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Iowa gambling task: considerações desenvolvimentais e implicações neuropsicológicas e psicométricas

Bakos, Daniela Di Giorgio Schneider
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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35.74%
Atualmente, diversos estudos sobre a tomada de decisão (TD) têm sido conduzidos, com base na Hipótese do Marcador Somático (HMS), utilizando como ferramenta de avaliação a Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Neste contexto, esta tese teve por objetivo geral analisar o processo de TD, bem como a tarefa usualmente utilizada para mensurá-lo, a IGT. Visando a atender esta finalidade, três estudos foram conduzidos, buscando investigar o processo decisório a partir de diferentes aspectos. O primeiro deles discutiu a TD dentro de uma perspectiva do desenvolvimento, comparando adultos jovens e adultos idosos em seu comportamento de escolha. Já o segundo, tratou de investigar a possível influência de componentes de impulsividade e diferentes processos cognitivos, como a memória de trabalho, o aprendizado associativo e reverso e a atenção, no processo de tomar decisões. O terceiro e último estudo averiguou o efeito da cultura na tomada de decisões, comparando o desempenho de indivíduos brasileiros e norte-americanos na IGT. Os resultados do primeiro estudo evidenciaram que tanto adultos jovens quanto adultos idosos apresentam um comportamento guiado, principalmente, pela expectativa de uma baixa freqüência de punições. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos etários...

Can neuroscience inform economics? Rationality, emotions and preference formation

Martins, Nuno O.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 ENG
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66.03%
Copyright © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Cambridge Political Economy Society. All rights reserved.; The interaction between neuroscience and economics has gained much prominence recently, leading to the emergence of the new and expanding field of neuroeconomics. I will argue that, although there is much insight to be gained from the interaction between neuroscience and economics, the implications of recent developments in neuroscience and neuroeconomics for the deductivist methodology of mainstream economics, and its emphasis on prediction of events, have not been sufficiently addressed. In fact, much research on neuroeconomics has contributed to the formulation of deductivist models aimed at the prediction of events, when the more fruitful use of neuroscience in economics consists rather in the utilisation of its insights for the development of an explanation of social behaviour that moves beyond the mainstream deductivist methodology. The somatic marker hypothesis, developed by Damasio and others working closely with him, will be suggested as an alternative framework for conceptualising the emergence of social behaviour from a neurobiological substrate.

A reexamination of the evidence for the somatic marker hypothesis: What participants really know in the Iowa gambling task

Maia, Tiago V.; McClelland, James L.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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45.95%
Bechara, Damasio, and coworkers [Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D. & Damasio, A. R. (1997) Science 275, 1293–1295] have reported that normal participants decide advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy in a simple card game designed to mimic real-life decision-making. Bechara et al. have used this result to support their view that nonconscious somatic markers can guide advantageous behavior. By using more sensitive methods, we show that participants have much more knowledge about the game than previously thought. In fact, participants report knowledge of the advantageous strategy more reliably than they behave advantageously. Furthermore, when they behave advantageously, their verbal reports nearly always reveal evidence of quantitative knowledge about the outcomes of the decks that would be sufficient to guide such advantageous behavior. In addition, there is evidence that participants also have access to more qualitative reportable knowledge. These results are compatible with the view that, in this task, both overt behavior and verbal reports reflect sampling from consciously accessible knowledge; there is no need to appeal to nonconscious somatic markers. We also discuss the findings of other studies that similarly suggest alternative interpretations of other evidence previously used to support a role for somatic markers in decision-making.

DNA cleavage in immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation depends on de novo protein synthesis but not on uracil DNA glycosylase

Nagaoka, Hitoshi; Ito, Satomi; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Nakata, Mikiyo; Honjo, Tasuku
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for the DNA cleavage step of Ig somatic hypermutation (SHM). However, its molecular mechanism is controversial. The RNA editing hypothesis postulates that AID deaminates cytosine in an unknown mRNA to generate a new mRNA encoding SHM endonuclease. On the other hand, the DNA deamination hypothesis explains DNA cleavage by cytosine deamination in DNA, followed by uracil removal by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG). By using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, we showed that SHM requires de novo protein synthesis in accord with predictions by the RNA editing hypothesis. In addition, we found that cycloheximide but not Ugi (the specific inhibitor of UNG) inhibited AID-dependent DNA cleavage in the Ig gene during SHM, by using histone H2AX focus formation as a marker of DNA cleavage. The results indicate the following order of events: AID expression, protein synthesis, DNA cleavage, and SHM. The requirement of protein synthesis but not of UNG for the DNA cleavage step of SHM forces us to reconsider the DNA deamination hypothesis and strengthens the RNA editing hypothesis.

Absence of somatic alterations of the EB1 gene adenomatous polyposis coli-associated protein in human sporadic colorectal cancers.

Jaïs, P.; Sabourin, J. C.; Bombled, J.; Rougier, P.; Lasser, P.; Duvillard, P.; Bénard, J.; Bressac-de Paillerets, B.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group|1 Publicador: Nature Publishing Group|1
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%
The human EB1 gene product was recently found, by a yeast two-hybrid screening, to be associated with the carboxy terminus of the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) protein, the product of a tumour-suppressor gene thought to act as a gatekeeper in colorectal carcinogenesis. Because virtually all of the APC mutations result in the synthesis of carboxy-terminal truncated proteins, mutant APC proteins are expected to lose their ability to interact with EB1 gene product. Thus, the interaction between APC and EB1 proteins may be important for the tumour-suppressor activity of APC protein, and raises the hypothesis that EB1 is also involved in sporadic colorectal tumorigenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, somatic mutations in the entire coding sequence of EB1 cDNA were searched by reverse transcriptase single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis in 21 sporadic colorectal cancers and seven adenomas. None of these tumours contained somatic mutation, whereas a silent cDNA variant was identified in 14% of alleles. Furthermore, to investigate whether EB1 locus was included within a region subjected to losses of heterozygosity, four polymorphism markers surrounding EB1 locus were surveyed. Only one out of 28 colorectal tumours contained a loss of heterozygosity at the D20S107 marker. In conclusion...

Emotion, Decision-Making and Substance Dependence: A Somatic-Marker Model of Addiction

Verdejo-García, A; Pérez-García, M; Bechara, A
Fonte: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Publicador: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2006 EN
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56.05%
Similar to patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions, substance dependent individuals (SDI) show signs of impairments in decision-making, characterised by a tendency to choose the immediate reward at the expense of severe negative future consequences. The somatic-marker hypothesis proposes that decision-making depends in many important ways on neural substrates that regulate homeostasis, emotion and feeling. According to this model, there should be a link between abnormalities in experiencing emotions in SDI, and their severe impairments in decision-making in real-life. Growing evidence from neuroscientific studies suggests that core aspects of substance addiction may be explained in terms of abnormal emotional guidance of decision-making. Behavioural studies have revealed emotional processing and decision-making deficits in SDI. Combined neuropsychological and physiological assessment has demonstrated that the poorer decision-making of SDI is associated with altered reactions to reward and punishing events. Imaging studies have shown that impaired decision-making in addiction is associated with abnormal functioning of a distributed neural network critical for the processing of emotional information, including the ventromedial cortex...

Unreliable Gut Feelings Can Lead to Correct Decisions: The Somatic Marker Hypothesis in Non-Linear Decision Chains

Bedia, Manuel G.; Di Paolo, Ezequiel
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/10/2012 EN
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56.07%
Dual-process approaches of decision-making examine the interaction between affective/intuitive and deliberative processes underlying value judgment. From this perspective, decisions are supported by a combination of relatively explicit capabilities for abstract reasoning and relatively implicit evolved domain-general as well as learned domain-specific affective responses. One such approach, the somatic markers hypothesis (SMH), expresses these implicit processes as a system of evolved primary emotions supplemented by associations between affect and experience that accrue over lifetime, or somatic markers. In this view, somatic markers are useful only if their local capability to predict the value of an action is above a baseline equal to the predictive capability of the combined rational and primary emotional subsystems. We argue that decision-making has often been conceived of as a linear process: the effect of decision sequences is additive, local utility is cumulative, and there is no strong environmental feedback. This widespread assumption can have consequences for answering questions regarding the relative weight between the systems and their interaction within a cognitive architecture. We introduce a mathematical formalization of the SMH and study it in situations of dynamic...

Iowa Gambling Task performance and emotional distress interact to predict risky sexual behavior in individuals with dual substance and HIV diagnoses

Wardle, Margaret C.; Gonzalez, Raul; Bechara, Antoine; Martin-Thormeyer, Eileen M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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HIV+ substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) show emotional distress and executive impairment, but in isolation these poorly predict sexual risk. We hypothesized that an executive measure sensitive to emotional aspects of judgment (Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) would identify HIV+ SDIs whose sexual risks were influenced by emotional distress. We assessed emotional distress and performance on several executive tasks in 190 HIV+ SDIs. IGT performance interacted significantly with emotional distress, such that only in better performers were distress and risk related. Our results are interpreted using the somatic marker hypothesis and indicate that the IGT identifies HIV+ SDIs for whom psychological distress influences HIV risk.

Behavioural and physiological expression of arousal during decision-making in laying hens☆

Davies, A.C.; Radford, A.N.; Nicol, C.J.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Publicador: Elsevier Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/01/2014 EN
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35.85%
Human studies suggest that prior emotional responses are stored within the brain as associations called somatic markers and are recalled to inform rapid decision-making. Consequently, behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal are detectable in humans when making decisions, and influence decision outcomes. Here we provide the first evidence of anticipatory arousal around the time of decision-making in non-human animals. Chickens were subjected to five experimental conditions, which varied in the number (one versus two), type (mealworms or empty bowl) and choice (same or different) of T-maze goals. As indicators of arousal, heart-rate and head movements were measured when goals were visible but not accessible; latency to reach the goal indicated motivation. We found a greater increase in heart-rate from baseline to the goal-viewing period, more head movements and shorter latencies in all conditions including mealworms compared to those with empty bowls. More head movements when two mealworm bowls were available compared to just one, and prior to occasions when hens accessed an empty bowl rather than declining to move, showed that arousal preceded and influenced decision-making. Our results provide an important foundation for investigating arousal during animal decision-making and suggest that the somatic-marker hypothesis might not only apply to humans.

Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations

Foxall, Gordon R.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
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35.82%
Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second...

Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements

Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F.; Atkinson, Anthony P.; Langenecker, Scott A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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35.74%
According to Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions.

The somatic marker theory in the context of addiction: contributions to understanding development and maintenance

Olsen, Vegard V; Lugo, Ricardo G; Sütterlin, Stefan
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/07/2015 EN
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56.32%
Recent theoretical accounts of addiction have acknowledged that addiction to substances and behaviors share inherent similarities (eg, insensitivity to future consequences and self-regulatory deficits). This recognition is corroborated by inquiries into the neurobiological correlates of addiction, which has indicated that different manifestations of addictive pathology share common neural mechanisms. This review of the literature will explore the feasibility of the somatic marker hypothesis as a unifying explanatory framework of the decision-making deficits that are believed to be involved in addiction development and maintenance. The somatic marker hypothesis provides a neuroanatomical and cognitive framework of decision making, which posits that decisional processes are biased toward long-term prospects by emotional marker signals engendered by a neuronal architecture comprising both cortical and subcortical circuits. Addicts display markedly impulsive and compulsive behavioral patterns that might be understood as manifestations of decision-making processes that fail to take into account the long-term consequences of actions. Evidence demonstrates that substance dependence, pathological gambling, and Internet addiction are characterized by structural and functional abnormalities in neural regions...

Tomada de decisão no IGT: estudos neuropsicológicos pós-lesões cerebrais unilaterias, frontais ou cerebelares

Cardoso, Caroline de Oliveira
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
PORTUGUêS
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No campo da neuropsicologia, as funções executivas (FE) vêm recebendo um tratamento especial. Dentre os diversos componentes executivos investigados, destaca-se a tomada de decisão (TD). O Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), suporte empírico da Hipótese do Marcador Somático, é o instrumento neuropsicológico mais utilizado internacionalmente para avaliar o processo de TD emocional. Estudos trazem evidências de que o IGT é válido e sensível tanto em pacientes neurológicos como psiquiátricos. Dentre os quadros neurológicos, o acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) pode desencadear diversos comprometimentos executivos; porém, pela escassez de investigações, ainda não se sabe como se caracteriza o processo de TD nessa população e, mais especificamente, após grupos de regiões lesadas. Assim, essa pesquisa pretendeu analisar as FE, mais especificamente a TD, em pacientes após lesão cerebral vascular, buscando verificar duas relações neurofuncionais e uma relação neuropsicológica cognitiva. No primeiro estudo visou-se a verificar o papel da lateralidade hemisférica no desempenho do IGT. Participaram 32 adultos com lesão de hemisfério direito (LHD), 31 participantes com lesão de hemisfério esquerdo (LHE), e 60 indivíduos controles. Como não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos clínicos...

Social competence following mild head injury and moderate traumatic brain injury: Investigating the neuropsychological relationships between arousal, social decision-making and depression

Robb, Sean
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.74%
Client-directed long-term rehabilitative goals and life satisfaction following head injury emphasize the importance of social inclusion, rather than cognitive or physical, outcomes. However, very little research has explored the socio-emotional factors that pose as barriers to social reintegration following injury. This study investigates social barriers following head injury (i.e., decision-making - Iowa Gambling Task [IGT] and mood – depression) and possible amelioration of those challenges (through treatment) in both highly functioning university students with and without mild head injury (MHI) and in individuals with moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). An arousal manipulation using emotionally evocative stimuli was introduced to manipulate the subject’s physiological arousal state. Seventy-five university students (37.6% reporting a MHI) and 11 patients with documented moderate TBI were recruited to participate in this quasi-experimental study. Those with head injury were found to be physiologically underaroused (on measures of electrodermal activation [EDA] and pulse) and were less sensitive to the negative effects of punishment (i.e., losses) in the gambling task than those without head injury, with greater impairment being observed for the moderate TBI group. The arousal manipulation...

Mental time travel, somatic markers and “myopia for the future”

Gerrans, P.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
Patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) are often described as having impaired ability for planning and decision making despite retaining intact capacities for explicit reasoning. The somatic marker hypothesis is that the VMPFC associates implicitly represented affective information with explicit representations of actions or outcomes. Consequently, when the VMPFC is damaged explicit reasoning is no longer scaffolded by affective information, leading to characteristic deficits. These deficits are exemplified in performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in which subjects with VMPFC perform significantly worse than neurotypicals in a task which requires them learn from rewarding and punishing experience to make decisions. The somatic marker theory adopts a canonical theory of emotion, in which emotions function as part of a valencing system, to explain the role of affective processes. The first part of the paper argues against this canonical account. The second part provides a different account of the role of the role of the VMPFC in decision-making which does not depend on the canonical account of emotion. Together the first and second parts of the paper provide the basis for a different interpretation of results on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). In fact the IGT may be probing a deficit in what has been called mental time travel: the ability to access and use information from previous experience and imaginatively rehearse future experiences as part of the process of deliberation.; Philip Gerrans; The original publication can be found at www.springerlink.com

Feeling the future: prospects for a theory of implicit prospection

Gerrans, P.; Sander, D.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.74%
Mental time travel refers to the ability of an organism to project herself backward and forward in time, using episodic memory and imagination to simulate past and future experiences. The evolution of mental time travel gives humans a unique capacity for prospection: the ability to pre-experience the future. Discussions of mental time travel treat it as an instance of explicit prospection. We argue that implicit simulations of past and future experience can also be used as a way of gaining information about the future to shape preferences and guide behaviour.; Philip Gerrans, David Sander

Capacité en matière de prise de décisions chez des récidivistes de conduite avec capacités affaiblies par l’alcool

Maldonado Bouchard, Sioui
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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35.93%
Objectifs : La capacité en matière de prise de décisions des récidivistes de conduite avec capacités affaiblies (CCA) semble les distinguer des non-contrevenants, particulièrement dans des situations ambiguës à haut risque, telles que la CCA. Cette étude exploratoire vise à vérifier l’hypothèse selon laquelle les récidivistes de CCA (R) auraient une moins bonne capacité de prise de décisions et une plus faible réponse de conductibilité électrodermale par anticipation à la tâche Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) que les non-contrevenants (C). Méthode : Vingt-trois récidivistes et 24 non-contrevenants ont été recrutés. Leur âge moyen (± É.T.) était 44.17(10.03) et 37.29 (10.60) ans respectivement. Les participants devaient être âgés de 18 ans ou plus, et avoir eu deux condamnations pour CCA ou plus pour le groupe R, et zéro CCA et un permis de conduire pour le groupe C. Les participants ont effectué I’IGT, une tâche neurocognitive de prise de décisions comprenant 100 sélections de cartes divisées en cinq blocs pour les analyses. On a comparé la performance du groupe R versus le groupe C à l’aide d’une ANOVA à mesures répétées [2 (groupe) x 5 (blocs)]. On a évalué la performance durant les blocs 1 & 2 (décisions dans l’ambiguïté) et blocs 3-5 (décisions sous haut risque) en utilisant des tests t post-hoc. Finalement...

Elevated arousal at time of decision-making is not the arbiter of risk avoidance in chickens

Davies, A. C.; Radford, A. N.; Pettersson, I. C.; Yang, F. P.; Nicol, C. J.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.85%
The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that humans recall previously experienced physiological responses to aid decision-making under uncertainty. However, little is known about the mechanisms used by non-human animals to integrate risk perception with predicted gains and losses. We monitored the behaviour and physiology of chickens when the choice between a high-gain (large food quantity), high-risk (1 in 4 probability of receiving an air-puff) option (HGRAP) or a low-gain (small food quantity), no-risk (of an air-puff) (LGNAP) option. We assessed when arousal increased by considering different stages of the decision-making process (baseline, viewing, anticipation, reward periods) and investigated whether autonomic responses influenced choice outcome both immediately and in the subsequent trial. Chickens were faster to choose and their heart-rate significantly increased between the viewing and anticipation (post-decision, pre-outcome) periods when selecting the HGRAP option. This suggests that they responded physiologically to the impending risk. Additionally, arousal was greater following a HGRAP choice that resulted in an air-puff, but this did not deter chickens from subsequently choosing HGRAP. In contrast to human studies, we did not find evidence that somatic markers were activated during the viewing period...

Neural correlates of uncertain decision making: ERP evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task

Cui, Ji-fang; Chen, Ying-he; Wang, Ya; Shum, David H. K.; Chan, Raymond C. K.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
In our daily life, it is very common to make decisions in uncertain situations. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been widely used in laboratory studies because of its good simulation of uncertainty in real life activities. The present study aimed to examine the neural correlates of uncertain decision making with the IGT. Twenty-six university students completed this study. An adapted IGT was administered to them, and the EEG data were recorded. The adapted IGT we used allowed us to analyze the choice evaluation, response selection, and feedback evaluation stages of uncertain decision making within the same paradigm. In the choice evaluation stage, the advantageous decks evoked larger P3 amplitude in the left hemisphere, while the disadvantageous decks evoked larger P3 in the right hemisphere. In the response selection stage, the response of “pass” (the card was not turned over; the participants neither won nor lost money) evoked larger negativity preceding the response compared to that of “play” (the card was turned over; the participant either won or lost money). In the feedback evaluation stage, feedback-related negativity (FRN) was only sensitive to the valence (win/loss) but not the magnitude (large/small) of the outcome...

Missed losses loom larger than missed gains: Electrodermal reactivity to decision choices and outcomes in a gambling task

Wu, Yin; Dijk, Eric van; Aitken, Mike; Clark, Luke
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
This is the final version of the article. It was first available from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/; Loss aversion is a defining characteristic of Prospect Theory, whereby responses to losses are stronger compared to equivalently-sized gains (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979). By monitoring electrodermal activity (EDA) during a gambling task, this study examined physiological activity during risky decisions, as well as to both the obtained (e.g. gains and losses) and counterfactual (e.g. narrowly missed gains and losses) outcomes. During the bet selection phase, EDA increased linearly with bet size, highlighting the role of somatic signals in decision-making under uncertainty, in a task without any learning requirement. Outcome-related EDA scaled with the magnitude of the monetary wins and losses, and losses had a stronger impact on EDA than equivalently-sized wins. Narrowly missed wins (i.e. near-wins) and narrowly missed losses (i.e. near-losses) also evoked EDA responses, and the change of EDA as a function of the size of the missed outcome was modestly greater for near-losses than for near-wins, suggesting that near-losses have more impact on subjective value than near-wins. Across individuals, the slope for choice-related EDA (as a function of bet size) correlated with the slope for outcome-related EDA as a function of both obtained and counterfactual outcome magnitude...