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Soil protection in sloping mediterranean agri-environments: lectures and exercises

Evelpidou, Niki (Ed.); Figueiredo, Tomás de (Ed.)
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Livro
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
The long history of the Mediterranean records striking examples of success and failure of land use models and management practices, which, in the latter case, are a heavy heritage for the soil resource in this basin. At present day, many forms of soil degradation threaten Mediterranean soils as, for instance, salinization, pollution, structural degradation and erosion. There is a geographical pattern of distribution of these forms of soil degradation and soil erosion is first in rank as far as sloping areas are concerned. Corresponding to a very large surface of Mediterranean land, these are especially sensitive areas, where soils are a qualitatively scarce resource. Sloping Mediterranean agri-environments heir a very significant part of cropping systems, crops and products traditional of the basin, vineyards and olive groves being the most relevant ones. Improvements in productivity and economic income of these areas are imperative to reduce population depletion and its impacts on territory sustainability. On the other hand, the long-term cultivated and highly eroded slopes ask for alternative land use models and management options that allow recovery of already much degraded environments. The importance of sloping areas...

Evolução de crostas superficiais sob chuva natural em diferentes solos da região de Piracicaba, SP.; Superficial crusting evolution in natural rainfall in different type of soil in Piracicaba, SP.

Castilho, Selene Cristina de Pierri
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
O encrostamento superficial é um dos fatores de favorecimento da erosão e degradação dos solos. O estudo e monitoramento das crostas superficiais são importantes para o manejo e conservação do solo e da água, principalmente em regiões de clima tropical, onde a degradação do solo é mais intensa e percebe-se um descuido em relação à proteção do ambiente. O presente projeto teve como objetivo o monitoramento da formação e evolução das crostas superficiais para solos de texturas contrastantes. Foram monitoradas as modificações ocorridas nos solos escolhidos para cada evento chuvoso acima de 25 mm/h durante os meses de dezembro de 2008 a maio de 2009. O projeto foi composto por três tipos de solo Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo de textura média, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo e Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico argiloso e ocorreram concomitantemente em diferentes áreas. O delineamento experimental escolhido foi blocos ao acaso. Para monitoramento da formação de crosta associada a ocorrência de eventos chuvosos foram coletadas amostras deformadas e indeformadas para análises físicas e químicas de rotina, medidas da densidade do solo, confecção de curvas de retenção de água e para análises micromorfológicas e de imagens. Em campo foi realizado o monitoramento da infiltração de água e da rugosidade superficial do solo. A redução na rugosidade do solo pode ser observada já nas primeiras chuvas e ocorreu de maneira rápida para todos os tipos de solo. As crostas superficiais foram formadas para todos os solos...

Indicators of soil degradation in urban forests: Physical and chemical parameters

Longo, R. M.; Reis, M. S.; Yamaguchi, C. S.; Demamboro, A. C.; Bettine, S. C.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Medeiros, G. A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 497-503
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
The fragmentation of forest habitats in urban areas has aroused increasing interest in recent years according to the growing environmental problems. The fragmentation of theses ecosystems is caused, in general, by the pressure of housing, agriculture and industry, causing losses in biodiversity and problems of soil degradation in the border areas of theses remnants. The establishment of indicators of soil degradation becomes essential for the implementation of conservation and reclamation. This study analyzes physical and chemical characteristics of soil under different forms of vegetation in the forest surrounding the Quilombo Forest, located in Campinas/SP - Brazil, and examines the possibility of using these indices as indicators of environmental degradation in urban remnants. The parameters analyzed were: specific weight natural (γn), specific weight of solids (γs) Ca, P, K, Mg, pH, organic matter, H + Al, Sum of Base (SB) Percent Base Saturation (V%), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC). The study shows that in general the different forms of land used in the study area significantly changed (or according to) the physical aspects of soil The porosity and voids of the soil stood out as the best indicators of soil physical degradation in the layer 0-20 cm deep. In relation to chemical indices...

Soil erodibility assessment in a pasture and forest remnant using the inderbitzen device

Ribeiro, A. I.; Gonzalez, L. F.; Longo, R. M.; de Medeiros, G. A.; Rosa, André Henrique; Lourenço, Roberto Wagner; Fengler, F. H.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 49-55
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
Brazil has the largest cattle herd in the world with approximately 200 million head. An important feature of the Brazilian cattle industry is that most of its herd is raised on pasture, which constitutes one of the most economical and practical ways to produce and provide food for cattle. However, this production model is mishandled and can lead to soil degradation. Maintaining soil quality is essential for the conservation of natural ecosystems and the areas of production, thus soil quality improves the conditions for biogeochemical cycles. In this context, the objective of this study was to develop a device for testing the Inderbitzen way of assessing soil erodibility in two situations of usage and occupation. Therefore, one area was used as a sample collection occupied by grazing and the other as a forest fragment; both located in the city of Sorocaba in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Thus, we concluded that the proposed device - the Inderbitzen - proved capable of assessing soil erodibility of the pasture and remnant forest. Accordingly, there was a tendency for a smaller loss of forest soils in the remnant when compared to the degraded pasture. The greatest resistance of the soil erosion in the forest remnant may be associated with the amount of organic matter released by the forest litter in all its diversity...

Avaliação da degradação do meio físico por áreas de empréstimo utilizando geoindicadores e sistema de informações geográficas - área de expansão urbana de Ilha Solteira (SP)

Tavares, Aline Botini
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 192 f. : il., fots. (algumas color.)
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Engenharia Civil - FEIS; Projetos civis que usualmente dependem de terraplenagem para sua construção necessitam sempre de solo como matéria-prima, o qual geralmente é obtido de áreas de empréstimo próximas ao local da obra e com as características técnicas de interesse. A remoção de solo em tais áreas pode gerar impactos que dificultam o aproveitamento futuro da área. Estudos de degradação devem incluir a avaliação das condições atuais bem como avaliar propostas futuras de aproveitamento das áreas, devendo ser realizados de forma rápida e tecnicamente confiável. O uso de geoindicadores para avaliação da degradação do solo é uma proposta inovadora que identifica um conjunto de atributos que descrevem em curto prazo a dinâmica ambiental, e representam os parâmetros dos quais os processos dependem. Com a finalidade de propor e testar procedimentos de análise de impactos que satisfaçam os requisitos citados foi desenvolvido o presente trabalho no município de Ilha Solteira considerando parcelas do terreno que foram utilizadas como área de empréstimo em função da construção da Usina Hidrelétrica e de obras auxiliares. O levantamento de dados foi feito a partir de geoindicadores propostos com o intuito de representar os impactos ambientais nas áreas. Foi desenvolvida uma sistemática de avaliação de impactos em áreas de empréstimo cuja modelagem em SIG (Spring 4.3.2) e a metodologia de valoração dos impactos podem vir a ser úteis tanto em situações similares...

Alteração de atributos fisicos de um solo, sob pastagem degradada, submetido a escarificação; Physical attributes changes on a soil, under degraded pasture, submitted to scarification

Marcelo Jose Colet
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/02/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
O uso intensivo do solo, associado ao emprego de práticas de manejo inadequadas, implica em sua degradação. Este problema é de comum ocorrência em áreas de pastagens, onde usualmente o produtor prioriza investimentos no rebanho, negligenciando o manejo do solo. Nessas áreas, a compactação do solo pode ser considerada uma das principais causas de limitação da capacidade de produção da forrageira. Várias técnicas podem ser utilizadas para romper camadas compactadas do solo, dentre elas a escarificação. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações ocorridas em atributos físicos de um solo sob pastagem mediante sua escarificação, visualizando a recuperação de pastagens degradadas. Para tal, implementou-se um experimento em uma área de Brachiaria decumbens no Instituto de Zootecnia em Nova Odessa (SP), utilizando um protótipo de máquina agrícola desenvolvido na Feagri/Unicamp, que permite a escarificação do solo e distribuição de corretivos simultaneamente. O efeito da escarificação do solo foi avaliado pela resistência do solo à penetração, determinada com um penetrógrafo hidráulico eletrônico, e pelos atributos físicos macroporosidade, microporosidade, porosidade total e densidade do solo...

Sustainable Soil Management Is More Than What and How Crops are Grown

Kassam, Amir; Basch, Gottlieb; Friedrich, Theodor; Shaxson, Francis; Goddard, Tom; Amado, Temo, J. C.; Crabtree, Bill; Hongwen, Li; Mello, Ivo; Pisante, Michele; Mkomwa, Saidi
Fonte: CRC Press Publicador: CRC Press
Tipo: Parte de Livro
POR
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56.45%
Soil management in agricultural landscapes should deploy production practices that are in harmony with soil-mediated ecosystem functions if they are to deliver a broad range of ecosystem services. Such services include edible and nonedible biological products, clean drinking water, processes that decompose and transform organic matter, and cleansing processes that maintain air quality. Several categories of ecosystem services are recognized: provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [MEA] 2005). In agricultural landscapes, provisioning ecosystem services can be delivered effectively and efficiently when the linked regulatory and supporting services are allowed to operate normally. Ecosystem functions that protect and enhance regulatory and supporting ecosystem services in the soil and landscape in which crops are grown appear, in general, to offer an effective way of harnessing the best productivity, ecological, and economic performances. Thus, agricultural soil management can only be considered sustainable if field soil health and productive capacity are kept at an optimum to provide ecosystem services such as provision of clean water, hydrologic and nutrient cycling, habitats for microorganisms and mesofauna...

The costs of soil erosion

Telles,Tiago Santos; Guimarães,Maria de Fátima; Dechen,Sonia Carmela Falci
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
The aim of this study was a survey of the estimated costs of soil erosion, an issue of fundamental importance in view of the current worldwide discussions on sustainability. A list was drawn up of research papers on erosion (on-site and off-site effects) and their respective costs. The estimates indicate the amount of resources spent in the process of soil degradation, raising a general awareness of the need for soil conservation. On-site costs affect the production units directly, while off-site costs create a burden borne by the environment, economy and society. In addition, estimating the costs of soil erosion should be effective to alert the agricultural producers, society and government for the need for measures that can be implemented to bring erosion under control. Among the various estimates of soil erosion costs between 1933 a 2010, the highest figure was 45.5 billion dollars a year for the European Union. In the United States, the highest figure was 44 billion dollars a year. In Brazil, estimates for the state of Paraná indicate a value of 242 million dollars a year, and for the state of São Paulo, 212 million dollars a year. These figures show, above all, that conservation measures must be implemented if crop and livestock farming production are to be sustainable.

Improving Soil Fertility Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

Donovan, Graeme; Casey, Frank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
There are more than 60 million smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Declining soil fertility is a fundamental impediment to agricultural growth and a major reason for slow growth in food production in SSA. In Africa, as a result of soil degradation, irrigated lands may be, on average, 7 percent below their potential productivity, rain-fed crop lands 14 percent below their potential and rangelands 45 percent below potential. Compared to parts of North America, Europe and of Asia, most SSA soils are naturally not very fertile. Low in a number of chemical constituents such as phosphorus, sulphur, magnesium and zinc, low amounts of soil organic matter (SOM) combined with poor land cover have resulted in poor soil structure, limited rooting depth and susceptibility to accelerated erosion. However, similar soils in other parts of the world have been made highly productive by using appropriate management techniques. There are two main approaches to improved soil fertility management. One is to attempt to meet plant requirements with purchased mineral fertilizers. The second relies on biological processes to optimize nutrient recycling...

Arab Republic of Egypt : Cost Assessment of Environmental Degradation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
The report is a first step in a process towards the use of environmental damage cost assessments, for priority setting, and as an instrument for integrating environment, into economic, and social development. The report provides estimates of damage, and remediation cost for several areas of the environment, and, as areas of priority are identified, further analysis would be required for more accurate estimates. The damage cost of environmental degradation in Egypt in 1999, is estimated at 3.2-6.4 percent of GDP, with a mean estimate of 4.8 of GDP. In addition, the damage cost to the global environment is estimated at 0.6 percent of GDP. The cost of air pollution is assessed at 1.1-3.2 percent of GDP (urban outdoor and rural indoor), followed by soil degradation at 1.0-1.4 percent (erosion and salinity). In the area of water, the damage cost is estimated at 0.7-1.2 percent of GDP (mostly from the lack of safe water, sanitation and hygiene). Cost of coastal zone degradation is estimated at 0.2.-0.4 percent of GDP...

Morocco : Cost Assessment of Environmental Degradation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
This report is the first step in a process toward using environmental damage cost assessments for priority setting and as an instrument for integrating environmental issues into economic and social development. The report provides estimates of damage cost for several areas of the environment: air, water, land and forests, and waste disposal. The estimates should be considered as orders of magnitude and a range is provided to indicate the level of uncertainty. As areas of priority are identified, further analysis will be required for more accurate estimates. Due to data limitations, the damage cost of environmental degradation has not been estimated in several areas: industrial, hazardous, and hospital waste disposal; unsanitary landfills; degradation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity; and groundwater resource degradation and over-extraction. In addition and due to the complexity of the problem, the report only partially captures damage resulting from soil degradation. The report points t the need to further assess and quantify current and potential future damage costs related to those impacts.

The potential of European Union policies to address soil degradation processes in agriculture

LOUWAGIE Geertrui; GAY Stephan; SAMMETH Frank; RATINGER Tomas
Fonte: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD Publicador: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Six of the soil degradation processes recognised at EU level are closely linked to agriculture. Soil degradation implies a need for protection, maintenance and improvement of soil quality. However, due to the public good characteristics of soil quality, the market does not sufficiently assure its provision. Thus, policy intervention is required to reach desired levels of soil quality through appropriate practices. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of EU polices that have scope for addressing soil degradation in agriculture. To this aim, EU legislation and legislative proposals along with related evaluations and research projects were analysed with the intervention logic approach. To date, soil protection is not a specific objective of EU legislation but features in some policies as a secondary objective. Pursuing other environmental objectives contributes to some extent to soil quality, although not always effectively. Currently, the most important EU environmental directives for soil quality are the Nitrates Directive and the Water Framework Directive. Under the Common Agricultural Policy, the compulsory requirement to keep land in good agricultural and environmental condition plays an important role in soil protection and conservation. Rural development policy...

Soil Degradation and Soil Quality in Western Europe: Current situation and future perspectives

VIRTO Iñigo; IMAZ María José; FERNANDEZ UGALDE OIHANE; GARTZIA-BENGOETXEA Nahia; ENRIQUE Alberto; BESCANSA Paloma
Fonte: MDPI AG Publicador: MDPI AG
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
ENG
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46.37%
Abstract: The extension and causes of soil chemical, physical and biological degradation, and of soil loss, varies greatly in different countries in Western Europe. The objective of this work was to review these issues, the strategies for soil protection, and the future perspectives for soil quality evaluation, under the light of present legislation for soil protection. Agriculture and forestry are responsible for many of them, especially for physical degradation, erosion and organic matter loss. Land take and soil sealing have increased in the last decades and can enhance these problems. In agricultural land, conservation farming, organic farming and other soil-friendly practices have been seen to have site-specific effects, depending on the characteristics of soils and the particularities of land uses and land users. No single soil management strategy suitable for all regions, soil types and soil uses exists. Except for soil contamination, specific legislation for soil protection is lacking in the region. The development of a Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in the European Union has produced valuable information and the development of networks and databases. However, soil degradation is addressed only indirectly in environmental policies...

Review of Policies Addressing Soil Degradation Processes in European Agriculture - Findings of the Project 'Sustainable Agriculture and Soil Conservation' (SoCo)

LOUWAGIE Geertrui; GAY Stephan; SAMMETH Frank; RATINGER Tomas
Fonte: Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation, European Society for Soil Conservation, Czech Society of Soil Science Publicador: Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation, European Society for Soil Conservation, Czech Society of Soil Science
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: CD-ROM
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
The project 'Sustainable agriculture and soil conservation' (SoCo) analysed the links between soil degradation processes, soil-friendly farming practices, and relevant policy measures in EU agriculture. The policy information was based on a literature review and a survey monitoring national and regional policy implementation, supplemented with details from ten case studies across the EU-27. To date, soil protection is not a specific objective of EU legislation; in order to close this gap, the Commission proposed a Soil Framework Directive which is still under discussion. Currently, some EU environmental directives are expected to have beneficial effects on soil quality (e.g. the Nitrates Directive), but to a limited extent owing to a more focused set of objectives. Parallel, environmental objectives are to be integrated in EU sectoral policies (Cardiff process), including the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), where cross compliance and rural development measures stand out as important instruments. The study indicated that the existing policy measures have the potential to address all recognised soil degradation processes across the EU, even though not all policy measures are implemented in all Member States or regions. At present...

Soil degradation and prevention in greenhouse production

Liang, Y; Lin, X; Yamada, S; Inoue, M; Inosako, K
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Soil degradation has been a very serious problem for sustainable production, especially by a re-cropping of greenhouse-cultivated cucumber (Cucumis statirus L.). The aim of this research was to expound the actuality for soil degradation, at the same time, put forward some suggestion for preventing from soil degradation and maintain sustainable production in greenhouse basic on the two experiments conducted in a solar greenhouse during 2001-2008 suburb area of Yan'an, Shaanxi province in North China. The result shown that cucumber fruit productivity increased as the increasing of re-cropping years, but decreased after 5years continuously cropping. As increasing of re-cropping years, the population of fungus and bacteria increased, which was assumingly main factor of soil degradation. There was significant difference in cropping models on soil bio-characteristics and system productivity. The productivity were the highest in cropping model between cucumber and greengrocery, cucumber and cowpea (Vigna sinensis L), the second higher were in cropping model between cucumber and maize (Zea mays) for green manure, cucumber and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). That was the best way to reduce soil bacteria and epiphyte amount to follow lasting three or four months during summer season after cucumber harvest...

Forest Loss Impac on River Flow Regimes of the Singkarak - Ombilin River Basin, West Sumatra, Indonesia

Jeanes, Kevin Wayne
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
The impact of forest loss on catchment watershed functions has been the subject of scientific and public debate since the 1840’s in the temperate world and since the 1920’s in the tropical world. The thesis seeks to explore this debate and the impact of tropical native forest loss and soil degradation on catchment hydrologic response and the related river basin hydrological regimes. Evidence on these hydrological topics has been sought from a literature review, wet tropical case study and a combined bio-physical science, social survey and numerical analysis and modelling approach. The thesis identifies the impact of forest loss on aquifer recharge, low flows, flood patterns and flow seasonality, and the existence of the soil degradation-induced ‘infiltration trade-off’ effect (Bruijnzeel, 1988 ; Bruijnzeel, 1989), these being the main disputed issues of the science and debate. The stakeholders in the debate are identified to have a mismatch of perceptions stemming from their science or observations having been derived from sites with different hydroclimatic and soil conditions and different spatial and temporal scales. The rift exists between: ‘mainstream’ predominantly temperate hydrologists who had focussed on short-term and small-scale research studies on non-degraded soils; and ‘soil-focused’ tropical hydrologists and the tropical public...

Long-term Effect of a Single Application of Organic Refuse on Carbon Sequestration and Soil Physical Properties

Albaladejo Montoro, Juan; López, J.; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; González Barberá, Gonzalo; Martínez-Mena García, M. Dolores
Fonte: American Society of Agronomy; Crop Science Society of America; Soil Science Society of America Publicador: American Society of Agronomy; Crop Science Society of America; Soil Science Society of America
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 579917 bytes; image/jpeg
ENG
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56.08%
Restoration of degraded lands could be a way to reverse soil degradation and desertification in semiarid areas and mitigate greenhouse gases (GHG). Our objective was to evaluate the long-term effects of a single addition of organic refuse on soil physical properties and measure its carbon sequestration potential. In 1988, a set of five plots (87 m2 each) was established in an open desert-like scrubland (2–4% cover) in Murcia, Spain, to which urban solid refuse (USR) was added in a single treatment at different rates. Soil properties were monitored over a 5-yr period. Sixteen years after the addition, three of the plots were monitored again (P0: control, P1: 13 kg m–2, P2: 26 kg m–2 of USR added) to assess the lasting effect of the organic addition on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools and on the physical characteristics of the soil. The SOC content was higher in P2 (16.4 g kg–1) and in P1 (11.8 g kg–1) than in P0 (7.9 g kg–1). Likewise, aerial biomass increased from 0.18 kg m–2 in P0 up to 0.27 kg m–2 in P1 and 0.46 kg m–2 in P2. This represents a total C sequestration of 9.5 Mg ha–1 in P2 and 3.4 Mg ha–1 in P1, most of the sequestered C remaining in the recalcitrant soil pool. Additionally, higher saturated hydraulic conductivity...

Estimation de l'état de dégradation des sols sur marnes du Prérif (Maroc) par la susceptibilité magnétique: exemple du bassin versant de l'oued Boussouab

Sadiki, Abdelhamid; Faleh, Ali; Navas Izquierdo, Ana; Bouhlassa, Saidati
Fonte: Universidad de Murcia Publicador: Universidad de Murcia
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 1612040 bytes; application/pdf
FRA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
[FR] L'exploitation de la susceptibilité magnétique des particules du sols pour l'estimation de l'état de développement pédogénétique ou de dégradation des sols par l'érosion repose sur la comparaison des valeurs de la susceptibilité magnétique et de leur évolution en profondeur entre des sols stables de référence et des sols qui ont subi une érosion ou, au contraire, un apport de particules. Des mesures de la susceptibilité magnétique des particules du sol sur 30 cm de profondeur ont été effectués sur quatre zones différentes par la pente et l'utilisation des sols de la couverture pédologique d'un même substrat. Dans la première zone le sol est peu évolué. Il se développe sous une jachère exceptionnellement travaillée. La moyenne des susceptibilités magnétiques mesurées est de 7,41 10-8 m3/kg. Dans la seconde zone le sol est bien développé sur plusieurs décimètres. Il est intensivement exploité par la éréaliculture. La susceptibilité magnétique moyenne est de 23,42 10-8 m3/kg. La troisième zone est un sol qui évolue sous une formation herbacée naturelle (alfa) moyennement dense. La moyenne des susceptibilités magnétique de cette zone est 13,75 10-8 m3/kg. La quatrième zone a complètement perdu son sol...

Microbiological degradation index of soils in a semiarid climate

Bastida, F.; Moreno, J. L.; Hernández Fernández Muñoz, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 259768 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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56.38%
11 pages, 8 tables.; Soil degradation and desertification affect many areas of the planet. One such area is the Mediterranean region of SE Spain, where the climatological and lithological conditions, together with the relief of the landscape and anthropological activity, including agricultural abandonment, are responsible for increasing desertification. It is therefore considered to be of extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. The aim of this study was to make a microbiological and biochemical characterisation of different soil catenas in SE Spain, including in a wide range of plant cover densities in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to elaborate a microbiological degradation index (MDI) valid for use in semiarid climates. For this, several indices related with the organic matter content (total organic carbon, TOC, water-soluble carbon, WSC, and water-soluble carbohydrates, WSCh), with the size of microbial populations (microbial biomass carbon, MBC) and related activity (respiration and enzymatic activities) were determined in the soils of three different catenas in different seasons of the year. The values of these parameters were seen to be closely related with the degree of vegetal cover...

Organic wastes as amendments to avoid soil degradation in semiarid zones

García Izquierdo, Carlos; Bastida, F.; Hernández Fernández Muñoz, María Teresa
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Comunicación de congreso Formato: 154671 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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56.07%
En: 1st Spanish National Conference on Advances in Materials Recycling and Eco – Energy Madrid, 12-13 November 2009.-- Editors: F. A. López, F. Puertas, F. J. Alguacil and A. Guerrero.-- 4 pages, 1 figure, 2 tables.; A three-year experiment was set up under field conditions to test the potential of two organic amendments (sludge and compost) to improve soil quality and plant growth in a semiarid degraded Mediterranean area. Since little is known about N dynamics in such assisted ecosystems, we investigated the effects of this practice on key processes of the global N cycle (nitrification). Organic amendments influence resource availability, the size and the activity patterns of microbial populations in the long-term and may therefore play a key role to assist sustainable restoration practices in semiarid degraded areas.; Peer reviewed