Página 1 dos resultados de 161 itens digitais encontrados em 0.002 segundos

Dinâmica do fósforo em solo submetido a sistemas de preparo alternativos ao de corte e queima no nordeste paraense.; Phosphorus dynamics in a soil subjected to clearing systems alternative to slash and burn in northeastern of Pará.

Gama, Marcos André Piedade
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/04/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
Na Amazônia, o sistema de cultivo predominante é o da agricultura de corte-queima, desenvolvido pelos pequenos agricultores que trabalham exclusivamente com mão-de-obra familiar e que são responsáveis pela maior parte da produção agrícola regional. Esse sistema, no entanto, deixa de ser sustentável quando desenvolvido em áreas como a do nordeste paraense, onde a densidade populacional é crescente e a dispo-nibilidade de terra aos agricultores é pequena, sendo por isso, considerado como uma das causas do crescente desmatamento florestal e degradação dos solos. Além disso, outros fatores contribuem para o insucesso da agricultura de corte-queima, como por exemplo, a generalizada deficiência de fósforo (P), comum nos solos da região tropical e que possuem alta capacidade de retenção desse elemento. Esta pesquisa foi realizada na região nordeste paraense com o objetivo de avaliar as alterações na fertilidade do solo, no teor de P orgânico (Po) e na adsorção de fósforo em duas áreas submetidas a diferentes tempos de pousio (quatro anos–VS4a; e dez anos–VS10a) e a diferentes métodos de preparo do solo. Os tratamentos, em número de cinco, consistiram de duas formas de preparo da terra (1- corte e queima da vegetação; e 2- Corte...

Respostas do tomateiro a diferentes lâminas de irrigação, doses de potássio e cobertura do solo em ambiente protegido; Response of greenhouse tomato crop to irrigation levels and potassium doses grown under mulched soil conditions in São Paulo, Brazil

Kalungu, Jokastah Wanzuu
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/02/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.98%
O tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) é um dos vegetais mais populares e amplamente consumidos e que faz parte importante na dieta diária. A maioria das áreas cultivadas com a cultura é usando irrigação por sulcos e com menor proporção irrigada por gotejamento. Além de baixa eficiência no uso da água, o sistema de irrigação por sulcos possui impacto ambiental negativo, tornando assim o gotejamento um sistema alternativo viável. O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito de quatro lâminas de irrigação por gotejamento, três doses de potássio e a presença de cobertura plástica sobre as características agronômicas do tomateiro L. esculentum, cultivar Débora Plus. Foi utilizado um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em um esquema fatorial 4x3x2, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de lâminas de irrigação equivalentes a 125, 100, 75 e 50 % da necessidade hídrica da cultura, com doses de potássio de 208, 416 e 624 kg ha-1, com e sem cobertura do solo ("mulching"). A lâmina de irrigação foi aplicada mediante sistema de gotejamento quando a tensão da água no solo estava entre 10 e 15 kPa. As lâminas de irrigação afetaram significativamente os parâmetros de crescimento vegetativo e produtividade. O potássio...

Efeito da alta freqüência de irrigação e do "mulching" plástico na produção da pimenta 'Tabasco' fertirrigada por gotejamento; Effects of high irrigation frequency and plastic mulching on pepper Tabasco production under drip fertirigation

Chaves, Sérgio Weine Paulino
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/02/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo e da freqüência de fertirrigação no rendimento da pimenteira Tabasco, em dois tipos de solo: Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo (franco-arenosa) e Argissolo Vermelho (argilosa), foi desenvolvido um experimento no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz - ESALQ, pertencente à Universidade de São Paulo - USP, localizado em Piracicaba-SP, durante o período de maio de 2007 a abril de 2008. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da combinação de duas coberturas do solo (com plástico prateado e sem cobertura) combinado com quatro freqüências de irrigação (24, 12, 3 e 1 fertirrigação / 3 dias). O uso do plástico prateado proporcionou decréscimo a massa fresca total de frutos por planta, número total de frutos, massa média total do fruto e massa seca total de frutos, nos solos franco-arenoso e argiloso, e somente a eficiência do uso do fósforo no solo argiloso. Ainda, o mulching não mostrou efeito na percentagem de massa seca dos frutos, eficiência do uso da água, eficiência do uso do nitrogênio, eficiência do uso do potássio e eficiência do uso do NPK...

Rendimento e qualidade de melancia cultivada sob proteção de agrotêxtil combinado com mulching plástico

Dantas, Mara S. M.; Grangeiro, Leilson C.; de Medeiros, José F.; Cruz, Claudia A.; da Cunha, Ana P. A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 824-829
ENG; POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
The ground cover is an agricultural practice that is designed mainly to control weeds, while the nonwoven prevents the attack of pests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and fruit quality of watermelon grown under nonwoven textile protection combined with plastic mulching. The experiment was conducted at the WG Fruits Company, Baraúna, RN. A randomized block design was used in a factorial 3 x 3 + 1 with four replications, and 36 plants per plot, with the first factor of color of plastic used in mulching (black, silver and white) and the second factor nonwoven textile with different times of use (first and third crop nonwoven under textile and without nonwoven) and an absolute control (no mulching and without nonwoven). The production variables evaluated were: yield (commercial, noncommercial, and total fruit yield), and fruit quality (soluble solids - SS, titratable acidity - TA and SS/TA). The use of mulching and protection of plants with nonwoven textile provided a higher yield of watermelon fruits in relation to bare soil with and without nonwoven textile protection. Fruit quality was not affected by the use of mulching and nonwoven.

Decomposição de residuos de milho e atributos fisico-hidricos do solo sobre plantio direto em area cultivada com feijão irrigado na Região de Campinas, SP; Decomposition of waste maize and soil physical and hydic attributes on no-tillage in area with irrigated beans cultivated in Campinas, SP Region

Carolina Maria Sanchez Saenz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/09/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.98%
A cobertura morta constitui um dos principais fatores para o êxito da produção agrícola em sistema plantio direto. Dentre as principais características buscadas, as plantas utilizadas como fonte de cobertura vegetal devem proteger o solo e melhorar seus atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos para a cultura subseqüente. Por isso, tem-se procurado a identificar sistemas de manejo do solo que favoreçam o aumento ou que mantenham a quantidade de cobertura morta sobre o solo. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes quantidades de cobertura morta do solo e doses de nitrogênio mineral depositadas sobre a superfície de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, relacionando a decomposição com atributos físico-hídricos no sistema plantio direto com feijão irrigado. O ensaio foi conduzido no Campo Experimental da Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola da UNICAMP, em Campinas, SP, no período de junho a setembro de 2007, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições no esquema fatorial 3x4 (total de 12 tratamentos e 36 parcelas). As doses de nitrogênio foram ausência de N, 50 kg ha-1 e 120 kg ha-1 e as quantidades de cobertura morta foram ausência de palha, 4,0 Mg ha-1, 6,0 Mg ha-1 e 10,0 Mg ha-1. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância e comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey com 5% de probabilidade pelo programa SAS. Os resultados mostram que nos tratamentos com aplicação de resíduos de milho na superfície do solo houve maior manutenção no teor de água no solo ao longo do ciclo da cultura. A decomposição do resíduo de milho foi semelhante em todos os tratamentos avaliados e não sofreu influência da aplicação de nitrogênio...

Cobertura morta de milho na umidade do solo e produtividade do feijoeiro irrigado em sistema plantio direto na região de Campinas-SP; Maize mulching in the soil moisture and productivity of irrigated dry bean under no-tillage system in Campinas-SP

Douglas Roberto Bizari
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.77%
A potencialidade do sistema plantio direto (SPD) na conservação da água e do solo, aliado à necessidade de pesquisas com culturas irrigadas nesse sistema, principalmente no Estado de São Paulo, determina uma demanda de informações nessa área, visando minimizar a degradação dos recursos hídricos, normalmente utilizado de maneira inadequada na busca por elevadas produtividades. Diante da importância da necessidade da água para irrigação, torna-se imprescindível a conscientização do produtor rural com relação ao seu manejo racional, que pode ser alcançado tanto pela implantação de técnicas conservacionistas quanto pela utilização de equipamentos de monitoramento da umidade do solo mais práticos e eficientes. Apesar da sua importância para o sucesso do SPD irrigado, há uma carência, no Estado de São Paulo, de estudos voltados para a quantidade adequada de cobertura morta na superfície do solo, que possa proporcionar disponibilidade de água necessária para as plantas, durante o seu ciclo de desenvolvimento, levando-se em conta a sua decomposição, que pode ser mais ou menos rápida, dependendo das condições climáticas da região. Baseado nisso, estudou-se a influência de diferentes quantidades de cobertura morta de milho na conservação da umidade e produtividade da cultura do feijoeiro...

Erosão em entressulcos em área cultivada com cana-de-açúcar e a relação com a quantidade de palha em superfície; Interrill erosion under sugarcane crop and its relation to the quantity of straw on soil surface

Gilka Rocha Vasconcelos da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/06/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Dentre as formas de erosão hídrica do solo, a erosão em entressulcos é uma das que causa maiores danos ao processo produtivo dos solos utilizados na agricultura, por provocar perda de solo, água e nutrientes. A erosão em entressulcos acontece pela desagregação do solo, pelo impacto das gotas de chuva, sendo as partículas desalojadas transportadas por um delgado fluxo laminar superficial. Porém, com a presença de resíduos vegetais sobre a superfície do solo são alteradas as características de escoamento superficial, desagregação e transporte de solo resultantes do processo erosivo. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em determinar a quantidade mínima de palha que deve ser mantida na superfície do solo em área cultivada com cana-de-açúcar que promova a conservação do solo, pela redução da erosão entressulcos. O experimento foi conduzido em um LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Distrófico, em parcelas com declividade de 0,07 m m-1, sob chuva simulada, com aplicação em superfície de quantidades variadas de palha de cana-de-açúcar, baseando-se na taxa de produção de palha local de 1,4 kg m-2. Os tratamentos avaliados representam quantidades de palha depositadas na superfície, em número de 5: 1) 0% de palha; 2) 25% de palha; 3) 50% de palha; 4) 75% de palha e 5) 100% de palha. As parcelas experimentais foram submetidas a chuvas simuladas com intensidade média de 65 mm h-1 (I)...

Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion

Prats, S.A.; Martins, M.A.S.; Malvar, M.C.; Ben-Hur, M.; Keizer, J.J.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10–12 Mg ha−1 , and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha−1 . During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha−1 of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and...

Effects of soil tillage and mulching on thermal performance of a Luvisol topsoil layer

Andrade, J.A,; Alexandre, C.A.; Basch, G.
Fonte: Institute of Forest Ecology Slovak Academy of Sciences Publicador: Institute of Forest Ecology Slovak Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Important energy exchanges at soil surface regulate the thermal environment within top soil layer and the boundary layer above it. By this reason, the application of mulches or the modelling of micro relief by soil tillage are common practises to modify the thermal regime of a soil. The aim of this study is to compare the effect on thermal behaviour of a Luvisol resulting of soil tillage and the application of stubble mulch and, different amounts of straw mulch. For this purpose, experiments were performed from January to May 2007 in a field sowed with winter wheat. Temperatures were measured with copper-constantan (Type T) thermocouples placed over straw and over stubble, at soil surface and at 2, 4 and 8 cm depth. Temperatures above canopy were also recorded. Daily mean temperatures and temperature amplitudes in the top soil layer covered by straw mulch were smaller than those verified either by stubble mulch or with soil tillage. Daily minimum temperatures in mobilized plots or covered by stubble mulch were smaller than those verified in plots covered by straw mulch, therefore being the former treatments more susceptible to frost than the later ones. Thermal differences between the four plots decreased significantly with wheat growth. Implications of these techniques of soil temperature control for crop growth are also discussed.

Mulching and soil tillage influence on the thermal behaviour of a Luvisol surface layer

Andrade, José; Alexandre, Carlos; Basch, Gottlieb
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
Important energy exchanges at soil surface regulate the thermal environment within top soil layer and the boundary layer above it. By this reason, the application of mulches or the modelling of micro relief by soil tillage are common practises to modify the thermal regime of a soil. The aim of this study is to compare the effect on thermal behaviour of a Luvisol resulting of soil tillage and the application of stubble mulch and, different amounts of straw mulch. For this purpose, experiments were performed from January to May 2007 in a field sowed with winter wheat. Temperatures were measured with copper-constantan (Type T) thermocouples placed over straw and over stubble, at soil surface and at 2, 4 and 8 cm depth. Temperatures above canopy were also recorded. Daily mean temperatures and thermal amplitudes in the top soil layer covered by straw mulch were smaller than those verified either by stubble mulch or with soil tillage. Daily minimum temperatures in mobilized plots or covered by stubble mulch were smaller than those verified in plots covered by straw mulch, therefore being the former treatments more susceptible to frost than the later ones. Thermal differences between the four plots decreased significantly with wheat growth. Implications of these techniques of soil temperature control for crop growth are also discussed.

Availability of soil water under tillage systems, mulch management and citrus rootstocks

Fidalski,Jonez; Auler,Pedro Antonio Martins; Beraldo,José Marcos Garrido; Marur,Celso Jamil; Faria,Rogério Teixeira de; Barbosa,Graziela Moraes de Cesare
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
The increased availability of soil water is important for the management of non-irrigated orange orchards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the availability of soil water in a Haplorthox (Rhodic Ferralsol) under different tillage systems used for orchard plantation, mulch management and rootstocks in a "Pêra" orange orchard in northwest Paraná, Brazil. An experiment in a split-split-plot design was established in 2002, in an area cultivated with Brachiaria brizantha grass in which three tillage systems (no tillage, conventional tillage and strip-tillage) were used for orchard plantation. This grass was mowed twice a year between the rows, representing two mulch managements in the split plots (no mulching and mulching in the plant rows). The split-split-plots were represented by two rootstocks ("Rangpur" lime and "Cleopatra" mandarin). The soil water content in the plant rows was evaluated in the 0-20 cm layer in 2007 and at 0-20 and 20-40 cm in 2008-2009. The effect of soil tillage systems prior to implantation of orange orchards on soil water availability was less pronounced than mulching and the rootstocks. The soil water availability was lower when "Pêra" orange trees were grafted on "Cleopatra" mandarin than on "Rangpur" lime rootstocks. Mulching had a positive influence on soil water availability in the sandy surface layer (0-20 cm) and sandy clay loam subsurface (20-40 cm) of the soil in the spring. The production of B. brizantha between the rows and residue disposal in the plant rows as mulch increased water availability to the "Pêra" orange trees.

Agronomic performances of Pak Choi grown with different soil cover

Echer,Márcia M; Dalastra,Graciela M; Hachmann,Tiago L; Klosowski,Elcio S; Guimarães,Vandeir F
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Horticultura Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Horticultura
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
An important aspect in the cultivation of vegetables is the quality of the product to be marketed, free from dirt and damage and the practice of mulching could be an option, but there is scarse information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of mulching on the production traits of three cultivars of Pak Choi. The experiment was set up during March to May 2013 using a split plot randomized block design, with four replications. Soil cover treatments (white agrotextile, black agrotextile, black plastic, silver plastic, tifton straw and bare soil) were arranged in the plots, and three cultivars of Pak Choi (Green Pak Choi, White Pak Choi and Chingensai Natsu Shomi) in subplots. Height and diameter of shoots, number of leaves, fresh weight of the head and petiole, base diameter, dry weight of stem, petiole, and leaf were evaluated thirty-five days after transplantation. The total dry weight and leaf area were measured, and then we estimated the yield. There was a significant effect of soil cover and cultivar. In general, the cover with synthetic materials showed higher values on production of Pak Choi. The cultivar White Pak Choi was better adapted to the growing conditions, with an average yield of 57.78 t/ha.

Effect of polyethylene mulches on soil temperature and tomato yield in plastic greenhouse

Streck,N.A.; Schneider,F.M.; Buriol,G.A.; Heldwein,A.B.
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
The effect of soil mulching with transparent, black, white, and co-extruded white-on-black polyethylene sheets on soil temperature and tomato yield was evaluated in the Subtropical Central Region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from August 21, 1994 to December 2, 1994 in a 10m x 25m nonheated plastic greenhouse located at the county of Santa Maria. Highest soil temperatures were obtained under transparent mulch. Maximum amplitude of soil temperature waves was smaller under opaque mulches. Tomato yield was not significantly affected by mulch treatments, however, a tendency of greater yield was observed for opaque mulches as compared to transparent mulch. Among opaque mulches, the highest yield was obtained from white mulches.

Soil microbial biomass under mulch types in an integrated apple orchard from Southern Brazil

Almeida,Denice de Oliveira; Klauberg Filho,Osmar; Almeida,Henrique Cesar; Gebler,Luciano; Felipe,Aline Franciane
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
The use of mulching is an alternative to control weeds but there are few studies on its effect on soil quality. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of types of mulching on the attributes of microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a Typic Hapludox with production of integrated apples in southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks in the Vacaria, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The soil mulch types studied were: pine needle, sawdust, black plastic and a control. The soil samples were collected in February (summer) and August (winter) of 2006, and the attributes related to total organic and microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were determined. Organic mulchings (pine needle and sawdust) promoted lower soil temperature, and greater moisture, microbial carbon (Cmic), microbial nitrogen (Nmic), and the ratios Cmic:Corg, Nmic:Norg and microbial C:N than black plastic. Microbial phosphorus was greater in winter. Sawdust mulching promoted the best conditions to microbial biomass in winter. The mulch types increased the microbial compartment in winter as compared to the nonweeded control .

Cobertura do solo e n??veis de nitrog??nio no desenvolvimento, na produ????o e na qualidade de frutos de mirtileiros; Mulching and nitrogen level on growth, production and quality of blueberries fruits.

MOURA, Gisely Corr??a de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Fruticultura de Clima Temperado; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Fruticultura de Clima Temperado; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
The Blueberry is a temperate fruit tree traditionally grown in the North hemisphere, which has great economic importance. In Brazil the blueberry tree culture is still in development phase being necessary to develop an efficient and competitive production system that ensures the entrance on the world market. This work aimed to evaluate the growth, yield and fruits quality of blueberry trees using different types of mulching and nitrogen doses. The experiments were carried out at commercial orchard, located at Morro Redondo-RS from March 2007 at March 2009. Blueberry plants cultivars Climax and Bluegem were used for two experiments with mulching and Powderblue for that with nitrogen. In the beginning of the first year, the plants were 4 years old and with space of 1m among plants and 3m among rows. For those with mulching, the experimental design was a randomized blocks with 4 repetitions, three plants per plot and five treatments: T1: plot without mulching (control); T2: natural mulching (native and exotic species commonly found in areas of fruit cultivation); T3: eucalyptus sawdust; T4: pinus needle and T5: rice hull. For the experiment with nitrogen, the experimental design was that of randomized blocks with three repetitions and three plants per plot. Different nitrogen doses using ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 with 21% of N as source were adopted...

Soil solarization for weed control in carrot

MARENCO,RICARDO ANTONIO; LUSTOSA,DENISE CASTRO
Fonte: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira Publicador: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.89%
Soil solarization is a technique used for weed and plant disease control in regions with high levels of solar radiation. The effect of solarization (0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks) upon weed populations, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Brasília) yield and nematode infestation in carrot roots was studied in São Luís (2º35' S; 44º10' W), MA, Brazil, using transparent polyethylene films (100 and 150 mm of thickness). The maximum temperature at 5 cm of depth was about 10ºC warmer in solarized soil than in control plots. In the study 20 weed types were recorded. Solarization reduced weed biomass and density in about 50% of weed species, including Cyperus spp., Chamaecrista nictans var. paraguariensis (Chod & Hassl.) Irwin & Barneby, Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl) O. Kuntze, Mitracarpus sp., Mollugo verticillata L., Sebastiania corniculata M. Arg., and Spigelia anthelmia L. Approximately 40% of species in the weed flora were not affected by soil mulching. Furthermore, seed germination of Commelina benghalensis L. was increased by soil solarization. Marketable yield of carrots was greater in solarized soil than in the unsolarized one. It was concluded that solarization for nine weeks increases carrot yield and is effective for controlling more than half of the weed species recorded. Mulching was not effective for controlling root-knot nematodes in carrot.

Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/11/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.2%
Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

Efeito da cobertura de polietileno sobre a temperatura do solo e produtividade do tomateiro em estufa plástica; Effect of polyethylene mulches on soil temperature and tomato yield in plastic greenhouse

Streck, N.A.; Schneider, F.M.; Buriol, G.A.; Heldwein, A.B.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/1995 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo com polietileno transparente, preto, branco e co-extruzado branco-preto sobre a temperatura do solo e produtividade do tomateiro no interior de uma estufa plástica, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O período experimental foi de 21 de agosto a 02 de dezembro de 1994. Observou-se que a temperatura máxima e média diária do solo foi maior sob polietileno transparente. A amplitude máxima da onda diária de temperatura do solo foi maior nos materiais opacos em relação ao transparente. Não houve diferença estatística na produtividade do tomateiro entre os tratamentos, mas a produtividade média foi maior com plásticos opacos do que com o plástico transparente. Entre os plásticos opacos, a maior produtividade foi obtida nos plásticos brancos, que refletem maior fração da radiação solar global incidente do que o plástico preto.; The effect of soil mulching with transparent, black, white, and co-extruded white-on-black polyethylene sheets on soil temperature and tomato yield was evaluated in the Subtropical Central Region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from August 21, 1994 to December 2, 1994 in a 10m x 25m nonheated plastic greenhouse located at the county of Santa Maria. Highest soil temperatures were obtained under transparent mulch. Maximum amplitude of soil temperature waves was smaller under opaque mulches. Tomato yield was not significantly affected by mulch treatments...

Biomassa microbiana do solo sob coberturas em pomar integrado de maçãs no Sul do Brasil; Soil microbial biomass under mulch types in an integrated apple orchard from Southern Brazil

Almeida, Denice de Oliveira; Klauberg Filho, Osmar; Almeida, Henrique Cesar; Gebler, Luciano; Felipe, Aline Franciane
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
The use of mulching is an alternative to control weeds but there are few studies on its effect on soil quality. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of types of mulching on the attributes of microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a Typic Hapludox with production of integrated apples in southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks in the Vacaria, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The soil mulch types studied were: pine needle, sawdust, black plastic and a control. The soil samples were collected in February (summer) and August (winter) of 2006, and the attributes related to total organic and microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were determined. Organic mulchings (pine needle and sawdust) promoted lower soil temperature, and greater moisture, microbial carbon (Cmic), microbial nitrogen (Nmic), and the ratios Cmic:Corg, Nmic:Norg and microbial C:N than black plastic. Microbial phosphorus was greater in winter. Sawdust mulching promoted the best conditions to microbial biomass in winter. The mulch types increased the microbial compartment in winter as compared to the nonweeded control .; O uso da cobertura do solo é alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas. Entretanto há poucos estudos sobre seu efeito na qualidade do solo. Avaliou-se...

DISEASES OCCURRENCE IN PAK CHOI CROP ON SOIL COVER AND ROW COVER WITH POLYPROPYLENE; OCORRÊNCIA DE DOENÇAS EM “PAK CHOI” EM CULTIVOS COM COBERTURAS DO SOLO E DA PLANTA COM POLIPROPILENO

DALLA PRIA, Maristella; UEPG; REGHIN, Marie Yamamoto; UEPG; OTTO, Rosana Fernandes; UEPG; VINNE, Jhony van der; UEPG
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
The cultivation protected by polypropylene or agrotextile has confirmed its benefits increasing vegetables output, when used as plant protection mechanism or used in the technique of soil cover. However, little is known about the diseases´ intensity on the crop system using these techniques. Under these circumstances, the present experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of the techniques of soil cover with black polypropylene (grid of 40 g m-2) and crop cover with white polypropylene (grid of 25 g m-2) on the diseases intensity in the pak choi cultivation. The black polypropylene was fixed over the soil before the seedlings transplant and the white one was placed over the plants, fixed as a floating cover after the transplant, and fixed on the sides with its own soil. Each plot had 24 plants spaced at 0,25 x 0,25 m, with seedlings transplanted at the 4-5 definite leaves stages , obtained from trays. At harvest, the spot of Alternaria disease, the soft rot and the plant´s fresh weight were evaluated. The white propylene on the crop’s cover reduced the percentage of sick leaves and also the severity of Alternaria spot. Besides that, it promoted output increase on the “Canton” variety, obtaining plants with higher fresh weight. It was not observed a significant response of the black polypropylene soil cover on the production features. However...