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O contributo do GeoGebra no desenvolvimento da capacidade de resolução de problemas de alunos do 8º ano do ensino básico

Lavado, Anabela de Jesus Machado
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
O presente estudo tem como objetivo compreender como pode um contexto de sala de aula apoiado pelo GeoGebra contribuir para promover o desenvolvimento da capacidade de resolução de problemas de alunos do 8.º ano do Ensino Básico. Esta capacidade transversal é especialmente importante nas atuais orientações curriculares. O estudo, pelos objetivos definidos e natureza dos dados recolhidos, constitui uma investigação qualitativa, concretizada pela modalidade de estudo de caso de uma turma participante numa intervenção didática centrada na resolução de problemas geométricos. Conclui-se que as resoluções dos problemas apresentadas pelos alunos com o Geogebra são, na maioria, adequadas e rigorosas mas não apresentam robustez. Em relação às estratégias de resolução, as duas mais utilizadas pelos alunos foram Fazer um diagrama ou esquema e Fazer tentativa mas alguns conciliaram diversas estratégias. Em relação à formulação de problemas, a maioria optou por fazer variações dos problemas iniciais, variando o contexto ou os dados; ### Abstract: GeoGebra contribution to the development of problem solving abilities in 8th grade students The objective of this study is to determine how GeoGebra, used in classroom situations...

Probabilities and Predictions: Modeling the Development of Scientific Problem-Solving Skills

Stevens, Ron; Johnson, David F.; Soller, Amy
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
The IMMEX (Interactive Multi-Media Exercises) Web-based problem set platform enables the online delivery of complex, multimedia simulations, the rapid collection of student performance data, and has already been used in several genetic simulations. The next step is the use of these data to understand and improve student learning in a formative manner. This article describes the development of probabilistic models of undergraduate student problem solving in molecular genetics that detailed the spectrum of strategies students used when problem solving, and how the strategic approaches evolved with experience. The actions of 776 university sophomore biology majors from three molecular biology lecture courses were recorded and analyzed. Each of six simulations were first grouped by artificial neural network clustering to provide individual performance measures, and then sequences of these performances were probabilistically modeled by hidden Markov modeling to provide measures of progress. The models showed that students with different initial problem-solving abilities choose different strategies. Initial and final strategies varied across different sections of the same course and were not strongly correlated with other achievement measures. In contrast to previous studies...

The Strengthening Families Program 10–14: influence on parent and youth problem-solving skill

Semeniuk, Y.; Brown, R. L.; Riesch, S.K.; Zywicki, M.; Hopper, J.; Henriques, J.B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
The aim of this paper is to report the results of a preliminary examination of the efficacy of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10–14 in improving parent and youth problem-solving skill. The Hypotheses in this paper include: (1) youth and parents who participated in SFP would have lower mean scores immediately (T2) and 6 months (T3) post intervention on indicators of hostile and negative problem-solving strategies; (2) higher mean scores on positive problem-solving strategies; and (3) youth who participated in SFP would have higher mean scores at T2 and at T3 on indicators of individual problem solving and problem-solving efficacy than youth in the comparison group. The dyads were recruited from elementary schools that had been stratified for race and assigned randomly to intervention or comparison conditions. Mean age of youth was 11 years (SD = 1.04). Fifty-seven dyads (34-intervention & 23-control) were videotaped discussing a frequently occurring problem. The videotapes were analysed using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS) and data were analysed using Dyadic Assessment Intervention Model. Most mean scores on the IFIRS did not change. One score changed as predicted: youth hostility decreased at T3. Two scores changed contrary to prediction: parent hostility increased T3 and parent positive problem solving decreased at T2. SFP demonstrated questionable efficacy for problem-solving skill in this study.

Problem-Solving Skills Among Precollege Students in Clinical Immunology and Microbiology: Classifying Strategies with a Rubric and Artificial Neural Network Technology

KANOWITH-KLEIN, SUSAN; STAVE, MEL; STEVENS, RON; CASILLAS, ADRIAN M.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Educators emphasize the importance of problem solving that enables students to apply current knowledge and understanding in new ways to previously unencountered situations. Yet few methods are available to visualize and then assess such skills in a rapid and efficient way. Using a software system that can generate a picture (i.e., map) of students’ strategies in solving problems, we investigated methods to classify problem-solving strategies of high school students who were studying infectious and noninfectious diseases. Using maps that indicated items students accessed to solve a software simulation as well as the sequence in which items were accessed, we developed a rubric to score the quality of the student performances and also applied artificial neural network technology to cluster student performances into groups of related strategies. Furthermore, we established that a relationship existed between the rubric and neural network results, suggesting that the quality of a problem-solving strategy could be predicted from the cluster of performances in which it was assigned by the network. Using artificial neural networks to assess students’ problem-solving strategies has the potential to permit the investigation of the problem-solving performances of hundreds of students at a time and provide teachers with a valuable intervention tool capable of identifying content areas in which students have specific misunderstandings...

Resolución de problemas: una experiencia con alumnos de primero de primaria.; Problem solving: an experience with students from the first year of primary

Bacigalupi Troule, Andrea
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
RESUMEN: Esta investigación analiza la aplicación de una propuesta de innovación para la resolución de problemas de matemáticas con alumnos de primero de primaria (6-7 años de edad). Se elabora un taller de resolución de problemas de tipo aditivo-sustractivo en el que se utilizan una serie de estrategias heurísticas, se lleva a la práctica y se analizan los resultados. El propósito es comprobar si el uso de dichas estrategias mejora la comprensión del problema y su posterior resolución. Los resultados finales muestran una ligera mejora en la actuación de los alumnos, lo que implica que el uso de este tipo de estrategias desarrolla sus capacidades y habilidades para enfrentarse a los problemas.; ABSTRACT: This research shows the application of an innovative proposal for mathematics problem solving with students from the first year of primary education (six-seven years old students). We have designed and implemented a problem solving workshop in which we have developed a group of heuristics strategies. Our purpose is to determine whether these strategies improve the understanding of the problem and its resolution. Final results show a slight improvement in students‟ performance, which implies that the use of such strategies develops students‟ skills and abilities to deal with mathematics problems.; Grado en Magisterio en Educación Primaria

Using Case Comparison to Support the Development of Instructional Design Problem-Solving Strategies

Horvitz, Brian Samuel
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, School of Education, 2006; A popular instructional approach for developing problem-solving abilities is case-based instruction (CBI). One limitation of CBI is that problem solvers, especially novices, often fail to recall relevant cases from memory when needed. Analogical encoding is a promising approach to CBI for overcoming this limitation. Analogical encoding is the comparison of multiple cases through which learners come to understand the principle or strategy common to both. This study investigated the effectiveness of CBI with analogical encoding for the teaching of instructional design (ID) strategies. Participants, 62 graduate and undergraduate education students, were assigned to one of three treatment groups. The first group read a case demonstrating an ID strategy. The second group read a different case demonstrating the same strategy. The third group read both cases and was asked to compare them. All participants were then asked to describe the ID strategy demonstrated in the case(s) and to describe an instructional solution to a problem similar to those found in the two cases. Responses were scored by external judges. Participants' levels of ID experience and ID self-efficacy were measured to examine the impact of these factors on the effectiveness of this instructional technique. A subset of the participants were interviewed to explore what other factors might explain their performance. Analysis revealed no significant differences among the participants in each of the treatment groups and that neither ID experience nor self-efficacy explained variance in participant performance. Review of the findings...

Problem solving and computer-assisted instruction in science education : analysis of research findings and the research process /

Skinner, Jennifer Anastasia.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The quantitative component of this study examined the effect of computerassisted instruction (CAI) on science problem-solving performance, as well as the significance of logical reasoning ability to this relationship. I had the dual role of researcher and teacher, as I conducted the study with 84 grade seven students to whom I simultaneously taught science on a rotary-basis. A two-treatment research design using this sample of convenience allowed for a comparison between the problem-solving performance of a CAI treatment group (n = 46) versus a laboratory-based control group (n = 38). Science problem-solving performance was measured by a pretest and posttest that I developed for this study. The validity of these tests was addressed through critical discussions with faculty members, colleagues, as well as through feedback gained in a pilot study. High reliability was revealed between the pretest and the posttest; in this way, students who tended to score high on the pretest also tended to score high on the posttest. Interrater reliability was found to be high for 30 randomly-selected test responses which were scored independently by two raters (i.e., myself and my faculty advisor). Results indicated that the form of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) used in this study did not significantly improve students' problem-solving performance. Logical reasoning ability was measured by an abbreviated version of the Group Assessment of Lx)gical Thinking (GALT). Logical reasoning ability was found to be correlated to problem-solving performance in that...

An examination of grade three mathematics textbooks for problem solving strategies

Javed, Iffat H.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
Three grade three mathematics textbooks were selected arbitrarily (every other) from a total of six currently used in the schools of Ontario. These textbooks were examined through content analysis in order to determine the extent (i. e., the frequency of occurrence) to which problem solving strategies appear in the problems and exercises of grade three mathematics textbooks, and how well they carry through the Ministry's educational goals set out in The Formative Years. Based on Polya's heuristic model, a checklist was developed by the researcher. The checklist had two main categories, textbook problems and process problems and a finer classification according to the difficulty level of a textbook problem; also six commonly used problem solving strategies for the analysis of a process problem. Topics to be analyzed were selected from the subject guideline The Formative Years, and the same topics were selected from each textbook. Frequencies of analyzed problems and exercises were compiled and tabulated textbook by textbook and topic by topic. In making comparisons, simple frequency count and percentage were used in the absence of any known criteria available for judging highor low frequency. Each textbook was coded by three coders trained to use the checklist. The results of analysis showed that while there were large numbers of exercises in each textbook...

Relações entre os estilos cognitivos, as estratégias de solução e o desempenho dos estudantes na solução de problemas aritméticos e algébricos; Relation between the cognitive styles, the strategies of solution and performance of the students in the solutin of arithmetic and algebraic problems

Luciane de Castro Quintiliano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/07/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a existência de relações entre os estilos cognitivos e as estratégias de solução de problemas, os estilos cognitivos e as variáveis gênero e série, os estilos cognitivos e o desempenho dos estudantes na solução dos problemas, bem como o desempenho e o tipo de estratégia utilizada na solução dos problemas. Para tanto, foi solicitado à 168 estudantes da primeira, segunda e terceira série do Ensino Médio provenientes de duas escolas públicas que respondessem à um questionário informativo, uma escala tipo Likert para categorizar os estilos cognitivos, e uma prova matemática, abordando os conceitos e procedimentos algébricos e aritméticos. Através da análise em relação aos estilos cognitivos deste estudo, verificou-se a predominância da Divergência sobre a Convergência de pensamento. E a partir da análise das médias das variáveis, estilo cognitivo e gênero, as médias encontradas indicaram que as mulheres, em comparação aos homens, apresentaram um maior predomínio nos estilos Reflexividade e Serialista e menor nos estilos cognitivos Impulsividade e Independência de campo. Ambos os gêneros apresentaram predominância no estilo Dependente de campo, Serialista...

Estratégias de resolução de problemas: construção de conhecimento matemático por alunos de currículos alternativos

Mendes, Marco Miguel da Silva
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Este trabalho procurou analisar/compreender se o aluno, que frequenta uma turma onde se desenvolve um currículo alternativo de Matemática, poderia, com base numa prática letiva assente na resolução de problemas, criar e/ou utilizar estratégias de resolução que levassem à construção de conhecimento matemático e à sua efetiva utilização. Procurou, igualmente, compreender em que medida essa prática, poderia constituir um fator influente na melhoria da aprendizagem e também no sentido de influenciar a sua relação coma Matemática. As questões orientadoras do estudo foram as seguintes: a) As estratégias de resolução criadas e/ou utilizadas pelos alunos para resolverem problemas evidenciam alguma prática regular? b) As diferentes estratégias de resolução utilizadas pelos alunos na resolução de problemas permitem a construção de conhecimento matemático? c) Em que medida a prática letiva com base na resolução de problemas pode ser fator influente na melhoria da aprendizagem matemática de alunos que frequentam uma turma onde se desenvolve um currículo alternativo? d) De que modo essa prática pode influenciar a relação com a Matemática de alunos inseridos numa turma onde se desenvolve um currículo alternativo? Metodologicamente...

Gauging the Gaps in Student Problem-Solving Skills: Assessment of Individual and Group Use of Problem-Solving Strategies Using Online Discussions

Anderson, William L.; Mitchell, Steven M.; Osgood, Marcy P.
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted help to groups and to individual students. This method of assessing performance has a high interrater reliability, and senior students, with training, can serve as reliable graders. We have been able to measure improvements in many students' problem-solving strategies, but, not unexpectedly, there is a population of students who consistently apply the same failing strategy when there is no faculty intervention. This new methodology provides an effective tool to direct faculty to constructively intercede in this area of student development.

IMPROVING THE PROBLEM SOLVING PERFORMANCE OF STRUGGLING LEARNERS IN MATHEMATICS

Palmay, ANDREA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention approach called Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI) that was supported with the use of graphic organizers (GOs). The intention of the research was to determine if CSI with the use of GOs could help improve the word problem solving performance of Grade 8 students experiencing difficulties in mathematics. The CSI approach incorporated instructional elements and guidelines from a Cognitive Strategy program called Solve it! (Montague, 2003). This study was conducted over 18-weeks. Three, female students participated in a 13-week group instruction. Field observations were collected during instruction to examine students’ mannerisms, such as their positive and negative responses, as well as their understanding of the material. Data were also collected from pre- and post- measures to examine students’: (a) feelings toward math problem solving; (b) knowledge, use, and control of the seven cognitive strategies and processes; and (c) performance in solving math word problems. The students participated in pre- and post- individual interviews (based on the modified MPSA-SF; Montague, 1996), as well as a pre- and post-math word problem solving quiz (based on Grade 6 EQAO assessments). The results indicated that students’ participation on CSI training with the support of GOs may provide potential benefits to students who struggle in math. Two of the three students improved their performance in solving one-step math word problems on the post-intervention quiz. There was also a general improvement in students’ feelings toward math problem solving and an overall improvement in their knowledge and application of the problem solving strategies. In addition...

Estratégias adotadas por alunos do 2º ano na resolução de problemas matemáticos

Marques, Débora Pereira
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /11/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Esta investigação tem como objetivos a identificação, o estudo e a exploração das diversas estratégias apresentadas por alunos do segundo ano de escolaridade na resolução de problemas matemáticos. Desta forma, no decorrer da sua realização procurei encontrar respostas para três questões fundamentais: a) Quais as estratégias de resolução de problemas que os alunos usam?; b) O que pode influenciar a escolha de determinadas estratégias em detrimento de outras?; e c) Identificam-se alterações relativamente à seleção das estratégias adotadas pelos alunos no final do projeto? Atendendo às caraterísticas e aos objetivos desta investigação, considerei adequada a adoção de uma perspetiva qualitativa, sob um paradigma interpretativo e com um design de investigação fortemente demarcado pela investigação-ação. Esta foi uma investigação desenvolvida numa turma de 2.º ano do 1.º Ciclo do Ensino Básico, constituída por vinte e seis alunos de uma escola pública nos Brejos de Azeitão. De modo a proceder à recolha e à, posterior, análise dos dados reunidos, recorri à observação participante, à entrevista e às produções dos alunos. Assim, apresentei à turma um conjunto de catorze problemas ao longo de onze semanas...

Aprender a resolver problemas; um estudo com alunos do 2º ano de escolaridade

Sousa, Cristina de Jesus Cardoso
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /12/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Este estudo centra-se na temática da resolução de problemas, tendo como objetivo principal compreender o modo como os alunos do 2.º ano de escolaridade resolvem problemas. Mais concretamente pretende identificar as estratégias usadas pelos alunos para resolver os problemas, as etapas de resolução de problemas de Pólya por que passam e as dificuldades que manifestam. A fundamentação teórica apresenta essencialmente os seguintes tópicos: a importância da resolução de problemas; a resolução de problemas na aula de Matemática; caracterização de problema, etapas e estratégias de resolução; e, por fim, a resolução de problemas nas orientações curriculares. O estudo segue uma abordagem qualitativa e insere-se no paradigma interpretativo. Nele participaram vinte alunos de uma turma do 2.º ano de escolaridade, tendo sido escolhidos quatro alunos para uma análise mais aprofundada das suas resoluções. A recolha de dados decorreu durante cinco semanas e um dia após o final do estágio, e foi conseguida através da observação participante e da recolha documental. Os seis problemas propostos foram construídos ou adaptados por mim, tendo subjacente uma estratégia de resolução de problemas diferente. O seu trabalho em sala de aula baseou-se numa prática de ensino exploratório. As conclusões deste estudo evidenciam que: (i) os alunos recorrem a diversas estratégias para resolver problemas; (ii) nos problemas propostos verifica-se a preferência pela estratégia “fazer uma simulação/dramatização/experimentação”; (iii) as principais dificuldades apresentadas relacionam-se com a compreensão dos enunciados...

Resolução de problemas envolvendo áreas e perímetros; um estudo no 5º ano de escolaridade

Nunes, Lauriana Maria Pires
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /12/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
O presente trabalho incide num projeto de investigação desenvolvido, no ano letivo 2014/2015, no âmbito da unidade curricular Estágio no 2.º Ciclo do curso de Mestrado em Ensino do 1.º e do 2.º Ciclos do Ensino Básico. O objetivo principal deste projeto é compreender de que modo alunos do 5.º ano de escolaridade resolvem problemas que envolvem os conceitos de área e de perímetro de figuras geométricas planas. Em particular, pretende-se perceber como é que interpretam os problemas, que estratégias utilizam para os resolver e que dificuldades experienciam. No enquadramento teórico do estudo, foca-se, nomeadamente o significado de grandezas e medidas, aborda-se a aprendizagem do processo de medição e apresentam-se ideias consideradas relevantes para o ensino e a aprendizagem dos conceitos de perímetro e de área. Do ponto de vista metodológico, o estudo insere-se numa abordagem qualitativa de investigação e enquadra-se no paradigma interpretativo. Neste âmbito, foi realizada uma intervenção pedagógica em que foram propostas tarefas envolvendo os conceitos de área e de perímetro. Visando aprofundar a compreensão sobre o modo como os alunos resolvem problemas envolvendo estes conceitos, foram realizados dois estudos de caso. Os dados empíricos foram recolhidos através da observação participante...

Problem solving strategies in translation; Problem solving strategies in translation

Wotjak, Gerd
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1997 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Space does not permit us to describe in detail the state of the art in the greatly neglected field of problem solving strategies in translation. This can be treated in a separate paper as very little has been published on the subject in English; scholars who read German may consult Henschelmann’s survey article “Zur Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von Übersetzungsverfahren” (1993), Schreiber (1993) or Wilss (1992), who gives a broad theoretical foundation. There can be no doubt that, apart from the three titles mentioned above, there is a considerable lack of information and interest within translation and interpretation studies with respect to problem solving procedures, techniques and (sub)routines of translating/interpreting. This is surprising, given that for more than 15 years translation scholars have agreed upon the necessity of concentrating on the analysis of the complex processes underlying translating/interpreting, whereas previously, in the early stages of translation theory, the emphasis was placed on description of the results of the translation activity, i.e. a more static approach than the now dominant dynamic paradigm was favoured.; Space does not permit us to describe in detail the state of the art in the greatly neglected field of problem solving strategies in translation. This can be treated in a separate paper as very little has been published on the subject in English; scholars who read German may consult Henschelmann’s survey article “Zur Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von Übersetzungsverfahren” (1993)...

Enhancing the process of teaching and learning physics via dynamic problem solving strategies: a proposal

Rojas,S.
Fonte: Sociedad Mexicana de Física Publicador: Sociedad Mexicana de Física
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
The large number of published articles in physics journals under the title "Comments on ..." and "Reply to ... " is indicative that the conceptual understanding of physical phenomena is very elusive and hard to grasp even to experts, but it has not stopped the development of Physics. In fact, from the history of the development of Physics one quickly becomes aware that, regardless of the state of conceptual understanding, without quantitative reasoning Physics would have not reached the state of development it has today. Correspondingly, quantitative reasoning and problem solving skills are a desirable outcome from the process of teaching and learning of physics. Thus, supported on results from published research, we will show evidence that a well structured problem solving strategy taught as a dynamical process offers a feasible way for students to learn physics quantitatively and conceptually, while helping them to reach the state of an Adaptive Expert highly skillful on innovation and efficiency, a desired outcome from the perspective of a Preparation for Future Learning approach of the process of teaching and learning Physics effectively.

Competence of Science Foundation students in some simple strategies for problem solving

Selvaratnam,Mailoo; Mavuso,Nkosana
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
The competence of over 300 Science Foundation students in five important problem-solving strategies was studied at the North-West University over a period of three years. The study method adopted was the analysis of students' answers to carefully designed questions that tested whether they competently used the following strategies for problem solving: clarifying problems by presenting them clearly, identifying explicitly the principles and laws associated with the solutions, focusing sharply on the goal, using equations for deductions and calculations and proceeding step-by-step with the solution. The results showed that their competence in the use of intellectual strategies was very poor. This lack of competence could be expected to lead to lack of self-confidence and could also seriously handicap their learning throughout their courses. We suggest that greater emphasis should be placed, in all science courses, on the training of students in intellectual skills and strategies. Such training should be integrated with the teaching of subject content throughout the courses.

Students' competence in intellectual strategies needed for solving chemistry problems

Drummond,Helen P.; Selvaratnam,Mailoo
Fonte: South African Journal of Chemistry Publicador: South African Journal of Chemistry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
Many students' difficulties in solving chemistry problems are due to lack of competence in a few widely applicable skills and strategies. The competence of 300 first year chemistry students at North-West University, South Africa, in four intellectual strategies (clarification and clear presentation of the problem; focussing on the goal and identifying a strategy for moving towards the goal; identification of the principles needed for solution; proceeding step by step) was investigated, over a period of four years, by comparing their performance in 'standard' questions and 'hint' questions. The 'standard' and the 'hint' questions were the same but the 'hint' questions, in addition, suggested the strategies which should be used to solve the problems. Performance in all test items was poor, but improved in the 'hint' questions. The results indicate that about 80 % of the students were unable to use the required strategies, and also that many students who have the competence to use the strategies did not recognize the necessity for doing so. The results also suggest negative attitudes and lack of self-confidence in problem solving. There is therefore a need for specific training of students in the use of intellectual strategies. This should be integrated with the learning of subject content.

Chemistry students' competence throughout their BSc course in some problem-solving strategies

Selvaratnam,Mailoo
Fonte: South African Journal of Chemistry Publicador: South African Journal of Chemistry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
The main objective of the study was to test chemistry students' competence, in the first, second and final years of their BSc course, in some basic problem-solving strategies. Five strategies were tested: clarification and clear representation of problems; focusing sharply on the goal; identification and use of relevant principles; use of equations for calculations and deductions and use of a step-by-step procedure. The study method used was the analysis of students' solutions to questions that were carefully designed to test competence in problem-solving strategies. The study showed that performance was poor in all the problem-solving strategies tested and that there was no improvement in performance as students progressed from year to year. About a half of the students tested (average performance in all of the 11 questions used for testing) had difficulty in answering the questions. Possible reasons for students' difficulties are identified and suggestions are made for rectifying the difficulties. It is suggested that difficulties with the use of cognitive strategies are often not due to students' inability to understand and use them but to insufficient emphasis being placed on them in their courses. Since an increase in competence in cognitive strategies and cognitive skills canbe expected to lead to more efficient learning and problem-solving...