à l'arrivée du nazisme en Allemagne et à un certain rapprochement franco-soviétique. La prise du pouvoir par Hitler eut un impact majeur sur les relations entre les deux pays, mais ce ne fut pas toujours compris rapidement en entièrement. Les journaux analysaient la situation avec une perspective compromise par leurs opinions politiques ou leurs intérêts financiers. Néanmoins, nous observons une nette évolution de leurs points de vue sur les 21 mois étudiés ici. Cela est dû à l'aggravation de la menace allemande et à la politique menée par l'URSS et par une partie du corps politique français. Afin d'avoir un échantillon viable, nous nous intéresserons à quatre quotidiens majeurs : Le Figaro, Le Temps, Le Populaire et L'Humanité. Mis ensemble, ces journaux représentent l'essentiel du panorama politique français. Les journaux de droite se firent de moins en moins critiques vis-à-vis de l'URSS...

Contrasting responses of Central Asian rock glaciers to global warming

Sorg, Annina; Kääb, Andreas; Roesch, Andrea; Bigler, Christof; Stoffel, Markus
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.04%
While the responses of Tien Shan glaciers – and glaciers elsewhere – to climatic changes are becoming increasingly well understood, this is less the case for permafrost in general and for rock glaciers in particular. We use a novel approach to describe the climate sensitivity of rock glaciers and to reconstruct periods of high and low rock glacier activity in the Tien Shan since 1895. Using more than 1500 growth anomalies from 280 trees growing on rock glacier bodies, repeat aerial photography from Soviet archives and high-resolution satellite imagery, we present here the world's longest record of rock glacier movements. We also demonstrate that the rock glaciers exhibit synchronous periods of activity at decadal timescales. Despite the complex energy-balance processes on rock glaciers, periods of enhanced activity coincide with warm summers, and the annual mass balance of Tuyuksu glacier fluctuates asynchronously with rock glacier activity. At multi-decadal timescales, however, the investigated rock glaciers exhibit site-specific trends reflecting different stages of inactivation, seemingly in response to the strong increase in air temperature since the 1970s.

Análise histórica sobre o desenvolvimento da Arquivologia na antiga União Soviética (1918-1985); Historical analysis about the development of the Archival Science in the Former Soviet Union (1918-1985)

Santos Junior, Roberto Lopes dos
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Estudo histórico identificando a evolução da Arquivologia na antiga União Soviética entre a revolução bolchevique de 1917 até meados dos anos 1980. Inicialmente, a pesquisa analisará o desenvolvimento e constituição da Arquivologia russa, da idade média até os últimos anos do czarismo no país. Posteriormente, será discutida a consolidação da Arquivística russa nas primeiras décadas da URSS, passando pelas primeiras legislações, congressos e cursos instituídos no país, além de um longo período de fechamento e repressão promovido pelo líder Josef Stalin entre os anos 1930 e 1940. Por fim será estudado o período de parcial reestruturação da Arquivologia no país entre as décadas de 1950 e 1980, analisando as iniciativas do governo comunista em tentar reorganizar e institucionalizar as práticas arquivísticas e os acervos documentais existentes na União Soviética, além da identificação de alguns problemas e impasses em que a Arquivologia soviética sofria nesse período.; Historical study identifying the evolution of the Archival Science in the former Soviet Union, between the Bolshevik revolution in 1917 until 1985. Initially, the research will examine the development and establishment of the Archival Science in Russia...

Corruption and the Counterrevolution: the Rise and Fall of the Black Hundred

Langer, Jacob
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1135178 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2007 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
This dissertation analyzes the ideology and activities of the Black Hundred movement at the end of the Imperial period in Russia (1905-1917). It seeks to explain the reasons for the sudden, rapid expansion of Black Hundred organizations in 1905, as well as the causes of their decline, which began just two years after their appearance. It further attempts to elucidate the complex relationship between the Black Hundred and Russian authorities, including the central government and local officials. The problem is approached by offering two distinct perspectives on the Black Hundred. First, a broad overview of the movement is presented. The focus here is on the headquarter branches of Black Hundred organizations in St. Petersburg, but these chapters also look at the activities of many different provincial branches, relating trends in the provinces to events in the center in order to draw conclusions about the nature of the overall movement. Second, this dissertation offers an extended case study of the Black Hundred in the city of Odessa, where a particularly large and violent Black Hundred movement emerged in 1906. It explores the factors that made Odessa conducive to the Black Hundred, and explains events in Odessa as symptomatic of the overall condition of Black Hundred groups. The research is based primarily on material from archives in Moscow and Odessa comprising police reports and resolutions approved at national monarchist congresses. It also draws on memoirs...

"Buried in the sands of the Ogaden": The United States, the Horn of Africa and the demise of detente.

Woodroofe, Louise Prentis
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.49%
The decade of the 1970s, despite representing the era of detente, superficially appeared to be one of Soviet successes and American setbacks. From Vietnam to Angola, the USSR seemed to be gaining Marxist friends in the Third World. Because of this, the Soviet Union wanted the United States to recognize it as an equal power in the world. With such acknowledgement, the Kremlin believed that negotiations to limit the arms race would then be mutually beneficial. On the other hand. President Nixon and Secretary of State Kissinger interpreted detente as a series of agreements and compromises to draw Moscow into an international system through which the United States could exercise some control over Soviet foreign relations, particularly with the Third World. These differing interpretations would prove to be the inherent flaw of detente and nowhere was this better illustrated than in the conflict in the Horn of Africa in 1974-78. This dissertation aims to trace the responses of the Ford and Carter administrations to events in the Horn of Africa and their ultimate effect on Soviet-American bilateral relations. Through archival research at the Ford and Carter Libraries, the National Archives and Records Administration, the National Security Archive...

Yugoslav-Soviet relations, 1953-1957: Normalization, comradeship, confrontation.

Rajak, Svetozar
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.49%
The thesis chronologically presents the slow improvement of relations between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, starting with Stalin's death on 5 March 1953, through their full normalization in 1955 and 1956, to the renewed ideological confrontation at the end of 1956. The normalization of Yugoslav-Soviet relations brought to an end a conflict between Yugoslavia and the Eastern Bloc, in existence since 1948, which threatened the status quo in Europe. The thesis represents the first effort at comprehensively presenting the reconciliation between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, between 1953 and 1957. It will also explain the motives that guided the leaderships of the two countries, in particular the two main protagonists, Josip Broz Tito and Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, throughout this process. It will also provide insight into the reasons behind the collapse of this process in the beginning of 1957. The thesis will establish that the significance of the Yugoslav-Soviet reconciliation went far beyond the bilateral relations between the two countries. It had significant ramifications on relations in the Eastern Bloc and in the global Communist movement, and on the dynamics of the Cold War world at its crucial juncture. The reconciliation had brought forward the process of de-Stalinization in the USSR and in Peoples' Democracies; it had also encouraged the process of liberalization throughout Eastern Europe and had helped Khrushchev win the post-Stalin leadership contest. Finally...

The Cold War and the change in the nature of military power.

Peterson, Lee M
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
The fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989 was called by many observers of international affairs the end of the Cold War. However, fifteen years earlier, commentators such as Alistair Buchan had also declared the end of the Cold War. Was this just an premature error on Buchan's part or is there a link between the events of the early 1970s, which is referred to as the era of detente and those leading up to the collapse of the Berlin Wall. It is the intention of this thesis to argue that these periods are integrally related mainly by the fact that they were each periods when one of the two superpowers was forced to reevaluate their foreign policies. The re-evaluations were brought about by changes in the international arena, most importantly a change in the nature of military power. Because the two superpowers were to recognize the change in the nature of military power at different times, it was not until both the United States and the Soviet Union had re-evaluated and altered their foreign policies was the Cold War really over. This thesis will firstly discuss the theoretical approaches to International Relations and the issue of power. It will then identify and define this change in the nature of military power by tracing the evolution of war and conflict in the past century. The thesis then trace the development of both US and Soviet foreign policy from the origin of the Cold War...

Bulgaria in British foreign policy 1943-1949.

Stankova, Marietta
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.44%
The thesis analyses Britain's political involvement in Bulgaria during 1943 - 1949. It explores Britain's motives for seeking increased influence in the country and traces the most significant British attempts to shape Bulgarian politics. It examines British strategic decisions and diplomatic activities in Bulgaria against the background of the evolving domestic political situation and of Soviet objectives in the Balkans. Evidence from British archives is tested against recently released Bulgarian and Russian sources. The study clarifies problems central to the interpretation of post-war Bulgarian developments and addresses the question of British attitudes to the whole of Eastern Europe. Bulgaria's marginal place in British political and military thinking is found to be at odds with the country's recognised strategic importance. Towards the end of the Second World War, Bulgaria attracted the attention of the British Government occasionally, mostly in the context of broader regional issues such as that of the Balkan Federation. Although the realisation of limited capabilities to influence Bulgarian developments coloured Britain's wartime approach, never did British policy makers disavow interest in Bulgarian affairs. The research establishes that in the armistice period British policy towards Bulgaria was overwhelmingly governed by traditional geopolitical factors. These focused around Bulgaria's potential military threat of British imperial positions in the Eastern Mediterranean and overshadowed any proclaimed British commitment to democracy. Britain's priorities were complicated by the emerging Cold War as a Soviet-dominated Bulgaria was perceived as a springboard for Communist penetration of Europe. Ironically...