Página 1 dos resultados de 6289 itens digitais encontrados em 0.021 segundos

Distribuição espacial da mortalidade por acidente cerebral vascular e fatores socioeconômicos nos distritos da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil; Spatial distribution of stroke mortality and socioeconomic factors in the districts of the city of São Paulo, Brazil

Souza, Angelita Gomes de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/05/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
INTRODUÇÃO: O Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) é a segunda causa de mortalidade e a principal causa de incapacidade no mundo. Muitos fatores de riscos estão associados ao AVC, sendo o principal a hipertensão arterial. Vários estudos também mostraram a associação de um baixo status socioeconômico com altas taxas de mortalidade pelo AVC. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por AVC na cidade de São Paulo de acordo com os fatores socioeconômicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado nos 96 distritos da cidade de São Paulo no período de 2006 a 2008. Foram analisadas taxas de mortalidade por AVC em ambos os sexos. Os fatores analisados foram % de indivíduos com escolaridade nível superior, % domicílios com três pessoas ou mais morando na residência e % de indivíduos das classes D e E em cada distrito. Aplicou-se a metodologia de agrupamento K-means para análise da distribuição da mortalidade por AVC de acordo com os fatores socioeconômicos e uma regressão linear com heterocedasticidade corrigida para avaliar a relevância de cada fator. RESULTADOS: As médias das taxas de mortalidade por AVC foram mais elevadas nos homens xx (72,7/100.000 habitantes) comparados às mulheres (48...

Avaliação da coordenação apendicular em escolares de dois niveis socioeconomicos distintos; Evaluate fine motor skills in students of differents socioeconomic status

Tatiana Godoy Bobbio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/11/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
O Sistema Nervoso da criança é um sistema em constante transformação resultante da interação entre forças de ordem interna e externa. As habilidades motoras são o resultado final deste complexo desenvolvimento. A coordenação apendicular é uma das aquisições motoras essenciais no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e intelectual da criança, com ele a criança consegue realizar atividades importantes como os movimentos de ?pinça? e oponência do polegar indispensáveis para a escrita. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram inicialmente avaliar e comparar a coordenação apendicular de escolares da primeira série do ensino fundamental de níveis socioeconômicos distintos. Em seguida, observar os fatores associados para o desenvolvimento inadequado desta coordenação e o comportamento da dominância lateral. Foram avaliados 238 escolares: 118 da escola pública e 120 da escola privada quanto à coordenação apendicular por meio do Exame Neurológico Evolutivo. Um questionário contendo informações sobre os pais e a criança foi respondido previamente pelo responsável. As escolas foram selecionadas intencionalmente para representar os dois níveis socioeconômicos distintos pretendidos. Na análise dos dados foram utilizados para os testes de associação o teste qui-quadrado e razão de chances (odds ratio) pelo método de regressão logística univariada seguida de análise multivariada. Para comparação entre as médias foi utilizado teste de Mann-Whitney. Na escola pública foram observadas 73...

Spatial analysis of leprosy incidence and associated socioeconomic factors

Cury,Maria Rita de Cassia Oliveira; Paschoal,Vania Del´Arco; Nardi,Susilene Maria Tonelli; Chierotti,Ana Patrícia; Rodrigues Júnior,Antonio Luiz; Chiaravalloti-Neto,Francisco
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
OBJECTIVE: To identify clusters of the major occurrences of leprosy and their associated socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: Cases of leprosy that occurred between 1998 and 2007 in São José do Rio Preto (southeastern Brazil) were geocodified and the incidence rates were calculated by census tract. A socioeconomic classification score was obtained using principal component analysis of socioeconomic variables. Thematic maps to visualize the spatial distribution of the incidence of leprosy with respect to socioeconomic levels and demographic density were constructed using geostatistics. RESULTS: While the incidence rate for the entire city was 10.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants annually between 1998 and 2007, the incidence rates of individual census tracts were heterogeneous, with values that ranged from 0 to 26.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Areas with a high leprosy incidence were associated with lower socioeconomic levels. There were identified clusters of leprosy cases, however there was no association between disease incidence and demographic density. There was a disparity between the places where the majority of ill people lived and the location of healthcare services. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial analysis techniques utilized identified the poorer neighborhoods of the city as the areas with the highest risk for the disease. These data show that health departments must prioritize politico-administrative policies to minimize the effects of social inequality and improve the standards of living...

Caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia

Luna,Ana Cláudia Alves e; Rodrigues,Maria José; Menezes,Valdenice Aparecida; Marques,Kátia Maria Gonçalves; Santos,Fabiano Almeida dos
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interviews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tests at a 5% significance level. The caries prevalence was 55.0%. The dmft index was 2.12, and the DMFT index was 1.50. Income significantly influenced dmft; the mean dmft was 4.57 in children whose family income was less than the Brazilian minimum wage (BMW), whereas in children with a family income three times the BMW or higher, the mean dmft was 2.27. No statistically positive association was found between the educational level of parents and guardians and the caries indices. A statistically significant association was found between dental caries prevalence and family income.

A 13-nation population survey of upper gastrointestinal symptoms: Prevalence of symptoms and socioeconomic factors

Haag, S.; Andrews, J.; Gapasin, J.; Gerken, G.; Keller, A.; Holtmann, G.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Background: Previous data collected in separate studies using various different survey instruments have suggested some variability in the prevalence of symptoms between nations. However, there is a lack of studies which assess and compare the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms contemporaneously in various countries using a uniform, standardised method. Aim: To determine the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptoms in 13 European countries, and the association between socioeconomic factors and symptoms using a standardised method. Methods: A representative age- and gender-stratified sample of 23 163 subjects (aged 18–69 years) was surveyed. Results: The prevalence of UGI symptoms was 38%. UGI symptoms were most prevalent in Hungary [45%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 42.2–48.4] and lowest in the Netherlands (24%, 95% CI: 21.0–26.2). UGI symptoms were more prevalent in women (39%, 95% CI: 38.4–39.6) vs. men (37%, 95% CI: 36.4–37.6). Heartburn (24%, 95% CI: 23.4–24.6) and acidic reflux (14%, 95% CI: 13.6–14.4) were most common. With age, the prevalence of UGI symptoms decreased (e.g. 18–29 years: 43%, 95% CI: 41.4–44.3 vs. 50–69 years: 33%, 95% CI: 32.3–34.4); in contrast, the frequency of symptom episodes/year increased with age (e.g. 18–29 years: 11.3 episodes per years...

Country- and individual-level socioeconomic determinants of depression: multilevel cross-national comparison

Rai, D.; Zitko, P.; Jones, K.; Lynch, J.; Araya, R.
Fonte: Royal College of Psychiatrists Publicador: Royal College of Psychiatrists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and correlates of depression vary across countries. Contextual factors such as country-level income or income inequalities have been hypothesised to contribute to these differences. AIMS: To investigate associations of depression with socioeconomic factors at the country level (income inequality, gross national income) and individual (education, employment, assets and spending) level, and to investigate their relative contribution in explaining the cross-national variation in the prevalence of depression. METHOD: Multilevel study using interview data of 187 496 individuals from 53 countries participating in the World Health Organization World Health Surveys. RESULTS: Depression prevalence varied between 0.4 and 15.7% across countries. Individual-level factors were responsible for 86.5% of this variance but there was also reasonable variation at the country level (13.5%), which appeared to increase with decreasing economic development of countries. Gross national income or country-level income inequality had no association with depression. At the individual level, fewer material assets, lower education, female gender, economic inactivity and being divorced or widowed were associated with increased odds of depression. Greater household spending...

Preoperative factors predicting clinical outcome following laparoscopic fundoplication

Staehelin, A.; Zingg, U.; Devitt, P.; Esterman, A.; Smith, L.; Jamieson, G.; Watson, D.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
Background - Antireflux surgery is effective for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, but not all patients benefit equally from it. The challenge is to identify the patients who will ultimately benefit from antireflux surgery. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative factors that predict clinical outcome after antireflux surgery, with special interest in the influence of socioeconomic factors. Methods - Preoperative clinical and socioeconomic data from 1,650 patients who were to undergo laparoscopic fundoplication were collected prospectively. Clinical outcome measures (persistent heartburn, dysphagia, satisfaction) were assessed at short-term (1 year) and longer-term (≥3 years) follow-up. Results - At early follow-up, male gender (relative risk [RR] 1.091, p < 0.001) and the presence of a hiatus hernia (RR 1.065, p = 0.002) were independently associated with less heartburn. Male gender was also associated with higher overall satisfaction (RR 1.046, p = 0.034). An association was found between postoperative dysphagia and age (RR 0.988, p = 0.007) and the absence of a hiatus hernia (RR 0.767, p = 0.001). At longer-term follow-up, only male gender (RR 1.125, p < 0.001) was an independent prognostic factor for heartburn control. Male gender (RR 0.761...

Malaria: Der Einfluss sozioökonomischer Faktoren auf das Prophylaxeverhalten von Müttern in Gabun; Malaria: The influence of socioeconomic factors on preventive behaviour and malaria-prophylaxis among mothers in Gabon

Goesch, Julia
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
HINTERGRUND: Imprägnierte Moskitonetze (ITNs) gehören zu den effektivsten Prophylaxemaßnahmen zum Schutz gegen Malaria. Trozdem ist ihr Einsatz in Afrika südlich der Sahara noch sehr gering. Um dem Ziel einer breiten Implementierung von ITNs näher zu kommen gilt es herauszufinden, welche Faktoren deren Benutzung innerhalb der am stärksten gefährdeten Risikogruppen begünstigen. STUDIENZIEL: Untersuchung des Einflusses sozioökonomischer Faktoren auf das Prophylaxeverhalten von Müttern in Gabun, insbesondere auf die Benutzung von Moskitonetzen (MN). METHODEN: Querschnittsstudie mit 401 Müttern oder Erziehungsberechtigten von Säuglingen und Kleinkindern die mit Hilfe standardisierter Fragebögen interviewt wurden. Einteilung der Befragten in sozioökonomische Gruppen anhand von Punktescores zur Ermittlung der ökonomischen Situation und des sozialen Status. Der Zustand und die Installation der Moskitonetze (MN) wurden bei einem Hausbesuch evaluiert. ERGEBNISSE: 87,2% der Befragten machten die Angabe ihr Kind schlafe regelmäßig unter einem MN; 19,2% dieser MN waren in schlechtem oder sehr schlechtem Zustand. Nur 6,4% wurden jemals imprägniert, 97,2 % der Befragten würden jedoch eine kostenlos angebotene Imprägnierungskampagne gerne in Anspruch nehmen. Der Einfluss sozioökonomischer Faktoren auf das Prophylaxeverhalten der Probandinnen wird durch diese Studie bestätigt. Die folgenden Faktoren waren statistisch signifikant mit der Benutzung von MN assoziiert: Berufsausbildung der Mutter (p=0...

Prevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking in people living with HIV by sex, in Recife, Brazil

Batista,Joanna d’Arc Lyra; Albuquerque,Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de; Ximenes,Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Miranda-Filho,Demócrito de Barros; Melo,Heloisa Ramos Lacerda de; Maruza,Magda; Moura,Libia Vilela; Ferraz,Eduardo Jaime Seara Pinto da C
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. The prevalence of smoking is higher in people infected with HIV than in the general population. Although it is biologically plausible that smoking increases the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS, few studies in developing countries have analyzed the determinants and consequences of smoking in HIV infected people. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify the socioeconomic factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation in patients with HIV by sex. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with baseline data, obtained from an ongoing prospective cohort study of patients with HIV attending two referral centers in Recife, Northeast Region of Brazil, between July 2007 and October 2009. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 28.9%. For both sexes, smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol drinking and marijuana use. Among women, smoking was associated with living alone, not being married and illiteracy; and among men, being 40 years or older, low income and using crack. Compared with ex-smokers, current smokers were younger and more likely to be unmarried, heavy drinkers and marijuana users. Conclusions: It is important to incorporate smoking cessation interventions for the treatment of heavy alcohol drinkers and marijuana users with HIV/AIDS...

Influence of self-perceived oral health and socioeconomic predictors on the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren

PIOVESAN, Chaiana; ANTUNES, José Leopoldo Ferreira; GUEDES, Renata Saraiva; ARDENGHI, Thiago Machado
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
The influence of socioeconomic factors and self-rated oral health on children's dental health assistance was assessed. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. A dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index). Data about the use of dental service, socioeconomic status, and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of structured interviews. These associations were assessed using Poisson regression models (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval). The prevalence of regular use of dental service was 47.8%. Children from low socioeconomic backgrounds and those who rated their oral health as "poor" used the service less frequently. The distribution of the kind of oral healthcare assistance used (public/private) varied across socioeconomic groups. The better-off children were less likely to have used the public service. Clinical, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors were strong predictors for the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren.

Iniquidades socioeconômicas na conformação dos padrões alimentares de crianças e adolescentes; Socioeconomic inequality shaping the dietary patterns of children and teens

Ribeiro Silva, Rita de Cassia; Oliveira Assis, Ana Marlucia; Szarfarc, Sophia Cornbluth; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Carneiro da Costa, Lilia Carolina; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha
Fonte: PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDADE CATOLICA CAMPINAS; CAMPINAS Publicador: PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDADE CATOLICA CAMPINAS; CAMPINAS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
OBJETIVO: Identificar e quantificar a influência dos fatores socioeconômicos sobre os padrões alimentares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra de 1.136 crianças e adolescentes de 7 a 14 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, matriculados na rede pública de Salvador (BA), Brasil. O consumo alimentar foi medido por meio do questionário qualitativo de frequência alimentar. Os padrões de consumo foram identificados por meio de análise de componentes principais. Para o estudo da influência dos indicadores socioeconômicos na conformação dos padrões alimentares, foram utilizados modelos de regressão quantílica. RESULTADOS: Os padrões alimentares extraídos foram classificados em padrão obesogênico e padrão tradicional. Nos modelos de regressão quantílica, ajustados por faixa etária e por sexo, o menor grau de instrução materna esteve associado negativamente, em níveis significantes, na maioria dos percentis, ao consumo de alimentos que integram o padrão obesogênico. A baixa renda associou-se negativamente aos maiores percentis (p>95). Os dados indicam não haver influência dos indicadores socioeconômicos sobre o consumo de alimentos que integram o padrão tradicional. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que há influência dos fatores socioeconômicos na adesão ao padrão obesogênico de consumo. Esse conjunto de resultados requer a atenção dos gestores públicos para a identificação de um padrão de consumo ocidental...

Spatial analysis of leprosy incidence and associated socioeconomic factors

de Cassia Oliveira Cury, Maria Rita; Paschoal, Vania Del'Arco; Tonelli Nardi, Susilene Maria; Chierotti, Ana Patricia; Rodrigues Junior, Antonio Luiz; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco
Fonte: REVISTA DE SAUDE PUBLICA; SAO PAULO Publicador: REVISTA DE SAUDE PUBLICA; SAO PAULO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
OBJECTIVE: To identify clusters of the major occurrences of leprosy and their associated socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: Cases of leprosy that occurred between 1998 and 2007 in Sao Jose do Rio Preto (southeastern Brazil) were geocodified and the incidence rates were calculated by census tract. A socioeconomic classification score was obtained using principal component analysis of socioeconomic variables. Thematic maps to visualize the spatial distribution of the incidence of leprosy with respect to socioeconomic levels and demographic density were constructed using geostatistics. RESULTS: While the incidence rate for the entire city was 10.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants annually between 1998 and 2007, the incidence rates of individual census tracts were heterogeneous, with values that ranged from 0 to 26.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Areas with a high leprosy incidence were associated with lower socioeconomic levels. There were identified clusters of leprosy cases, however there was no association between disease incidence and demographic density. There was a disparity between the places where the majority of ill people lived and the location of healthcare services. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial analysis techniques utilized identified the poorer neighborhoods of the city as the areas with the highest risk for the disease. These data show that health departments must prioritize politico-administrative policies to minimize the effects of social inequality and improve the standards of living...

Influence of self-perceived oral health and socioeconomic predictors on the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren

Piovesan,Chaiana; Antunes,José Leopoldo Ferreira; Guedes,Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi,Thiago Machado
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
The influence of socioeconomic factors and self-rated oral health on children's dental health assistance was assessed. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. A dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index). Data about the use of dental service, socioeconomic status, and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of structured interviews. These associations were assessed using Poisson regression models (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval). The prevalence of regular use of dental service was 47.8%. Children from low socioeconomic backgrounds and those who rated their oral health as "poor" used the service less frequently. The distribution of the kind of oral healthcare assistance used (public/private) varied across socioeconomic groups. The better-off children were less likely to have used the public service. Clinical, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors were strong predictors for the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren.

Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children

Piovesan,Chaiana; Guedes,Renata Saraiva; Casagrande,Luciano; Ardenghi,Thiago Machado
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI) in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals). The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

Configuração espacial da Dengue no contexto socioeconômico de Alfenas/MG: Retrato de uma década; Spatial configuration of the Dengue in the socioeconomic context of Alfenas-MG: Portrait of a decade

Nascimento, Murilo C. do; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio L.; Rodrigues, Denis de O.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/04/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
Introduction: The relation between dengue and socioeconomic factors is object of controversy and there’s no record of studies in Alfenas-MG that had described such interaction in a municipal scale. Objectives: Characterize and group the census sectors of Alfenas-MG in socioeconomic levels and describe the distribution of the dengue cases around the area. Methods: Transversal study, in which were used demographic variables, multivariate statistics and analysis of the group to generate parameters of socioeconomic stratification. Confirmed cases of classic dengue between the years of 2001 to 2010 were geocoded to estimate the density of points by the Kernel’s Technique and describe the spatial distribution of the disease by the socioeconomic clusters. Results: There were obtained four clusters that grouped the census units in socioeconomic levels, in which the number 1 is regarded as the best, and the number 4 the worst, and the extracts 2 and 3 as intermediary levels. The residency’s area from the cases made several groups, with a random distribution around the territory, in an indifferent way to the socioeconomic results. The concentration of points varied both located in sectors with better socioeconomic condition and in less privileged areas...

Fatores socioeconômicos e mortalidade infantil no Equador, 1970-1981; Fatores socioeconómicos y mortalidad infantil en Ecuador, 1970-1981; Socioeconomic factors and infant mortality in Ecuador, 1970-1981

González Pérez, Guillermo; Gálvez González, Ana María; Jaramillo Villarreal, Melfa
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/1988 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
No Equador entre os anos de 1970 a 1981 a taxa de mortalidade infantil reduziu em 35%, embora seu valor continua sendo elevado em relação ao contexto latinoamericano. A nível regional, o comportamento da taxa não tem sido homogêneo, observando-se diferenças significativas nas diversas regiões quanto a taxa de mortalidade durante o primeiro ano de vida. Com o emprego da técnica de regressão múltipla, pretendeu-se identificar aqueles fatores socioeconômicos que mais têm incidido no declínio da mortalidade infantil no Equador, no período acima descrito, bem como as variáveis que melhor explicam as diferenças inter-regionais do referido indicador. A diminuição da natalidade e o aumento proporcional de recursos financeiros destinados à saúde, por um lado, e a taxa de alfabetização por outro, parecem ser elementos chaves para uma explicação econômica social das mudanças recentes na mortalidade infantil equatoriana.; En Ecuador la tasa de mortalidad infantil se redujo entre 1970 y 1981 en un 35%, a pesar de lo cual su valor sigue siendo elevado en el contexto latinoamericano. A nivel provincial, el comportamiento de la tasa no ha sido homogéneo, observándose fuertes diferencias entre las entidades en cuanto a la mortalidad durante el primer año de vida. Mediante el empleo de técnicas de regresión múltiple...

Análise espacial da incidência de hanseníase e fatores socioeconômicos associados; Análisis espacial de la incidencia de lepra y factores socioeconómicos asociados; Spatial analysis of leprosy incidence and associated socioeconomic factors

Cury, Maria Rita de Cassia Oliveira; Paschoal, Vania Del´Arco; Nardi, Susilene Maria Tonelli; Chierotti, Ana Patrícia; Rodrigues Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
OBJETIVO: Identificar áreas com maior ocorrência de casos de hanseníase e fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos associados. MÉTODOS: Casos de hanseníase ocorridos entre 1998 e 2007 em São José do Rio Preto, SP, foram geocodificados e coeficientes de incidência foram calculados por setores censitários. Por meio da técnica de análise de componentes principais, obteve-se um escore para classificação socioeconômica. O uso do método de krigagem ordinária resultou em mapas temáticos para visualização da distribuição espacial da incidência de hanseníase, do nível socioeconômico e da densidade demográfica. RESULTADOS: Enquanto a incidência para toda a cidade foi de 10,4 casos por 100.000 habitantes por ano, entre 1998 e 2007, as incidências por setores censitários foram heterogêneas, variando de zero a 26,9 casos por 100.000 habitantes por ano. Houve concordância entre áreas com valores mais altos de incidência e menores níveis socioeconômicos. Foram identificados aglomerados de casos de hanseníase. Não foi observada associação da doença com densidade demográfica. Detectou-se falta de relação entre os locais de moradia da maioria dos doentes e a localização dos serviços de saúde. CONCLUSÕES: As técnicas de análise espacial utilizadas permitiram caracterizar as áreas mais deficitárias do município como as de maior risco para hanseníase.; OBJETIVO: Identificar áreas con mayor ocurrencia de casos de lepra y factores socioeconómicos y demográficos asociados. MÉTODOS: Casos de lepra ocurridos entre 1998 y 2007 en Sao José do Rio Preto...

Hospitalização por pneumonia: influência de fatores socioeconômicos e gestacionais em uma coorte de crianças no Sul do Brasil; Hospitalizations due to pneumonia: the influence of socioeconomic and pregnancy factors in a cohort of children in Southern Brazil

César, Juraci A.; Victora, Cesar G.; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Fernando C.; Albernaz, Elaine P.; Oliveira, Luciani M.; Flores, José A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Weiderpass, Elizabete; Halpern, Ricardo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/1997 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of socioeconomic and gestational factors on admission due to pneumonia in the post-neonatal period. METHODOLOGY: Cohort. Children born in the city Pelotas, Brazil, in 1993. Cases were children admitted to hospital for 24 hours or more, between the ages of 28 and 364 days, with a diagnosis of pneumonia. RESULTS: Of the 5,304 children in the cohort, 152 (2.9%) were hospitalized with pneumonia. The positive preditive value of the clinical diagnosis compared to the radiological assessment was 76%. Analysis by conditional logistic regression showed that social class and maternal schooling were strongly inversely associated with pneumonia. Children of adolescent mothers were twice as likely to be admitted. The relative risk for children whose mothers were of parity three or greater was 2.8 relative to primiparae. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy of less than 10 kg was associated with a 40% increase in risk. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic factors were important determinants of pneumonia admissions. Maternal age, parity and weight gain were also significant risk factors.; OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência de fatores socioeconômicos e gestacionais sobre a hospitalização por pneumonia no período pós-neonatal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Longitudinal. Crianças com idade entre 28 e 364 dias...

Prevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking in people living with HIV by sex, in Recife, Brazil

Batista,Joanna d'Arc Lyra; Albuquerque,Maria de Fatima Pessoa Militao de; Ximenes,Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Miranda-Filho,Democrito de Barros; Melo,Heloisa Ramos Lacerda de; Maruza,Magda; Moura,Libia Vilela; Ferraz,Eduardo Jaime Seara Pinto da Costa; Rod
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. The prevalence of smoking is higher in people infected with HIV than in the general population. Although it is biologically plausible that smoking increases the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS, few studies in developing countries have analyzed the determinants and consequences of smoking in HIV infected people. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify the socioeconomic factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation in patients with HIV by sex. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with baseline data, obtained from an ongoing prospective cohort study of patients with HIV attending two referral centers in Recife, Northeast Region of Brazil, between July 2007 and October 2009. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 28.9%. For both sexes, smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol drinking and marijuana use. Among women, smoking was associated with living alone, not being married and illiteracy; and among men, being 40 years or older, low income and using crack. Compared with ex-smokers...

Spatial analysis of leprosy incidence and associated socioeconomic factors

Cury,Maria Rita de Cassia Oliveira; Paschoal,Vania Del´Arco; Nardi,Susilene Maria Tonelli; Chierotti,Ana Patrícia; Rodrigues Júnior,Antonio Luiz; Chiaravalloti-Neto,Francisco
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
OBJECTIVE: To identify clusters of the major occurrences of leprosy and their associated socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: Cases of leprosy that occurred between 1998 and 2007 in São José do Rio Preto (southeastern Brazil) were geocodified and the incidence rates were calculated by census tract. A socioeconomic classification score was obtained using principal component analysis of socioeconomic variables. Thematic maps to visualize the spatial distribution of the incidence of leprosy with respect to socioeconomic levels and demographic density were constructed using geostatistics. RESULTS: While the incidence rate for the entire city was 10.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants annually between 1998 and 2007, the incidence rates of individual census tracts were heterogeneous, with values that ranged from 0 to 26.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Areas with a high leprosy incidence were associated with lower socioeconomic levels. There were identified clusters of leprosy cases, however there was no association between disease incidence and demographic density. There was a disparity between the places where the majority of ill people lived and the location of healthcare services. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial analysis techniques utilized identified the poorer neighborhoods of the city as the areas with the highest risk for the disease. These data show that health departments must prioritize politico-administrative policies to minimize the effects of social inequality and improve the standards of living...