Página 1 dos resultados de 899 itens digitais encontrados em 0.022 segundos

Qualidade física de solos com horizonte antrópico (Terra Preta de Índio) na Amazônia Central; Soil physical quality of anthropics horizons (Amazonian Dark Earth) in Central Amazon

Neves Junior, Afrânio Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/06/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
As Terras Pretas de Índio (TPI) apresentam por definição o horizonte A antrópico, de cor escura, com presença de artefatos líticos e/ou cerâmicos oriundos do processo de ocupação humana na Amazônia. As áreas que ocorrem se diferenciam dos solos adjacentes por exibirem e manterem condições químicas do solo adequadas ao crescimento de plantas, mesmo após vários anos de cultivo. Essa pesquisa testa a hipótese que de que as TPI exibem condições físicas do solo adequadas ao crescimento de plantas e, mais adequadas que às encontradas nos solos adjacentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as propriedades físicas dos horizontes antrópicos de duas TPI relacionando-as com as propriedades estruturais do solo que podem limitar o crescimento de plantas. Para a realização deste estudo foram amostradas duas áreas com horizonte A antrópico (TPI) e amostras do solo adjacente. A primeira área está localizada na estação experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental (Campo Experimental do Caldeirão) no município de Iranduba, Estado do Amazonas. O solo adjacente foi classificado como Argissolo Amarelo Tb Distrófico. A segunda área está localizada em uma pequena propriedade agrícola no município de Manacapuru, Estado do Amazonas. O solo adjacente foi classificado como Latossolo Amarelo Tb Distrófico. Para a caracterização das propriedades físicas do solo...

Uso contínuo de coberturas vegetais em citros: influência no banco de sementes, na comunidade infestante e nas características químicas do solo; Continuous usage of cover crops in citrus: influence in seedbank, weeds, and soil's chemical characteristics

San Martín Matheis, Hector Alonso
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/08/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
Nos últimos anos os consumidores, em especial do mercado externo, estão interessados e preocupados cada vez mais com a segurança alimentar, principalmente no que se refere à forma de produção. Esse panorama tem motivado a busca por alternativas de baixo impacto ambiental. Uma delas é o uso de coberturas vegetais ou adubação verde. Nesse contexto a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do uso contínuo de coberturas vegetais em pomar de citros sobre os padrões de infestação e banco de sementes das plantas daninhas, assim como as características químicas do solo. O experimento foi realizado em pomar de laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinenesis (L.) Osbeck) na área experimental da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 x 2. Os tratamentos consistiram da combinação de quatro coberturas vegetais, dois tipos de roçadeira e dois tipos de adubação. As coberturas vegetais utilizadas foram labe-labe (Dolichos lablab L.), guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp cv IAPAR 43), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) Leeke) e infestação natural do pomar de laranja. As roçadeiras utilizadas foram do tipo lateral e convencional e a adubação foi realizada na entrelinha e na projeção da copa da planta cítrica. Pelos dados obtidos pode-se observar que: as coberturas mortas produzidas pela infestação natural e pelo labe-labe contribuem significativamente na redução das populações de plantas daninhas afetando o banco de sementes; nas linhas das laranjeiras as plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas ocorreram com maior freqüência e com maior importância relativa em relação às monocotiledôneas; o deslocamento contínuo de cobertura morta da infestação natural promoveu alterações no pH...

Avaliação e calibração de extratores de fósforo em três diferentes ordens de solo da Costa Rica; Evaluation and calibration of soil phosphorus extractants in 3 different soil orders from Costa Rica

Corrales, Roger Armando Fallas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/02/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
Diferentes metodologias de determinação de fósforo no solo (P total, Bray 1, Mehlich 1, Mehlich 3, Olsen modificado, Resina de troca iônica, H3A-1 modificado e H3A-2 modificado) foram avaliadas e calibradas para seu uso em três distintas ordens de solos (Andisols, Inceptisols e Ultisols) coletados em diferentes lugares da Costa Rica. Aos resultados das análises de P e às outras variáveis químicas dos solos foram aplicadas análises de correlação, nas quais resaltam o teor de Ca, Mg e Al como fatores relacionados ao P recuperado pelos diferentes extratores. Entre os resultados destacam as calibrações de uma modificação nas metodologias H3A-1 e H3A-2 com a resposta das plantas de arroz, metodologias que tinham sido testadas unicamente contra os resultados de outros extratores. Ao nível geral as metodologias Olsen modificada e à resina de troca iônica apresentaram-se como os extratores mais adequados quando não se faz distinção por tipo de solo ou ordem, mas foram encontradas diferenças no comportamento dos diferentes métodos de extração segundo o tipo de solo, podendo variar a conveniência de utilizar um método ou outro. Em geral as metodologias P total, Bray 1 e Mehlich 1 foram as que representaram em menor medida a resposta das plantas de arroz à condição de P nos solos do experimento de calibração. As metodologias de avaliação de P apresentaram correlação entre si...

Utilização de efluentes sanitários tratados para o suprimento de nutrientes à cultura do milho e modificações em propriedades químicas do solo; Utilization of treated sanitary effluents for nutrient supply to corn crop and modifications in soil chemical properties

Nichele, Juliana
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
A aplicação em solos agrícolas é uma das alternativas de reuso de efluentes sanitários tratados, considerando-se a grande demanda de água na produção agrícola e a contribuição no aporte de nutrientes para as plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o aproveitamento de efluentes sanitários tratados na irrigação e no fornecimento de nutrientes para a cultura do milho (Zea mays L.), alem de quantificar seus efeitos em propriedades químicas do solo. 0 experimento foi realizado em área experimental do IPH/UFRGS, junto a Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos São João-Navegantes, em Porto Alegre- RS. O solo da área tinha histórico de aterro com materiais de diversas origens, não sendo possível sua classificação taxonômica. Foram avaliados dois tipos de efluentes tratados: efluente de reator anaeróbio (UASB) e efluente de Iagoa de polimento (Lagoa). Como referencia, foi também conduzido um tratamento com irrigação com água potável e adubação mineral (AM). As principais determinações constaram de analises físicas e químicas dos efluentes e da água usados na irrigação e da água percolada; físicas e químicas do solo; de composição e acúmulo de nutrientes nas plantas (macro e micronutrientes e sódio em folhas...

Effect of liming on the mineral nutrition and yield of growing guava trees in a typic hapludox soil

Prado, Renato de Mello; Natale, William
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Inc Publicador: Taylor & Francis Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2191-2204
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
High soil acidity influences the availability of mineral nutrients and increases that of toxic aluminium (Al), which has a jeopardizing effect on plant growth. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of soil liming on the development of guava (Psidium guajava L.) plants, on soil chemical characteristics, and on fruit yield. The experiment was carried out at the Bebedouro Citrus Experimental Station, state of São Paulo, Brazil, in a Typic Hapludox soil, from August 1999 to March 2003. The treatments consisted of limestone dose: D0 = zero; D1 = half dose; D2 = total dose; D3 = 1.5 times the dose, and D4 = 2 times the dose to raise the V value to 70%. The doses corresponded to zero, 1.85, 3.71, 5.56, and 7.41tha(-1) applied to the upper soil layer (0-30cm deep) before planting. The results showed that liming caused an improvement in the evaluated soil chemical characteristics up to a depth of 60cm in soil samples both in the line and between lines. The highest fruit yields were obtained when the base saturation reached a value of 55% in the line and 62% between the lines. Foliar levels of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were 8.8 and 2.5gkg-1, respectively. The highest limestone dose maintained the soil base saturation (at the layer of 0-20cm) in the line close to 55% during at least 40 months after the incorporation of limestone.

Nutrient accumulation and biomass production of alfafa after soil amendment with silicates

Deus, Angélica Cristina Fernandes; Bull, Leonardo Theodoro; Corrêa, Juliano Corulli; Villas Boas, Roberto Lyra
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Viçosa Publicador: Universidade Federal de Viçosa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 406-413
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Studies on the use of silicate correctives in agriculture show that they have great potential to improve soil chemical characteristics, however, little information is available on the reactivity rates of their particle-size fractions. This study investigated whether the reactivity rates obtained experimentally could be considered in the calculation of ECC (effective calcium carbonate) for soil liming, promoting adequate development of alfalfa plants. Six treatments were evaluated in the experiment, consisting of two slag types applied in two rates. The experimental ECC was used to calculate one of the rates and the ECC determined in the laboratory was used to calculate the other. Rates of limestone and wollastonite were based on the ECC determined in laboratory. The rates of each soil acidity corretive were calculated to increase the base saturation to 80%. The treatments were applied to a Rhodic Hapludox and an Alfisol Ferrudalfs. The methods for ECC determination established for lime can be applied to steel slag. The application of slag corrected soil acidity with consequent accumulation of Ca...

Spatial Variability of Irrigated Corn Yield in Relation to Field topography and Soil Chemical Characteristics

Marques da Silva, José Rafael; Alexandre, C.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Corn yield, topography and soil characteristics were sampled on a 26 ha area of a centre pivot irrigated cropland. The aim of the study was to determine relationships between corn yield, field topography and soil characteristics. The study was carried out in the Alentejo region of Portugal. Corn yield was measured with a combine harvester fitted with a grain-flow sensor and positioned by means of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A grid-based digital elevation model (DEM) with 1-m resolution was constructed and several topographic attributes were calculated from the DEM: the local slope gradient (S), profile curvature (Curv), specific catchments area (SCa), and a steady-state wetness index (W). Yield and topographical attributes were computed for areas of radius 5, 10, 25 and 50 m, being considered its maximum, minimum, range and average values. The soil was systematically sampled with a mechanical probe for a total of 109 soil profiles used for analysis of the following soil superficial (<0.30 m) characteristics: extractable phosphorous (P2O5) and extractable potassium (K2O), soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and exchangeable bases. With centre pivot irrigation systems, the Wave50 index was shown to be useful for the identification of field areas in which low corn yields may be due to lack of water. At the same time...

Nutrient accumulation and biomass production of alfafa after soil amendment with silicates

Deus,Angélica Cristina Fernandes; Bull,Leonardo Theodoro; Corrêa,Juliano Corulli; Villas Boas,Roberto Lyra
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Viçosa Publicador: Universidade Federal de Viçosa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
Studies on the use of silicate correctives in agriculture show that they have great potential to improve soil chemical characteristics, however, little information is available on the reactivity rates of their particle-size fractions. This study investigated whether the reactivity rates obtained experimentally could be considered in the calculation of ECC (effective calcium carbonate) for soil liming, promoting adequate development of alfalfa plants. Six treatments were evaluated in the experiment, consisting of two slag types applied in two rates. The experimental ECC was used to calculate one of the rates and the ECC determined in the laboratory was used to calculate the other. Rates of limestone and wollastonite were based on the ECC determined in laboratory. The rates of each soil acidity corretive were calculated to increase the base saturation to 80%. The treatments were applied to a Rhodic Hapludox and an Alfisol Ferrudalfs. The methods for ECC determination established for lime can be applied to steel slag. The application of slag corrected soil acidity with consequent accumulation of Ca, P, and Si in alfalfa, favoring DM production.

Influence of tree species on the herbaceous understory and soil chemical characteristics in a silvopastoral system in semi-arid northeastern Brazil

Menezes,R. S. C.; Salcedo,I. H.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
Studies from some semi-arid regions of the world have shown the beneficial effect of trees in silvopastoral systems, by promoting the formation of resource islands and increasing the sustainability of the system. No data are available in this respect for tree species of common occurrence in semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. In the present study, conducted in the summer of 1996, three tree species (Zyziphus joazeiro, Spondias tuberosa and Prosopis juliflora: ) found within Cenchrus ciliaris pastures were selected to evaluate differences on herbaceous understory and soil chemical characteristics between samples taken under the tree canopy and in open grass areas. Transects extending from the tree trunk to open grass areas were established, and soil (0-15 cm) and herbaceous understory (standing live biomass in 1 m² plots) samples were taken at 0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200% of the average canopy radius (average radius was 6.6 ± 0.5, 4.5 ± 0.5, and 5.3 ± 0.8 m for Z. joazeiro, P. juliflora, and S. tuberosa , respectively). Higher levels of soil C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K, and Na were found under the canopies of Z. joazeiro and P. juliflora: trees, as compared to open grass areas. Only soil Mg organic P were higher under the canopies of S. tuberosa trees...

Chemical and mineralogical changes in a Brazilian Rhodic Paleudult under different land use and managements

Fink,Jessé Rodrigo; Inda,Alberto Vasconcellos; Almeida,Jaime Antonio de; Bissani,Carlos Alberto; Giasson,Elvio; Nascimento,Paulo César do
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Changes in land use and management can affect the dynamic equilibrium of soil systems and induce chemical and mineralogical alterations. This study was based on two long-term experiments (10 and 27 years) to evaluate soil used for no-tillage maize cultivation, with and without poultry litter application (NTPL and NTM), and with grazed native pasture fertilized with cattle droppings (GrP), on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of a Rhodic Paleudult in Southern Brazil, in comparison with the same soil under native grassland (NGr). In the four treatments, soil was sampled from the 0.0-2.5 and 2.5-5.0 cm layers. In the air-dried fine soil (ADFS) fraction (∅ < 2 mm), chemical characteristics of solid and liquid phases and the specific surface area (SSA) were evaluated. The clay fraction (∅ < 0.002 mm) in the 0.0-2.5 cm layer was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) after treatments for identification and characterization of 2:1 clay minerals. Animal waste application increased the total organic C concentration (COT) and specific surface area (SSA) in the 0.0-2.5 cm layer. In comparison to NGr, poultry litter application (NTPL) increased the concentrations of Ca and CECpH7, while cattle droppings (GrP) increased the P and K concentrations. In the soil solution...

Soil chemical factors and grassland species density in Emas National Park (central Brazil)

Amorim,PK.; Batalha,MA.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Studies of grasslands on specific soil types suggest that different nutrients can limit biomass production and, hence, species composition and number. The Brazilian cerrado is the major savanna region in America and once covered about 2 million km², mainly in the Brazilian Central Plateau, under seasonal climate, with wet summer and dry winter. In view of the importance of soil chemical factors in the distribution of the vegetation forms within the Cerrado domain and which may influence the number of species, we analyzed some soil characteristics in three herbaceous vegetation forms - hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado, and wet grassland - in Emas National Park, a core cerrado site, to investigate the relationship between number of species and soil characteristics. We collected vegetation and soil samples in these three vegetation forms and submitted the obtained data to multiple linear regression. We found out that aluminum and pH were the best predictors of species density, the former positively related to species density and the latter negatively related. Since the predictable variation in species density is important in determining areas of conservation, we can postulate that these two soil factors are indicators of high species density areas in tropical grasslands...

Three-Dimensional Mapping of Soil Chemical Characteristics at Micrometric Scale by Combining 2D SEM-EDX Data and 3D X-Ray CT Images

Hapca, Simona; Baveye, Philippe C.; Wilson, Clare; Lark, Richard Murray; Otten, Wilfred
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/09/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
There is currently a significant need to improve our understanding of the factors that control a number of critical soil processes by integrating physical, chemical and biological measurements on soils at microscopic scales to help produce 3D maps of the related properties. Because of technological limitations, most chemical and biological measurements can be carried out only on exposed soil surfaces or 2-dimensional cuts through soil samples. Methods need to be developed to produce 3D maps of soil properties based on spatial sequences of 2D maps. In this general context, the objective of the research described here was to develop a method to generate 3D maps of soil chemical properties at the microscale by combining 2D SEM-EDX data with 3D X-ray computed tomography images. A statistical approach using the regression tree method and ordinary kriging applied to the residuals was developed and applied to predict the 3D spatial distribution of carbon, silicon, iron, and oxygen at the microscale. The spatial correlation between the X-ray grayscale intensities and the chemical maps made it possible to use a regression-tree model as an initial step to predict the 3D chemical composition. For chemical elements, e.g., iron, that are sparsely distributed in a soil sample...

Effect of weed control in corn with cowpea intercropping on soil chemical characteristics.

SILVA, P. S. L. e; SILVA, K. M. B. e; FREIRE FILHO, F. R.
Fonte: In: CONGRESSO NACIONAL DE FEIJÃO-CAUPI, 1.; REUNIÃO NACIONAL DE FEIJÃO-CAUPI, 6., 2006, Teresina. Tecnologias para o agronegócio: anais. Teresina: Embrapa Meio-Norte, 2006. Publicador: In: CONGRESSO NACIONAL DE FEIJÃO-CAUPI, 1.; REUNIÃO NACIONAL DE FEIJÃO-CAUPI, 6., 2006, Teresina. Tecnologias para o agronegócio: anais. Teresina: Embrapa Meio-Norte, 2006.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: 1 CD-ROM.
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Weeds interfere with nutrient absorption by crops. Therefore, there has been interest in knowing the effects of weeds on soil chemical characteristics, aiming at better fertilization management in order to save fertilizers and reduce pollution problems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of weed control on soil pH and soil Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, and SB contents (sum of bases), when the soil is cultivated with corn. The experiment was conducted as random blocks with 5 replicates and split-plots. Four cultivars (BA 8512, BA 9012, EX 4001 and EX 6004) were grown with weed control (two hoeing operations, or intercropped with cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) or without weed control. The weed control measures were assigned to subplots, while cultivars were assigned to plots. Ten weed species predominated in the experiment. The weeding operations increased P content, but reduced S content, while the lack of weed control increased pH (in water). These effects were independent from the cultivars evaluated, which were not different with regard to their effects on soil characteristics.; 2006

Impactos do estresse salino e da cobertura morta nas características químicas do solo e no desenvolvimento do amaranto; Impacts on the soil chemical characteristics and development of amaranth under saline stress and mulch

Costa, Djeson Mateus Alves da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Tecnologias Regionais Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Tecnologias Regionais
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
Availability of good quality water has been reduced vertiginously, over the last decade, in the world. In some regions, the water resources have high concentration of the dissolved salts, these characteristics of the water make it s use impossible. Water quality can be a limitation for irrigated agriculture, principally in regions of arid or semiarid climate where the water resources are generally saline and are exposed at high evaporation ratio. For that reason, precipitation of the salts occurs near the soil surface and those salts themselves cumulate in the vegetal tissue, reducing the soil fertility and crop production. The adoption of tolerant crop to the water salinity and soil salinity, adaptable to the climatic conditions is other emergent necessity. This work had the goal of studying the effects of four salinity levels of the irrigation water salinity and use of mulch, dried leaves of Forest mangrove (Acacia mangiumWilld), in cultivated soil with amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus, BRS Alegria variety), in greenhouse. It was utilized the transplant of plants to PVC columns, containing 30 kg of silty loam soil, 10 days after emerging, with space of 50 x 50 cm between lines. Treatments were composed by combination of four levels of salinity (0.147; 1.500; 3.000 e 4.500 dS m-1)...

Amelioration of a saline sodic soil through cultivation of a salt-tolerant grass Leptochloa fusca

Akhter, J.; Mahmood, K.; Malik, K.; Ahmed, S.; Murray, R.
Fonte: Cambridge Univ Press Publicador: Cambridge Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
Reclamation of saline lands seems difficult for climatic and economic reasons, but cultivation of salt-tolerant plants is an approach to increasing productivity and improvement of salt-affected wastelands. A five-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of growing a salt-tolerant species Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth (kallar grass) on chemical properties of a saline sodic soil irrigated with poor quality groundwater. Soil salinity, sodicity and pH decreased exponentially by growing kallar grass as a result of leaching of salts from surface (0–20 cm) to lower depths (>100 cm). Concentrations of soluble cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) and anions (Cl−, SO42− and HCO3−) were reduced through to greater soil depths. A significant decline in soil pH was attributed to release of CO2 by grass roots and solublization of CaCO3. Both soil salinity and soil pH were significantly correlated with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl−, HCO3− and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Significant correlations were found between soluble cations (Na+, Ca2+ and K+), soluble anions (Cl−, SO42− and HCO3−) and the SAR. In contrast, there were negative correlations between soil organic matter content and all chemical properties. The ameliorative effects on the soil chemical environment were pronounced after three years of growing kallar grass. Cultivation of kallar grass enhanced leaching and interactions among soil chemical properties and thus restored soil fertility. The soil maintained the improved characteristics with further growth of the grass up to five years suggesting that growing salt-tolerant plants is a sustainable approach to biological amelioration of saline wastelands.; J. Akhter...

Organic residues as immobilizing agents in aided phytostabilization: (I) Effects on soil chemical characteristics

Alvarenga, P.; Gonçalves, A.P.; Fernandes, R.M.; Varennes, A.; Vallini, G.; Duarte, E.; Cunha-Queda, A.C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.1%
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of three different organic residues, sewage sludge (SS), municipal solid waste compost (MSWC), and garden waste compost (GWC), as immobilizing agents in aided phytostabilization of a highly acidic metal-contaminated soil, affected by mining activities, using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The organic residues were applied at 25, 50 and 100 Mg ha 1 (dry weight basis), and their effects on soil chemical characteristics and on relative plant growth and metal concentrations were assessed. All the organic residues tested immobilized Cu, Pb and Zn, decreasing their mobile fractions. This was corroborated by negative correlations obtained between mobile Cu, Pb and Zn and other soil chemical characteristics, which rose as a consequence of the amendments applied (i.e., pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, nitrogen content, available P and available K), and by the multivariate exploratory techniques performed that showed an inverse correlation between these groups of variables. The greatest increase in ryegrass relative growth (more than three times) was obtained in the presence of 50 Mg MSWC ha 1, followed by SS at the same application dosage. GWC did not contribute to an increase in shoot growth...

Study on the changes of soil chemical characteristics as result of prescribed fire

Ribeiro, S.; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Castro, Ana Cristina Meira; Albergaria, José Tomás
Fonte: IJUP Publicador: IJUP
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
Every year, particularly during the summer period, the Portuguese forests are devastated by forest fire that destroys their ecosystems. So in order to prevent these forest fires, public and private authorities frequently use methods for the reduction of combustible mass as the prescribed fire and the mechanical vegetation pruning. All of these methods of prevention of forest fires alter the vegetation layer and/or soil [1-2]. This work aimed the study of the variation of some chemical characteristics of soil that suffered prescribed fire. The studied an area was located in the Serra of Cabreira (Figure 1) with 54.6 ha. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and samples were collected with a shovel before, just after the prescribed fire, and 125 and 196 days after that event. The parameters that were studied were: pH, soil moisture, organic matter and iron, magnesium and potassium total concentration. All the analysis followed International Standard Methodologies. This work allowed to conclude that: a) after the prescribed fire; i) the pH remained practically equal to the the initial value; ii) occurred a slight increase of the average of the organic matter contents and iron total contents; b) at the end of the sampling period compared to the initial values; i) the pH didn´t change significantly; ii) the average of the contents of organic matter decreased; and iii) the average of the total contents of Fe...

Lettuce cationic nutrition and yield, and soil chemical characteristics as affected by vanadium application to leaves or soils

Álvarez, Carlos Enrique; Amin, M.; Reyes, C. M.; Fernández, M.
Fonte: Inderscience Publishers Publicador: Inderscience Publishers
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 2373 bytes; 3225301 bytes; text/plain; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.99%
9 pages, 7 tables.; Lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa, L., cv. 'trocadero') were grown in pots filled with an Alfisol Udalf or an Andisol Udand soil, under greenhouse conditions. Treatments consisted of adding vanadium to soils (0, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 or as foliar sprays (0, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg l-1. Soil chemical characteristics, the cationic nutrition of lettuce and their yields were assessed. No relation was found among vanadium treatments and soil pH, organic matter, or available Ca, Mg, and K. Vanadium added to soils increased available vanadium in the soil, but foliar sprays did not. Treatments did not influence foliar K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations, and only foliar iron levels showed a correlation with available vanadium in the soils treated with this heavy metal. Higher concentrations of vanadium added to soil or in foliar sprays significantly increased the vanadium content of the lettuces, but they did not affect the yields of either fresh or dry matter.; We acknowledge the Consejería de Educación, Cultura y Deportes of the Canary Government for the grant that made this work possible.

WHEAT AND SOYBEAN PRODUCTIVITY ON A DARK RED LATOSOL DUE TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SOIL EROSION UNDER NATURAL RAINFALL; PRODUTIVIDADE DO TRIGO E DA SOJA EM LATOSSOLO VERMELHO DISTRÓFICO COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE EROSÃO HÍDRICA

Gaertner, Carlos; Escola Técnica - Rio do Sul, SC; Dedecek, Renato Antonio; Embrapa Florestas; Biscaia, Rui Maranhão; IAPAR
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/01/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
Many data are available about soil losses by rainfall erosion, few data are available about the influence of these losses onsoil productivity. This study was conducted in 1995, on soil erosion plots from Polo Regional IAPAR/Ponta Grossa-PR, which had beenmonitored for 17 years. Productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and soybean (Glycine max), on soil erosion plots having different soil tillage systems was evaluated: no tillage, alternate (no tillage and minimum tillage), minimum tillage, conventional tillage and fallow plots at two different lengths (11 and 22 m). Wheat productivity was reduced due to soil losses by water erosion, as an average 116 kg.ha-1.cm-1, and soybean productivity was even more reduced, 139 kg.ha-1.cm-1 of soil lost. Wheat, especially on no tillage plot, was severely affected by the incidence of take-all disease (Geaumannomyces graminis), being difficult to establish any correlation between soil chemical and physical characteristics and productivity. Organic carbon content at soil layer 10 to 20 cm showed correlation with wheat and soybean yield, but correlation coefficient was less than 50%.; Muitos dados estão disponíveis sobre as perdas de solo por erosão hídrica, sobre a influência destas perdas na produtividadedos cultivos há alguns dados obtidos por simulação...

Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica

Cornwell,Emma
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p<0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p<0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p<0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana...