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Método de avaliação visual da qualidade da estrutura aplicado a Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico sob diferentes sistemas de uso e manejo; Visual assessment soil quality structure methodology applied to Oxisol under different soil use and management

GIAROLA, Neyde Fabíola Balarezo; TORMENA, Cássio Antonio; SILVA, Alvaro Pires da; BALL, Bruce
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
O aumento da demanda pela avaliação da qualidade da estrutura do solo para o adequado crescimento de plantas tem motivado pesquisadores a desenvolverem técnicas visuais de avaliação, a campo, simples e confiáveis para esse fim. No Brasil, um número reduzido de estudos foi realizado empregando métodos visuais de diagnóstico do estado estrutural de solos no campo. Esse trabalho testou a hipótese de que o método de Avaliação Visual da Qualidade da Estrutura do Solo desenvolvido por BALL et al. (2007) para solos de clima temperado pode ser aplicado na identificação de campo da qualidade estrutural de um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico sob diferentes sistemas de uso e manejo. Para isso, foram avaliadas amostras indeformadas coletadas de mata preservada (M), sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP) e sistema plantio direto (SPD). A avaliação da estrutura apoiou-se na aparência, na resistência e nas características das unidades estruturais de blocos de solo e foi definida por cinco escores visuais de classificação de qualidade. O método empregado permitiu distinguir a qualidade do solo de diferentes sistemas de uso e manejo a partir da avaliação da estrutura da camada estudada.; The increasing demand for assessing soil structure for crop growth has motivated researchers to develop simple and reliable visual indicators to assess soil structure at the field. There are a few records in Brazil indicating the use of visual techniques for assessing soil physical quality. This paper tested the hypothesis that the Visual Soil Structure Quality Assessment methodology developed by BALL et al. (2007) is reliable for identifying the structural quality of tropical and subtropical soils under different soil management systems. Therefore...

Atributos bioquímicos como indicadores da qualidade de solo em florestas de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. no estado de São Paulo.; Biochemichal attributes as soil quality indicator in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.). Ktze. forests in the State of São Paulo.

Carvalho, Fernanda de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/07/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Araucaria angustifolia, espécie brasileira considerada a mais explorada devido à qualidade de sua madeira, encontra-se na atualidade ameaçada de extinção. Diante deste fato a preservação dos remanescentes torna-se ainda mais importante, considerando que a extinção de uma única espécie pode comprometer todo um ecossistema. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a utilização dos atributos bioquímicos como indicadores de qualidade do solo em seis ecossistemas de araucária. Os atributos bioquímicos considerados foram carbono e nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana, respiração basal, quociente metabólico, e atividade das enzimas β-glicosidase, urease e hidrólise do diacetato de fluoresceína (FDA) Os ecossistemas avaliados foram mata com araucária (nativa, nativa com interferência antrópica e reflorestamento) em dois parques estaduais (PECJ e PETAR), localizados em duas diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo, Campos do Jordão e Apiaí, respectivamente. Foram selecionadas cinco árvores de araucária por ecossistema, onde, sob a copa de cada uma foram retiradas três amostras de solo na profundidade de 0-10 cm, totalizando quinze amostras por ecossistema. Foram realizadas quatro coletas em estações contrastantes...

Bioindicadores de qualidade do solo em um gradiente de restauração ambiental; Soil quality bioindicators of an environmental restoration gradient

Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro de Figueiredo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/06/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Impactos ambientais podem interferir nas características da biomassa microbiana, no processo de ciclagem de nutrientes, nas características físicoquímicas e também na diversidade da microbiota e da macrofauna. O objetivo desse trabalho foi conhecer as diferentes interações entre estes atributos e identificar os indicadores da qualidade do solo envolvidos com o tempo de recuperação. Três áreas com estágios diferentes de recuperação (5, 10 e 20 anos) foram comparadas com uma floresta Estacional Semidecídua nativa (NT) com intuito de estudar o comportamento da microbiota, da macrofauna e de suas interações com os atributos físico-químicos. Foram coletadas amostras em 15 pontos por áreas, escolhidos aleatoriamente. Dentre os atributos microbiológicos, a maior atividade das enzimas urease, fosfatase ácida e desidrogeanse foi encontrada na área nativa. O mesmo foi constatado para a respiração basal e para o carbono e nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana. A análise da estrutura da comunidade de Bacteria, feita a partir de TRFLP, separou as áreas, nativa e de 20 anos de recuperação, das demais, somente no verão. A densidade do solo, a umidade e a microporosidade afetaram negativamente os indicadores microbiológicos do solo...

Avaliação de índices de qualidade física do solo e predição de parâmetros multifractais de solos sob Floresta Estacional Semidecidual; EVALUATION OF SOIL PHYSICAL QUALITY INDEXES AND PREDICTION OF MULTIFRACTAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS UNDER SEMI-DECIDUOUS FOREST

Oliveira, Thalita Campos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/05/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
A Floresta Atlântica que originalmente formava uma área contínua com mais de 150 milhões de hectares sofre constante degradação. Atualmente somente cerca de 7-8% dessa cobertura vegetal ainda existe, em sua maioria, na forma de fragmentos florestais secundários. A Estação Ecológica de Caetetus possui um dos mais significativos remanescentes da Floresta Estacional Semidecidual que revestia quase todo o interior do estado de São Paulo, parte de Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraguai e Argentina. Para compreender as relações entre vegetação nativa e os solos são necessários estudos detalhados que inclui o funcionamento físico-hídrico do solo, assim, as propriedades físicas que possuem grande influência nas relações químicas e biológicas, desempenham papel central nos estudos da dinâmica dos processos do solo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter parâmetros quantitativos da estrutura do solo pela análise multifractal e comparar valores de qualidade física de áreas naturais com valores de referência de índices de qualidade física do solo encontrados na literatura, fornecendo dados que podem ser utilizados na avaliação da qualidade do solo em outros tipos de uso. Foi utilizado um banco de dados físico-hídrico e de imagens micromorfológicas de solos sob Floresta Estacional Semidecidual da parcela permanente da Estação Ecológica Caetetus...

Qualidade do solo avaliada pelo "Soil Quality Kit Test" em dois experimentos de longa duração no Rio Grande do Sul; Soil quality evaluated by “soil quality kit” in two long-term soil management experiments in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Conceição, Paulo César; Bayer, Cimelio; Eltz, Flavio Luiz Foletto
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
A avaliação da qualidade do solo (QS) é importante estratégia no planejamento agrícola, possibilitando a identificação e o aprimoramento de sistemas de manejo com características de alta produtividade e de preservação ambiental. O presente estudo foi realizado em dois experimentos de longa duração (10 e 15 anos) conduzidos no Sul do Brasil e teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de sistemas de manejo na QS, utilizando um kit de análise expedita de qualidade de solo (KQS), desenvolvido pelo Instituto de Qualidade do Solo-USDA-ARS. A eficiência desse kit foi avaliada pela comparação com os métodos tradicionais utilizados na ciência do solo. Nas duas áreas experimentais investigou-se um total de 12 tratamentos, os quais englobaram sistemas de preparo com diferentes intensidades de revolvimento do solo (preparo convencional, preparo reduzido e plantio direto) e sistemas de culturas com ampla faixa de adição de resíduos vegetais ao solo, além da aplicação de doses anuais de N-uréia, variando de 0 a 144 kg ha-1. Em cada base experimental uma área sob campo natural foi avaliada, servindo como referência da condição do solo na ausência de interferência antrópica. Como indicadores de QS, foram avaliados infiltração de água...

Determination of the quality index of a Paleudult under sunflower culture and different management systems

Fernandes, Jairo Costa; Gamero, Carlos Antonio; Rodrigues, José Guilherme Lança; Mirás-Avalos, José Manuel
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 167-174
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
Soil is an essential resource for life and its properties are susceptible to be modified by tillage systems. The impact of management practices on soil functions can be assessed through a soil quality index. It is interesting to assess soil quality in different soil types. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the soil quality index of a Paleudult under different management conditions and sunflower culture. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu (SP, Brazil), in an 11-year non-tilled area used for growing soybean and maize during summer and black oat or triticale in winter. Four management systems were considered: no-tillage with a hoe planter (NTh), no-tillage with a double-disk planter (NTd), reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT). Soil samples were taken from the planting lines at harvest time. To determine the soil quality indices, following the methodology proposed by Karlen and Stott (1994), three main soil functions were assessed: soil capacity for root development, water storage capacity of the soil and nutrient supply capacity of the soil. The studied Paleudult was considered a soil with good quality under all the observed management systems. However, the soil quality indices varied between treatments being 0.64...

Sistemas de manejo agricola, qualidade do solo e o controle da erosão em parcelas experimentais; Agricultural management systems, soil quality, and erosion control in experimental plots

Sebastião Rovilson Marques
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
O crescimento populacional e o desenvolvimento sustentam a demanda por alimentos e fibras e elevam a pressão sobre o uso da terra. O uso intensivo das terras comumente traz como conseqüência a degradação dos recursos naturais. A erosão, um importante processo de degradação, leva ao empobrecimento do solo, à diminuição da capacidade de produzir boas safras e ao aumento dos custos de produção. Esses fatores em conjunto condicionam menores rendimentos para o produtor rural. O objetivo geral do trabalho foi o de avaliar comparativamente dois sistemas de manejo agrícola, plantio direto e plantio convencional com grade aradora, em termos dos efeitos sobre o controle da erosão, a qualidade do solo e indicadores biométricos e de produtividade da cultura do milho. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Campo Experimental da Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola da Universidade Estadual de Campinas-SP, em parcelas experimentais dotadas com sistemas coletores de enxurrada, sendo o solo,o Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico típico (Typic Latosol), pertencente à Unidade Barão Geraldo, e a cultura o milho. Foram determinados os atributos edáficos granulometria, estabilidade de agregados, densidade do solo, porosidade (total, macro e microporosidade)...

Remediation of a mine soil with insoluble polyacrylate polymers enhances soil quality and plant growth

Guiwei, Q.; Varennes, A.; Cunha-Queda, C.
Fonte: British Society of Soil Science Publicador: British Society of Soil Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.23%
We investigated the effects of different application rates of insoluble hydrophilic polyacrylate polymers on plant growth and soil quality from a Pb-contaminated mine soil. The polymer increased the waterholding capacity of the soil from about 250 g ⁄ kg in unamended soil to almost 1000 g ⁄ kg in soil with 0.6% polymer. However, the capacity of the polymer to retain water decreased progressively, presumably as the polymer sorbed Pb. Growth of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. cv. Amba) was stimulated in the polymer-amended soil. The greatest accumulated biomass over four cuts was obtained in soil amended with 0.4% of polymer. After orchardgrass had been growing for 101 days, the amounts of CaCl2-extractable Pb present in the polymer-amended soil were 15–66% of those in the unamended soil, depending on polymer application rate. The number of bacteria culturable on agar enriched with ‘Nutrient’ and yeast extract, and the activities of dehydrogenase, phosphatase, b-glucosidase, protease and cellulase increased following polymer application. In contrast, urease activity was impaired by polymer application, presumably due to the presence of ammonium as a counter ion. Principal component analysis was used to compare the effects of the different rates of polymer application. Overall...

The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

Samuel-Rosa,Alessandro; Dalmolin,Ricardo Simão Diniz; Miguel,Pablo; Zalamena,Jovani; Dick,Deborah Pinheiro
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents) explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density) under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture) on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

Soil quality indicators in a rhodic kandiudult under different uses in northern Parana, Brazil

Kuwano,Biana Harumi; Knob,Adriana; Fagotti,Dáfila Santos Lima; Melém Júnior,Nagib Jorge; Godoy,Leandro; Diehl,Raquel Cátia; Krawulski,Cristina Célia; Andrade Filho,Galdino; Zangaro Filho,Waldemar; Tavares-Filho,João; Nogueira,Marco Antonio
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Sustainable use of soil, maintaining or improving its quality, is one of the goals of diversification in farmlands. From this point of view, bioindicators associated with C, N and P cycling can be used in assessments of land-use effects on soil quality. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical, microbiological and biochemical properties of soil associated with C, N and P under different land uses in a farm property with diversified activity in northern Parana, Brazil. Seven areas under different land uses were assessed: fragment of native Atlantic Forest; growing of peach-palm (Bactrys gasipaes); sugarcane ratoon (Saccharum officinarum) recently harvested, under renewal; growing of coffee (Coffea arabica) intercropped with tree species; recent reforestation (1 year) with native tree species, previously under annual crops; annual crops under no-tillage, rye (Cecale cereale); secondary forest, regenerated after abandonment (for 20 years) of an avocado (Persea americana) orchard. The soil under coffee, recent reforestation and secondary forest showed higher concentrations of organic carbon, but microbial biomass and enzyme activities were higher in soils under native forest and secondary forest, which also showed the lowest metabolic coefficient...

Towards an ecological index for tropical soil quality based on soil macrofauna

Huerta,Esperanza; Kampichler,Christian; Geissen,Violette; Ochoa-Gaona,Susana; Jong,Ben de; Hernández-Daumás,Salvador
Fonte: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira Publicador: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
The objective of this work was to construct a simple index based on the presence/absence of different groups of soil macrofauna to determine the ecological quality of soils. The index was tested with data from 20 sites in South and Central Tabasco, Mexico, and a positive relation between the model and the field observations was detected. The index showed that diverse agroforestry systems had the highest soil quality index (1.00), and monocrops without trees, such as pineapple, showed the lowest soil quality index (0.08). Further research is required to improve this model for natural systems that have very low earthworm biomass (<10 g m-2) and a high number of earthworm species (5-7), as it is in the tropical rain forest, whose soil quality index was medium (0.5). The application of this index will require an illustrated guide for its users. Further studies are required in order to test the use of this index by farmers.

Dissolved organic carbon and bioavailability of N and P as indicators of soil quality

Silveira,Maria Lucia Azevedo
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
Soil quality has become an important issue in soil science. Considerable attempts have been made to define soil quality, but a general concept has not yet been accepted by the scientific community. The selection of quantitative indices for soil quality is extremely difficult, and a considerable number of chemical, physical, and biochemical properties have been suggested as potential indicators of soil quality. Because soil organic matter (SOM) can be associated with different soil chemical, physical and biological processes, it has been widely considered as one of the best soil quality indicator. Land use can significantly influence dynamics of organic carbon and N, P, and S cycle. However, changes in total soil organic carbon (SOC) contents in response to land use may be difficult to detect because of the natural soil variability. In the short to medium term, biological properties and readily decomposable fractions of SOC, such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), are much more sensitive to soil management than is SOM as a whole, and can be used as a key indicator of soil natural functions. Despite the fact that labile C accounts for a small portion of the total organic matter in the soils, DOC is the most mobile and important C-source for microorganisms...

Quantifying effects of different agricultural land uses on soil microbial biomass and activity in Brazilian biomes: inferences to improve soil quality.

KASCHUK, G.; ALBERTON, O.; HUNGRIA, M.
Fonte: Plant and Soil, The Hague, v. 338, n. 1-2, p. 467-481, Jan. 2011. Publicador: Plant and Soil, The Hague, v. 338, n. 1-2, p. 467-481, Jan. 2011.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Maintenance of soil quality is a key component of agriculture sustainability and a main goal of most farmers, environmentalists and government policymakers. However, as there are no parameters or methods to evaluate soil quality directly, some attributes of relevant soil functions are taken as indicators; lately, an increase in the use of soil microbial parameters has occurred, and their viability as indicators of proper land use has been highlighted. In this study we performed a meta-analysis of the response ratios of several microbial and chemical parameters to soil disturbance by different land uses in the Brazilian biomes. The studies included native forests, pastures and perennial and annual cropping systems. The introduction of agricultural practices in all biomes covered previously with natural vegetation profoundly affected microbial biomass-C (MB-C)?with an overall decrease of 31%. Annual crops most severely reduced microbial biomass and soil organic C, with an average decrease of 53% in the MB-C. In addition, the MB-C/TSOC (total soil organic carbon) ratio was significantly decreased with the transformation of forests to perennial plantation (25%), pastures (26%), and annual cropping (20%). However, each biome reacted differently to soil disturbance...

Towards an ecological index for tropical soil quality based on soil macrofauna.

HUERTA, E.; KAMPICHLER, C.; GEISSEN, V.; OCHOA-GAONA, S.; JONG, BEN de; HERNÁNDEZ-DAUMÁS, S.
Fonte: Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, v. 44, n. 8, p. 1056-1062, ago. 2009. Publicador: Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, v. 44, n. 8, p. 1056-1062, ago. 2009.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Abstract ? The objective of this work was to construct a simple index based on the presence/absence of different groups of soil macrofauna to determine the ecological quality of soils. The index was tested with data from 20 sites in South and Central Tabasco, Mexico, and a positive relation between the model and the field observations was detected. The index showed that diverse agroforestry systems had the highest soil quality index (1.00), and monocrops without trees, such as pineapple, showed the lowest soil quality index (0.08). Further research is required to improve this model for natural systems that have very low earthworm biomass (<10 g m-2) and a high number of earthworm species (5?7), as it is in the tropical rain forest, whose soil quality index was medium (0.5). The application of this index will require an illustrated guide for its users. Further studies are required in order to test the use of this index by farmers.; 2009

Qualidade do solo: construindo o conhecimento em propriedades agr??colas familiares produtoras de fumo org??nico.; Soil Quality: constructing soil knowledge in organic tobacco family farms

Audeh, Samira Jaber Suliman
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Solos; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Solos; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
The present study approaches the relations between local and scientific soil quality knowledge, in organic tobacco family farms of Cangu??u-RS. The farms are characterized by the accomplishment of the agricultural activity in areas where the soil is shallow and mountaious. These characteristics highlight the need to find alternatives for the conservation of their lands. The alternatives are based on changes regarding to the way that farmers understand the nature and to the way they interpret and apply the knowledge acquired throughout years of experience. This knowledge that each farmer has about the peculiarities of his region is an important factor to the success of soil conservation and to the soil quality maintenance. This study has the objective to construct the knowledge of soil quality in organic tobacco family farms based on local and scientific soil knowledge to reach a sustainable agricultural development. The intention was also understand the aspects related to the soil use, soil management and soil conservation and its interactions, and link scientific with popular knowledge. From this work, it was possible to define a set of indicators according to the farmers perception to characterize the soils from their lands. It was also possible to perceive that those farmers possess detailed knowledge of the soil they cultivate and that their perception is based on a dynamic process of soil properties interactions. Finally...

Measuring the Impact of Melaleuca quinquenervia Biochar Application on Soil Quality, Plant Growth, and Microbial Gas Flux

Velez, Thelma I.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Biochar has been heralded a mechanism for carbon sequestration and an ideal amendment for improving soil quality. Melaleuca quinquenervia is an aggressive and wide-spread invasive species in Florida. The purpose of this research was to convert M. quinquenervia biomass into biochar and measure how application at two rates (2% or 5% wt/wt) impacts soil quality, plant growth, and microbial gas flux in a greenhouse experiment using Phaseolus vulgaris L. and local soil. Plant growth was measured using height, biomass weight, specific leaf area, and root-shoot ratio. Soil quality was evaluated according to nutrient content and water holding capacity. Microbial respiration, as carbon dioxide (CO2), was measured using gas chromatography. Biochar addition at 5% significantly reduced available soil nutrients, while 2% biochar application increased almost all nutrients. Plant biomass was highest in the control group, p2 flux decreased significantly in both biochar groups, but reductions were not long term.

Avaliação da alteração da qualidade do solo em diferentes áreas de Cerrado; Evaluation of soil quality change in different areas of Cerrado

Guerra, Fernando
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/09/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
A necessidade de minimizar os impactos ambientais, sem reduções da produtividade, levou à busca por métodos alternativos de produção, visando à manutenção da qualidade do solo (QS) e a sustentabilidade dos ecossistemas. Para a avaliação e quantificação da QS, o estudo foi dividido em três capítulos, cada qual com um objetivo específico: avaliação dos atributos do solo para obter um conjunto mínimo de indicadores (MDS, minimum data set) e cálculo de índice aditivo (IQSa) e aditivo ponderado (IQSap); avaliação do desempenho ambiental de sistemas agrícolas na produção de biomassa pela ótica da emergia e; aplicação do modelo de árvore de decisão (AD) para identificar os principais atributos afetados com a mudança do uso da terra. O estudo foi conduzido em São Carlos e São Desidério, Estado de São Paulo e da Bahia, respectivamente. Em São Carlos, as amostras de solo foram coletadas de duas áreas nativas (cerradão e cerrado stricto sensu) e áreas de cana-de-açúcar e pastagem. Em São Desidério, foram avaliadas quatro áreas agrícolas com diferentes tempos de uso (5, 8, 12 e 18 anos) no sistema de rotação soja-milho-algodão e área de Cerrado nativo. No 1º capítulo, o MDS foi obtido por meio da análise de componentes principais...

Soil quality indicators in a Rhodic Paleudult under long term tillage systems

Souza, Elisângela Dutra de; Costa, Sérgio Ely Valadão Gigante de Andrade; Anghinoni, Ibanor; Carneiro, Marco Aurélio Carbone; Martins, Amanda Posselt; Bayer, Cimélio
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Lavras Publicador: Universidade Federal de Lavras
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
Many investigations have focused in defining soil quality indicator components. However, for understanding better the impact of soil tillage systems on soil quality, a broader approach is demanded, with simultaneous soil attributes evaluations, by using multivariate analysis. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the long-term effect of two tillage systems on the soil C and N stocks in comparison to those of native grassland and to identify the most suitable soil attributes for characterizing soil quality. The experiment was established in 1988 at the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems (no-tillage and conventional tillage) and a reference area under native grassland. Soil analysis was performed up to 20 cm. Soil organic matter, C and N, physical fractionation was performed and carbon management index calculated. Microbial biomass C and N was determined as well as soil aggregate stability. From soil aggregation, soil average diameters and mass were grouped, and classes determined to calculate mean weight diameter. After 18 years, conventionally tilled soil showed lower total C and N stocks in comparison to no-tilled soil...

Carbono orgânico dissolvido e biodisponibilidade de N e P como indicadores de qualidade do solo; Dissolved organic carbon and bioavailability of N and P as indicators of soil quality

Silveira, Maria Lucia Azevedo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2005 ENG
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Soil quality has become an important issue in soil science. Considerable attempts have been made to define soil quality, but a general concept has not yet been accepted by the scientific community. The selection of quantitative indices for soil quality is extremely difficult, and a considerable number of chemical, physical, and biochemical properties have been suggested as potential indicators of soil quality. Because soil organic matter (SOM) can be associated with different soil chemical, physical and biological processes, it has been widely considered as one of the best soil quality indicator. Land use can significantly influence dynamics of organic carbon and N, P, and S cycle. However, changes in total soil organic carbon (SOC) contents in response to land use may be difficult to detect because of the natural soil variability. In the short to medium term, biological properties and readily decomposable fractions of SOC, such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), are much more sensitive to soil management than is SOM as a whole, and can be used as a key indicator of soil natural functions. Despite the fact that labile C accounts for a small portion of the total organic matter in the soils, DOC is the most mobile and important C-source for microorganisms...

Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica

Cornwell,Emma
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
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Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p<0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p<0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p<0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana...