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EROSION LOSSES FROM RUNOFF: INTERACTION OF SOIL COVER AND EROSION CONTROL PRACTICE

de Carvalho, Marco A. R.; Miranda, Jarbas Honorio de; Duarte, Sergio Nascimento; Carvalho, Lilian Cristina Castro de
Fonte: SOC BRASIL ENGENHARIA AGRICOLA; JABOTICABAL Publicador: SOC BRASIL ENGENHARIA AGRICOLA; JABOTICABAL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
The flow of sediment from cropped land is the main pollutant of water sources in rural areas. Due to this fact, it is necessary to develop and implement technologies that will reduce water and sediment discharges. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted in the Department of Biosystems Engineering - ESALQ / USP, Piracicaba - SP with the objective to evaluate the effect of different soil cover (bean, grass and bare ground) and erosion control practices (wide base terraces and infiltration furrows in slopes (no practices to control erosion)) while measuring water losses in runoff. The statistical design adopted was randomized blocks in a 3x3 factorial scheme resulting in 9 treatments with 3 replicates (blocks). The period of rainfall data collection was December 6, 2007 to April 11, 2008. A 21.1 cm diameter rain gauge was installed in the experimental area. Terraces were the most efficient practices for reducing erosion losses in the treatments with infiltration furrows being better than the control treatment. Bean was more effective than grass in reducing erosion. Bare ground was the least efficient.

Estudo das variações dos componentes do balanço hídrico e área com solo exposto na bacia hidrográfica do rio Verde, Goiás; A study on the variations of water balance components and areas with bare soil for the Verde River watershed, at Goiás State, Brazil

Santos, Ronaldo Antonio dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/02/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
Para promover o desenvolvimento sustentável e a conservação dos recursos naturais, torna-se fundamental compreender e quantificar a dinâmica do balanço hídrico regional. Comumente, a variabilidade dos componentes do balanço hídrico é causada por variações naturais do clima, contudo, as atividades antrópicas também podem provocar significativas variações espaço-temporais na dinâmica hidrológica da bacia hidrográfica. Ao reduzir a cobertura vegetal do solo, através do desflorestamento ou colheita de culturas anuais, promove-se uma redução na evapotranspiração e conseqüentemente, um aumento na vazão da bacia. Por conseguinte, realizou-se neste estudo a análise das relações entre as variações dos componentes do balanço hídrico e da área com solo exposto na bacia do rio Verde, entre 1995 a 2001 (Período 1) e 2002 a 2008 (Período 2). Para tanto, foi utilizado um banco de dados hidrológicos, climatológicos e de sensoriamento remoto, assim como técnicas de processamento, análise de consistência, testes de significância e modelagem do SEBAL. De acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, a precipitação pluviométrica anual nos Períodos 1 e 2 não diferiram, resultando em uma lâmina média de 1.405...

Alterações na rugosidade superficial do solo pelo preparado e pela chuva e sua relação com a erosão hídrica; Alterations in soil surface roughness by tillage and rainfall in relation to water erosion

Castro, Luciana Gomes; Cogo, Neroli Pedro; Volk, Leandro Bochi da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
Apesar de efêmera, a rugosidade superficial no solo induzida por métodos de seu preparo é requerimento importante nos sistemas de manejo de caráter conservacionista. Isto se deve ao fato de que ela aumenta a retenção e a infiltração superficiais de água no solo, reduz a velocidade e o volume do escoamento superficial e aprisiona os sedimentos da erosão, diminuindo os danos causados pela erosão hídrica. Considerando tais aspectos, realizou-se esta pesquisa com o objetivo de avaliar as alterações ocorridas na rugosidade superficial do solo pelas ações do preparo e da chuva, na ausência e na presença de cobertura morta, em relação à erosão hídrica. O estudo foi realizado em campo, na EEA/UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul (RS), em 1996 e 1997, aplicando-se chuva simulada sobre um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico, de textura francoargilo- arenosa e declividade de 0,07 m m-1. Avaliaram-se os preparos de solo aração, aração e duas gradagens e sem preparo, na ausência e na presença de 60 % de cobertura por resíduo cultural, submetidos a quatro testes de chuva simulada. O primeiro teste foi constituído de uma chuva segmentada, composta de quatro porções, com durações de 20, 20, 30 e 30 min, espaçadas uma da outra de 30 a 40 min...

Temperatura do solo em função do preparo do solo e do manejo da cobertura de inverno; Soil temperature as affected by soil tillage and management of winter cover crops

Furlani, Carlos E. A.; Gamero, Carlos A.; Levien, Renato; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Cortez, Jorge Wilson
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do preparo do solo e do manejo da cobertura de inverno (consórcio aveia-preta + nabo forrageiro) sobre a temperatura do solo, realizou-se um experimento em um Nitossolo em Botucatu-SP no outono/inverno de 2000. Utilizou-se um delineamento em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (três preparos e três manejos). O preparo do solo constou de: preparo convencional, preparo conservacionista com escarificação e plantio direto, e o manejo da cobertura: consórcio dessecado, rolado e triturado. Foram avaliados a temperatura do solo (termopares) a 5 cm de profundidade, de hora em hora, aos 7, 14, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a emergência das plantas do consórcio; o teor de água do solo na profundidade de 10 cm, nas mesmas épocas; e a cobertura do solo (massa seca e índice de cobertura), imediatamente após aplicação dos tratamentos. O sistema plantio direto apresentou temperaturas do solo menores que as do preparo convencional, até o 14º dia após emergência (DAE) das plantas. A partir do 30° DAE das plantas, a temperatura não foi mais influenciada pelos tratamentos, devido à cobertura do consórcio e ocorrência de boa disponibilidade de água no solo. Os manejos da cobertura com rolo-faca...

Redução da erosão hídrica em três sistemas de manejo do solo em um Cambissolo Húmico da região do Planalto Sul-Catarinense; Reduction of water erosion in three soil management systems in an inceptisol of the Planalto Sul-Catarinense region - Brazil

Amaral, André Julio do; Bertol, Ildegardis; Cogo, Neroli Pedro; Barbosa, Fabricio Tondello
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
O preparo do solo situa-se entre os componentes de seu manejo mais importantes no processo de produção das plantas cultivadas, sendo normalmente usado para criar ambiente favorável à semeadura e germinação das sementes e ao crescimento das plantas. Em adição, ele é o principal responsável pela criação das condições físicas superficiais do solo que, em última análise, determinam a eficácia de redução da erosão e do escoamento superficial dos diversos sistemas de manejo empregados no estabelecimento de uma cultura, em um local. Considerando esses aspectos, realizou-se um estudo de erosão em campo, sob condições de chuva natural, no município de Lages (SC), na região fisiográfica do Planalto Sul- Catarinense, no período de novembro de 2002 a outubro de 2005. O objetivo principal da pesquisa foi quantificar as perdas de água e solo nos ciclos culturais do trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) e da soja (Glycine max L.), usando os sistemas de manejo de solo convencional (aração+duas gradagens), reduzido (escarificação + uma gradagem) e sem preparo (semeadura direta), com vistas à determinação da eficácia de redução da erosão e do escoamento superficial dessas formas de manejo do solo. O experimento foi instalado em um Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico...

Leaching of nitrate and ammonium from cover crop straws as affected by rainfall

Rosolem, C. A.; Calonego, J. C.; Foloni, JSS
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Inc Publicador: Taylor & Francis Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 819-831
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
Nitrogen (N) mineralization dynamics in no-till systems is affected, among other factors, by N amount and quality in the mulch and by climatic conditions. Leaching of NO3-N and NH4-N from six plant species used as soil cover crops in tropical environments were evaluated when the straw was submitted to rainfall after chemical desiccation. Millet (Pennisetum glaucum), guinea sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), black oat (Avena strigosa), triticale (Triticum secale), Indian hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens) were grown in a greenhouse, in Botucatu-SP, Brazil. Forty-five days after emergence, the plants were cut at the root collar, oven-dried, and submitted to simulated rainfalls of 4.4, 8.7, 17.04, 34.9, and 69.8 mm, considering an amount of straw equivalent to 8 t ha(-1) of dry matter. The amounts of N-NO3- extracted from the straw by rainwater were very small. However, accumulated rainfall around 70 mm caused ammonium leaching ranging from 2.5 to 9.5kg ha(-1), depending on the species. Plant residues of triticale and black oat (grasses) and Indian hemp (legume) showed high N leaching intensity with the first rains after chemical desiccation. The amount of N leached from straw was highly correlated with N tissue content.

The management of cover plant residues for cotton cropped in a no-tillage system

Furlani Júnior, Enes; Neves, Danilo De Carvalho; Santos, Marcio Lustosa; Ferrari, Samuel
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (EDUEM) Publicador: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (EDUEM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 371-376
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
The cutting of plant residue in no-tillage systems under certain environmental conditions becomes necessary to adequately establish and grow crops. This study aims to assess the effect on the yield of different methods of managing millet plant residue in cotton plantations. The study was conducted during the agricultural years 2006/07 and 2007/08, and the treatments included no-mechanical-treatment tillage and the use of a rotary shredder, crimper-roller, and mechanical disintegrator for millet plants before sowing the cotton. Evaluations were performed for the residue fragmentation, emergence speed, percent of soil cover during the cycle and yield of the cotton crop. The emergence speed was faster in the management with the rotary shredder. In 2006/07, the no-tillage treatment showed a rate of loss for soil cover that was 46 percent greater than the disintegrator treatment. The rotary shredder and the disintegrator yielded greater soil coverage during the cultivation cycle, and the yield was highly correlated with the soil cover at 75 days after emergence. The management of the millet residue affected the cotton plants for the two-year study period.; O manejo dos resíduos vegetais em sistema plantio direto em certas condições torna-se necessário para o bom estabelecimento e crescimento da cultura. Este estudo visa verificar o efeito de diferentes formas de manejo de resíduos vegetais de milheto na semeadura e produtividade do algodoeiro. Foi conduzido durante os anos agrícolas 2006/07 e 2007/08...

Spatial and temporal patterns of apparent electrical conductivity: DUALEM vs. Veris sensors for monitoring soil properties

Serrano, João; Marques da Silva, José; Shahidian, Shakib
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
The main objective of this study was to compare two apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) sensors (Veris 2000 XA and DUALEM 1S) for mapping variability of soil properties in a Mediterranean shallow soil. This study also aims at studying the effect of soil cover vegetation on the ECa measurement by the two types of sensors. The study was based on two surveys carried out under two very different situations: in February of 2012, with low soil moisture content (SMC) and with high and differentiated vegetation development (non grazed pasture), and in February of 2013, with high SMC and with short and relatively homogeneous vegetation development (grazed pasture). The greater temporal stability of Veris sensor, despite the wide variation in the SMC and vegetation ground cover indicates the suitability of using this sensor for monitoring soil properties in permanent pastures. The survey carried out with the DUALEM sensor in 2012 might have been affected by the presence of a 0.20 m vegetation layer at the soil surface, masking the soil properties. These differences should be considered in the selection of ECa sensing systems for a particular application.

EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

Panachuki,Elói; Bertol,Ildegardis; Alves Sobrinho,Teodorico; Oliveira,Paulo Tarso Sanches de; Rodrigues,Dulce Buchala Bicca
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols). In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT), conventional tillage (CT), and minimum tillage (MT) with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb) and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.). Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover...

Water erosion under simulated rainfall in different soil management systems during soybean growth

Engel,Fernando Luis; Bertol,Ildegardis; Mafra,Álvaro Luiz; Cogo,Neroli Pedro
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Soil management influences soil cover by crop residues and plant canopy, affecting water erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify water and soil losses by water erosion under different soil tillage systems applied on a typical aluminic Hapludox soil, in an experiment carried out from April 2003 to May 2004, in the Santa Catarina highland region, Lages, southern Brazil. Simulated rainfall was applied during five soybean cropstages, at the constant intensity of 64.0 mm h-1. Treatments were replicated twice and consisted of: i) conventional tillage on bare soil - control treatment (CTBS), ii) conventional tillage on cultivated soil (CTCS), iii) no-tillage on non tilled soil with burned crop residue (NTRB), iv) no-tillage in non tilled soil with crop residue desiccated (NTRD), and v) no-tillage on four-years interrupted soil tillage with crop residue desiccated - "traditional no tillage" (NTRT). Regardless of soybean cropstages, water losses were the highest for the CTCS than for the untilled soils, while soil losses were considerably higher in the CTCS treatment only until cropstage 3, in cultivated soil treatments. The NTRT was most effective treatment in terms of both water and soil loss reduction. Water infiltration should also be considered...

The management of cover plant residues for cotton cropped in a no-tillage system

Furlani Júnior,Enes; Neves,Danilo de Carvalho; Santos,Marcio Lustosa; Ferrari,Samuel
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM Publicador: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
The cutting of plant residue in no-tillage systems under certain environmental conditions becomes necessary to adequately establish and grow crops. This study aims to assess the effect on the yield of different methods of managing millet plant residue in cotton plantations. The study was conducted during the agricultural years 2006/07 and 2007/08, and the treatments included no-mechanical-treatment tillage and the use of a rotary shredder, crimper-roller, and mechanical disintegrator for millet plants before sowing the cotton. Evaluations were performed for the residue fragmentation, emergence speed, percent of soil cover during the cycle and yield of the cotton crop. The emergence speed was faster in the management with the rotary shredder. In 2006/07, the no-tillage treatment showed a rate of loss for soil cover that was 46 percent greater than the disintegrator treatment. The rotary shredder and the disintegrator yielded greater soil coverage during the cultivation cycle, and the yield was highly correlated with the soil cover at 75 days after emergence. The management of the millet residue affected the cotton plants for the two-year study period.

Organic inputs and soil cover effects on seedlings establishment in the formation of an agroforestry system in degraded soil in the Caatinga biome.

POMPEU, R. C. F. F.; SOUZA, H. A. de; SERRANO, L. A. L.; TONUCCI, R. G.; ROCHA, J. E. da S.; FERNANDES, F. E. P.
Fonte: In: WORLD CONGRESS ON INTEGRATED CROP-LIVESTOCK-FOREST SYSTEMS; INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INTEGRATED CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS, 3., 2015, Brasília, DF. Towards sustainable intensification: proceedings. Brasília, DF: Embrapa, 2015. Publicador: In: WORLD CONGRESS ON INTEGRATED CROP-LIVESTOCK-FOREST SYSTEMS; INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INTEGRATED CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS, 3., 2015, Brasília, DF. Towards sustainable intensification: proceedings. Brasília, DF: Embrapa, 2015.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
The use of organic inputs and/or soil cover promotes beneficial effects, mainly for crops, and this is one way to alleviate the problem of environmental degradation in the Brazilian semiarid region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of organic fertilizers and soil cover, in degraded soil, on the surveillance and variables of development of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) and ?Sabiá? (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) seedlings in the establishment of an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Semiarid.; 2015

Correção do solo e sistemas de rotação de culturas sobre a absorção de nutrientes e produção de soja; Soil correction and crop rotation systems on nutrient uptake and yield of soybean

CAETANO, Jeander Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Agronomia; Ciências Agrárias Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Agronomia; Ciências Agrárias
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Crop rotation and the increase in straw on the soil are among the main requirements for the implementation and maintenance of no-tillage in the Cerrado. The use of integrated crop and livestock production, coupled with the introduction of Brachiaria in agricultural areas has helped to maintain this coverage and increased amounts of plant species as alternatives to rotation. Thus, there is a need to evaluate these cover crops and forms of fertility management which are widely used by farmers in Brazil. The aim was to evaluate the effect of two forms of soil correction, four types of soil cover and four levels of KCl on production and nutrient content of aerial part dry biomass of soil cover types, the yield and content soybean leaf nutrient and chemical attributes of an Oxisol. The experimental was arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications, the field was laid out in 2x4x4 and arranged in strip-split plot design. Was evaluated the forms of soil correction initial total and annual installment (main plot), the types of soil cover Brachiaria brizantha, B. ruziziensis, sorghum crop residues and spontaneous vegetation (subplots) and the levels of KCl correspondents to 0 kg ha-1, 20 kg ha-1, 40 kg ha-1 e 60 kg ha-1 of K2O (subsubplots). On the soil...

Plantas de cobertura do solo e época de poda na videira em região tropical; Plants ground cover and epochs of pruning the vine in tropical region

Campos, Luiz Fernandes Cardoso
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronomia (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronomia (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
The cultivation of the vine in the State of Goiás is already a reality and has good growth prospects, but there is little information about soil management, particularly regarding the use of cover crops in the vineyards soil. The use of management techniques aimed at improving the production system, accordingly the proper management of soil and vine canopy can influence yield and quality of grape. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the development, the rate of decomposition and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots of ground cover grown intercropped with vine, besides the chemical characteristics of the soil and the nutritional status, growth and production of fruit species as well as the qualitative characteristics of the fruits. The experiment consisted of six treatments established in a randomized block design, in 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with five replicates. The first factor with three levels, was composed of the following plant species cover crops: bean-to-pig (Canavalia ensiformis L. DC), lab-lab (Dolichos lab lab L.) and weeds. The second factor, with two levels of pruning were carried out based on the seeding of cover crops. Ie, the first season pruning was done 25 days after sowing (DAS) of the cover crop and the second season of pruning performed at 55 DAS. Each plot of 9 m2 (2 x 4.5 m) contained two vine plants. Pruning times do not influence the rate of soil cover and biomass production by cover crops. The weeds provide the highest rates of soil cover. The bean-to-pig has higher production of plant biomass (dry and green). Plants have evaluated coverage rate similar decomposition...

Comparison of methods for estimation of absolute vegetation and soil fractional cover using MODIS normalized BRDF-adjusted reflectance data

Okin, G.; Clarke, K.; Lewis, M.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Inc Publicador: Elsevier Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Green vegetation (GV), nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), and soil are important ground cover components in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. There are many good methods for observing the dynamics of GV with optical remote sensing, but there are fewer good methods for observing the dynamics of NPV and soil. Given the difficulty of remotely deriving information on NPV and soil, the purpose of this study is to evaluate several methods for the retrieval of information on fractional cover of GV, NPV, and soil using 500-m MODIS nadir BRDF-adjusted reflectance (NBAR) data. In particular, three spectral mixture analysis (SMA) techniques are evaluated: simple SMA, multiple-endmember SMA (MESMA), and relative SMA (RSMA). In situ cover data from agricultural fields in Southern Australia are used as the basis for comparison. RSMA provides an index of fractional cover of GV, NPV, and soil, so a method for converting these to absolute fractional cover estimates is also described and evaluated. All methods displayed statistically significant correlations with in situ data. All methods proved equally capable at predicting the dynamics of GV. MESMA predicted NPV dynamics best. RSMA predicted dynamics of soil best. The method for converting RSMA indices to fractional cover estimates provided estimates that were comparable to those provided by SMA and MESMA. Although it does not always provide the best estimates of ground component dynamics...

Armazenagem de água e produtividade de meloeiro irrigado por gotejamento, com a superfície do solo coberta e desnuda; Water storage and muskmelon productivity of a drip-irrigated soil with and without soil cover

MOTA, Jaedson Cláudio Anunciato; LIBARDI, Paulo Leonel; BRITO, Alexsandro dos Santos; ASSIS JÚNIOR, Raimundo Nonato de; AMARO FILHO, Joaquim
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
Em regiões com escassez hídrica, a irrigação por métodos que otimizam a aplicação de água às plantas torna-se necessária à produção agrícola. Dessa maneira, o conhecimento da armazenagem de água na camada de solo explorada pelas raízes de uma cultura agrícola ao longo de seu desenvolvimento é essencial ao manejo dos recursos água e solo. Partindo desse problema, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a armazenagem de água em Cambissolo cultivado com meloeiro, irrigado por gotejamento, sem e com cobertura da superfície do solo. O experimento foi conduzido em Baraúna-RN, e a estimativa de armazenagem foi feita para a camada de 0-0,3 m, correspondente à camada explorada pelo sistema radicular efetivo da cultura. O monitoramento diário foi realizado durante todo o ciclo, sendo dividido em quatro fases fenológicas: inicial, vegetativa, de frutificação e de maturação. A cobertura da superfície do solo aumentou a armazenagem de água, especialmente nas fases inicial e vegetativa da cultura, mas não teve influência sobre a produtividade e as características pós-colheita dos frutos.; In regions with water stress, irrigation methods that optimize water application to crops are required for agricultural production. Knowledge on soil water storage in the soil rooting zone during an agricultural crop cycle is essential for water and soil management. The objective of this study was to evaluate water storage in an Inceptisol under drip-irrigated muskmelon...

Mechanisms of Soil Erosion in Subtropical Chinese Forests - Effects of Species Diversity, Species Identity, Functional Traits and Soil Fauna on Sediment Discharge

Seitz, Steffen
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Soil erosion is a serious environmental problem in many parts of the world, especially in ecosystems with high anthropogenic influences. It is also a serious challenge in subtropical China, but forest stands mitigate soil loss rates in this area. Forests provide a multi-storey canopy layer which largely influences rain throughfall patterns as well as a leaf litter layer on the forest floor which protects the soil against direct raindrop impact and modifies the water flow and storage capacities. Nevertheless, only little research has been conducted on biodiversity and species effects on soil erosion control under forest stands. Furthermore, the processes within a protective leaf litter cover as well as the impact of soil mesofauna and macrofauna are not yet clear. This thesis investigated the effects of species diversity, species identity, functional traits and soil fauna on soil erosion in subtropical forest ecosystems. It focused on interrill soil erosion rates determined by micro-scale ROPs under natural and simulated rainfall. Additionally, investigations with splash cups were carried out on changes in throughfall kinetic energy during the canopy passage of raindrops. Measurements took place in a forest biodiversity and ecosystem functioning experiment in the PR China (BEF China). Results showed that tree species richness did not affect sediment discharge...

Irrigação do meloeiro cultivado em ambiente protegido

Lima, Elvis Márcio de Castro
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Lavras; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Hídricos em Sistemas Agrícolas; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Engenharia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Lavras; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Hídricos em Sistemas Agrícolas; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Engenharia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 02/12/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
In this paper, four studies are presented, with the following objectives: i) to evaluate the production and quality of melon “Gália” type, grown in greenhouse, when submitted to different levels of soil water tension, during the vegetative and reproductive phases and during the entire cycle. ii) to evaluate the productive characteristics of melon, grown in greenhouse, varying the applied irrigation water depth and soil cover. iii) to evaluate melon’s productive characteristics, varying irrigation water depths and the number of fruits per plant. iv) to evaluate, technically and economically the melon irrigated grown in protected environment. On study i, three experiments were carried out, using a completely randomized design, involving, as treatments, four soil water tensions of 15, 30, 60 and 120 kPa with four replications. Was used a drip irrigation system and the monitoring of soil water tension was done using tensiometers and granular matrix sensors. Studies ii, iii and iv were conducted simultaneously, in protected environment, using a completely randomized design, where plants have been submitted to five levels of soil water replacement depths (50, 75, 100, 125 and 150%), with four replications. In ii, the use or not of plastic mulching was tested; in iii...

Erosão hídrica sob chuva simulada em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo durante o crescimento da soja; Water erosion under simulated rainfall in different soil management systems during soybean growth

Engel, Fernando Luis; Bertol, Ildegardis; Mafra, Álvaro Luiz; Cogo, Neroli Pedro
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
O manejo do solo influencia a cobertura superficial pelo resíduo cultural e, juntamente com a cobertura do solo pela copa das plantas, afeta a erosao hídrica. O objetivo do estudo foi quantificar as perdas de água e solo por erosão hídrica em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo, em diferentes estádios do cultivo da soja, em um experimento conduzido de abril de 2003 a maio de 2004, na região do Planalto Catarinense, em um Nitossolo Háplico alumínico. Chuvas simuladas foram aplicadas em cinco estádios do cultivo da soja, com intensidade constante de 64 mm h-1. Os tratamentos, em duas repetições, consistiram de: i) preparo convencional sem cultivo do solo - tratamento testemunha (SC); ii) preparo convencional com cultivo do solo (PC); iii) semeadura direta sobre resíduo cultural queimado, em solo nunca preparado (SQ); iv) semeadura direta sobre resíduo cultural dessecado, em solo nunca preparado (SD); e v) semeadura direta sobre resíduo cultural dessecado, em solo preparado quatro anos antes, denominada semeadura direta tradicional (ST). Independentemente dos estágios da soja, as perdas de água foram maiores no tratamento PC do que nos sem preparo do solo, enquanto as perdas de solo foram consideravelmente maiores no tratamento PC somente no estágio 3...

SOIL COVER CROPS CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT TIMES FOR DRY BEANS ON NO TILL SYSTEM; ÉPOCAS DE MANEJO QUÍMICO DE COBERTURAS DE SOLO PARA O FEIJOEIRO EM PLANTIO DIRETO

VALENTINI, Maria Helena Elias; RONZELLI JÚNIOR, Pedro; DAROS, Edelclaiton; PAULETTI, Volnei; KOEHLER, Henrique Soares
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/10/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
It was carried out an experiment, at the ABC Foundation Experiment Station, Castro, PR, to study the effects of soil cover crops chemical management time on dry beams yield and its components. The experimental design was a randomized complete block on split-plot, with four replications. The tested treatments were the combination of five soil cover crops (white oats, black oats, ryegrass, forage turnip, and wheat on the plots, and three chemical management times [0, 15 and 30 days before seedling (DAS), on the split-plots, for the dry beans ‘FT Bonito’ variety. Dry beans seeded on ryegrass cover crop showed the best initial and final plant populations. White oats get the lowest initial plant population, and wheat the lowest final one. The chemical management times did not showed any significant effect on the plant population. It was not verified, on the treatments, any significant difference on the average number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, and yield. The mass average of 100 grains were affected by the chemical management time and soil cover crop species. It was higher at 0 and 15 DAS for black oats and forage turnip, at 15 DAS for white oats, at 0 and 30 DAS for wheat, and it was indifferent for ryegrass.; Na Estação Experimental da Fundação ABC...