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Ghana : Improving the Targeting of Social Programs

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
This study, a draft of which was shared with the Government of Ghana in November 2009, provides a basic diagnostic of the benefit incidence and targeting performance of a large number of social programs in Ghana. Both broad-based programs (such as spending for education and health, and subsidies for food, oil-related products, and electricity) as well as targeted programs (such as Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty, or LEAP, the indigent exemption under the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), school lunches and uniforms, or fertilizer subsidies) are considered. In addition, the study provides tools and recommendations for better targeting of those programs in the future. The tools include new maps and data sets for geographic targeting according to poverty and food security, as well as ways to implement proxy means-testing. This executive summary provides a brief synthesis of the key findings and messages from the study.

Realizing Rights Through Social Guarantees : An Analysis of New Approaches to Social Policy in Latin America and South Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
This paper examines the experiences in four Latin American countries and South Africa in the application of a human rights approach to social policy. The paper applies an analysis based on a social guarantees framework -- an innovative approach to integrate a rights-based perspective into social policy. The social guarantees approach moves beyond a purely normative framework to give concrete meaning to economic, social, and cultural rights and hence to allow for their operationalization into policies and programs. This document suggests that a social guarantee approach can be used to strengthen the delivery and monitoring of social programs. Firstly, it implies an institutional design that emphasizes synergy and coordination among agencies and providers to help social programs achieve their full potential. Secondly, this approach contributes to reducing gaps in opportunity among citizens by promoting universal access to, and a basic quality standard for, essential services. Thirdly, the social guarantee approach contributes to strengthening democratic governance...

Social Protection Responses to the Global Economic Crisis in ECA

Lindert, Kathy; Schwarz, Anita
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
Besides affecting the private sector, the current global economic downturn will likely have a far-reaching impact on government revenues around the world. As country budgets are squeezed tight, social programs which directly help poor and vulnerable people will become pressure points for reducing government spending. In many countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA), two years of rising food prices, high energy costs and the global economic downturn have combined with other shocks like natural disasters and political instability. The impacts of these crises could reduce government revenues and affect social spending and pension systems, even as the need for unemployment and benefits increases. In the short run, ECA countries may call on the World Bank to provide financial or technical support to help with the immediate impacts of the crises. Rapid support could include: (a) helping countries finance temporary scaling-up of well-targeted safety nets, either in beneficiary coverage or with a topping-up of benefits values; and (b) supporting actions to protect the budgets of well-targeted programs and other crucial spending on education and health. Governments and the Bank need to be prepared to respond more adeptly in the future; safety nets are important not only in times of crises but...

Social Safety Nets in OECD Countries

Tesliuc, Emil
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
The focus of the note is on non-contributory social programs for low-income households, or other vulnerable groups in OECD countries. These programs, typically referred to as social safety net (SSN) programs in developing countries, are labeled welfare programs in the US and social assistance programs in the European Union. This note covers 28 countries belonging to the OECD, and refers to an in depth review of SSN programs in the US and nine European Union countries prepared for a course on "Social Safety Nets in OECD Countries." The accompanying course materials have been developed by a team from the Urban Institute (for the US) and the University of Maastricht (for nine European Union countries). The material on US welfare policies also draws on Lindert (2005), and the review of reforms in OECD countries from Abt (2003).

Hungary : Long-term Poverty, Social Protection, and the Labor Market, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
This report documents the emergence of a group of long-term poor in Hungary. While growth will continue to be necessary to create well-paying jobs that would enable people to escape poverty, the long term poor are not likely to benefit from growth since they are detached from the labor market, socially excluded, and in many cases, facing discrimination which keeps them from reintegrating into the labor market. The long-term poor in Hungary are comprised of several distinct social groups: the homeless, rural population particularly those living in micro-communities, unemployed or withdrawn from the labor market, households with more than three children, single parent families, single elderly females, and the Roma. A third of the long-term poor are of Roma ethnicity, even though this group is only approximately 5 percent of the Hungarian population. The analysis of the labor market confirms the connection between long-term unemployment and long-term poverty. One of the messages of this report is that the Roma need good-paying jobs first and foremost. Many Roma villages are characterized by a cycle of dependency on state transfers. Reinsertion programs are needed to break this cycle. In the medium term...

Ukraine : Social Safety Nets and Poverty, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
The report is intended to determine the appropriateness of the social protection system in meeting the needs of the poor in Ukraine, and what are the changes which can be instituted to improve such system. To this end, the report presents the poverty measurement in the country, assesses current social programs, and suggests a framework for system redesign. In particular, it points at the challenge of a transition economy, in realizing that poverty does appear even among the employed population, while childhood poverty does indeed affect the future of a nation. The study presents the survey methodology, based on a household survey, measures of income and expenditure, and of inequality, examining the poverty line through a multivariate analysis of poverty risks in the country, including housing subsidies, energy arrears, in addition to war entitlements and privileges. It finds that the Ukrainian social support system could address social needs well, as it has sufficient resources to do so, though currently, it does so poorly. Thus resource allocation needs to be improved...

Ukraine : Social Safety Nets and Poverty, Volume 2

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
The report is intended to determine the appropriateness of the social protection system in meeting the needs of the poor in Ukraine, and what are the changes which can be instituted to improve such system. To this end, the report presents the poverty measurement in the country, assesses current social programs, and suggests a framework for system redesign. In particular, it points at the challenge of a transition economy, in realizing that poverty does appear even among the employed population, while childhood poverty does indeed affect the future of a nation. The study presents the survey methodology, based on a household survey, measures of income and expenditure, and of inequality, examining the poverty line through a multivariate analysis of poverty risks in the country, including housing subsidies, energy arrears, in addition to war entitlements and privileges. It finds that the Ukrainian social support system could address social needs well, as it has sufficient resources to do so, though currently, it does so poorly. Thus resource allocation needs to be improved...

Increasing Social Inclusion through Social Guarantees : A Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
This policy note seeks to contribute to the consideration of social guarantees as tools for the design and/or monitoring of social policy and service delivery. It proposes a range of options to improve the delivery of and access to social services that can further social inclusion and democratic governance. The application of a social guarantee framework to social policy could significantly enhance the effectiveness of policy implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean, and can have a direct and positive impact on poor and vulnerable groups. This policy note is not intended as a blueprint for developing a social guarantee approach to social policy design and service delivery. Rather, it discusses the principles that could guide such undertaking, and it provides examples of how different countries have developed and implemented social programs using this approach. Social policy plays a critical role in promoting inclusion and strengthening democratic governance. As such, it contributes to the realization of normative human rights commitments. This document suggests that a social guarantee approach can be used to strengthen the delivery and monitoring of social programs. It highlights the importance of understanding and building upon the existing socio-political context of each country. This policy notes suggests that a system of social guarantees provides a way of addressing these concerns by enabling the state to provide: a) clarity of minimum standards...

Household Welfare, the Labor Market, and Social Programs in Albania

Rashid, Mansoora; Dorabawila, Vajeera; Adams, Richard
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
The paper provides an overview of household welfare, labor markets, and social programs in Albania, outside of its capital, in 1996. At the time, Albania was in a cross roads, from a period of phenomenal growth, to a series of economic crisis, though still ranking as the poorest country in the Central and Eastern Europe Region. The main findings suggest that the majority of the poor are rural, self-employed in agriculture, a result of Albania's large rural population that is mainly employed in subsistence agriculture. These households also have the highest poverty incidence, followed by out of labor force individuals, and the unemployed. Not surprising, the highest poverty incidence is in the rural north, requiring subsidized wheat, and cash transfers to survive difficult winters. Interestingly, migration is a major coping strategy in Albania: households with no migrants, were poorer than those where a family member was working abroad. The study raises concern about the education system, and safety nets, considering there are high drop out rates in basic...

Thailand - Social and Structural Review : Beyond the Crisis - Structural Reform for Stable Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
Following the East Asian financial crisis, the Bank's involvement in Thailand intensified, enabling a multifaceted stabilization, and structural reform dialogue, which deepened the economic, financial, and sector knowledge of the country. The study benefits from this analytical work, and provides an overview on the ongoing policy dialogue, regarding short- and medium-term reform, through a number of instruments. To promote longer-term growth, the country embarked on a twin strategy of macroeconomic stabilization, and structural reform. Although its flexible labor market, and support mechanisms diminished the crisis' impact on unemployment, and poverty, compared to other countries in the region, this ability to moderate the impact of the economic crisis, could adversely impact a prolonged crisis. The study examines steps to strengthen public sector social programs, and institutional capacity, envisaging coherent poverty support programs in a timely manner, while speeding fiscal stimulus effects, and, monitoring poverty through reliable information...

Costa Rica - Social Spending and the Poor; Costa Rica - El gasto social y la pobreza

Ribe, Helena; Víquez, Roxana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
In social protection, Costa Rica has a well-established social assistance network to protect vulnerable groups, but it does not adequately reach the very poor. Costa Rica is not likely to be able to rely on favorable economic conditions to reverse these trends. Macroeconomic projections do not show signs of the consistent growth that characterized the past ten years, and which allowed the government to continue increasing investment in the social sectors. Relative to gross domestic product (GDP), Costa Rica already spends more on social services overall than other countries in Latin America, and considerably more than the average for other countries at similar stages of development outside the region. Moreover fiscal pressures will not only limit the government's ability to increase social spending, but could also act as a drag on real growth prospects for the economy as a whole. This underscores a key finding of the report: that social sector challenges cannot be resolved only through the allocation of more resources...

Uruguay - Strengthening Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Social Policy : Nonlending Technical Assistance Project, Report on Phase 2; Uruguay - Fortaleciendo la evaluacion y el monitoreo participativo de la politica social : Proyecto de Asistencia Tecnica No Reembolsable - informe de la fase two

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
The objectives of the Uruguay Nonlending Technical Assistance Project (UY NLTA) were to: (i) evaluate the impact of providing a safety net program's (PANES's) social emergency programs; (ii) inform a dialogue about the future role of social programs and of MIDES as a lead authority responsible for the coordination and oversight of social policy in Uruguay; and (iii) strengthen Ministry of Social Development's (MIDES's) capacity to assess, monitor, and evaluate social policy in Uruguay, with considerable weight given to participatory approaches to monitoring and evaluation. Expected outcomes of the project included: (a) increased efficiency in the implementation of Uruguay's social programs through the consolidation of existing and dispersed databases and the strengthening of MIDES's Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system; (b) increased transparency and strengthened accountability in selected departments through the piloting of a participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) approach; (c) stronger engagement of civil society in public sector reform in Uruguay; and (d) informed decisions about the future of social programs under the Plan Nacional de Equidad...

Costa Rica : Social Spending and the Poor, Volume 1. Summary of Issues and Recommendations with Executive Summary; El gasto social y la pobreza

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
The report reviews the substantial progress Costa Rica made over the past decade in reducing poverty and improving social indicators. However, while economic growth certainly reduced poverty rates, the country's recent experience shows that relying on economic growth and increased public spending alone will not necessarily yield sufficient reductions in poverty. Moreover, the rising concern that fiscal pressure will limit possibilities of increasing social spending suggests further efficiency in the sector. Even though coverage of education and health remains almost universal in basic education, and so is access to healthcare services, worrying signs in social sector indicators suggest a decline in the efficiency of social spending. The report addresses three key issues, namely, a) Who are the poor and vulnerable groups in Costa Rica? b) What has been the impact of social spending on programs that aim to improve the welfare of the poor? and c) Which are the improvements required, and how can government spending be used more effectively to reach the poor and reduce poverty? In response to these questions...

Albania : Social Safety Net Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
In 1989, Albania's rigid political and socioeconomic structure shattered beyond repair. Turbulence soon invaded every domain of life. As the state imploded, so did the state-run economy. This review explores ongoing consequences of this difficult transformation that took place since 1989 and of policy initiatives to mitigate or ameliorate its effects. Albania has been much studied; the review addresses important information gaps. It establishes, from the representative 2002 Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS), which kinds of families receive public income transfers and private income flows in what amounts and from what sources. It estimates the impact that these public and private income flows have in mitigating pre-transfer and post-transfer poverty among households. It does this by type of family and source of income flow, for all Albanian households and for various subsets of them. This review analyzes the relative importance of pensions and social assistance in alleviating poverty among rural households with aged members. This review also documents and links data on expenditures under social programs with data on program beneficiaries for recent years and it identifies current tradeoffs among the multiple objectives of social safety net policies...

Mexico : Impact Evaluation of SME Programs Using Panel Firm Data

Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys; Tinajero, Monica
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
Unlike social programs targeting individuals, few enterprise support programs have been rigorously evaluated, and existing evaluations have mostly been done in high-income countries such as the United States and Europe. Mexico spends a large share of government resources on small and medium enterprise programs each year. How effective these programs have been in achieving their objectives is unclear. In Mexico, impact evaluations of small and medium enterprise programs are rare, and most are qualitative in nature. This is the first paper evaluating these programs in Mexico using firm-level panel data. The continuous and ten-year panel data -- from the 1994-2005 period -- allow the authors to address selectivity bias and unobserved firm heterogeneity by applying a generalization of differences-in-differences models combined with propensity score matching methods. This study finds evidence that participation in small and medium enterprise programs is associated with improvements in key variables such as value added...

Addressing Access and Behavioral Constraints through Social Intermediation Services : A Review of Chile Solidario and Red Unidos

Camacho, Adriana; Cunningham, Wendy; Rigolini, Jamele; Silva, Veronica
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
Social programs are often designed under the assumption that individuals make rational decisions that improve their welfare. Yet, informational and behavioral constraints limit the extreme and chronic poor's access and participation in social programs. This paper reviews the implementation and performance of two "social intermediation services" that were designed to address these constraints, improve beneficiaries' access to social programs, and help the poor surmount poverty: Chile Solidario, the first such service in Latin America, and Red Unidos, implemented later in Colombia. The analysis provides insights on key factors influencing performance, cost effectiveness, and the impacts that such services can be expected to have.

Incentives and the Role of Institutions in the Provision of Social Safety Nets

Weigand, Christine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
The institutional environment can determine the effectiveness and efficiency of social safety net programs. An otherwise perfectly designed program may fail if it does not take into account the role of the different institutional actors, and the incentives they face in the implementation and delivery of the program. Thus, incentive structures-between sponsors (i.e., governments) and providers, and between providers and their clients-play an important role in determining the success of a social safety net program. The biggest challenges in countries with fully developed institutions tend to be: 1. Optimizing program mix: With many and very sophisticated programs, it is crucial to determine the 'right' program mix and reduce overlap and conflicts between social programs. Regular monitoring and evaluation play a central role in achieving this. 2. Deciding on the degree of devolution: Local authorities can be better informed and more accountable to their local constituencies. Nevertheless, the devolution of certain policy decisions not only requires a certain level of capacity at the local level...

Georgia Demographic Change : Implications for Social Programs and Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
This note provides an overview of demographic changes and their policy implications in Georgia, with particular reference to the poor. Georgia's population is expected to decline between 2010 and 2050, and this trend will be accompanied by a growing elderly cohort and a rising total dependency ratio. The note emphasizes four interrelated policy topics. These are labor force participation, labor force productivity, and potential cost pressures arising from the pension system and from the health sector. In each area, special attention is given to the linkages between these issues, social spending programs, and opportunities for targeting the poor. The note does not present specific policy recommendations, but instead outlines broad areas where future analytical work might be undertaken to arrive at more precise policy options. The note is structured as follows. The next section summarizes the key demographic trends underway in Georgia. Section three presents a profile of poverty and social spending by age. Section four analyzes the four policy issues listed in column two of table one. In each of these sections...

Uruguay : Strengthening Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Social Policy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
The Uruguay Non-lending Technical Assistance (UY NLTA) for Uruguay was undertaken at the request of the Government of Uruguay's Ministry of Social Development (MIDES). Following a devastating financial and macroeconomic crisis in 2002, MIDES was established with a view to coordinating social programs and providing a safety net program for Uruguayans affected by the crisis: the National Assistance Plan of Social Emergency (PANES), which was established in 2005. The objectives of the UY NLTA are to: (i) evaluate the impact of PANES social emergency programs; (ii) inform a dialogue about the future role of social emergency programs and of MIDES as the lead authority responsible for the coordination and oversight of social policy in Uruguay, and (iii) strengthen MIDES capacity to assess, monitor and evaluate social policy in Uruguay, with considerable weight on participatory approaches to monitoring and evaluation.

Contribuições para a supervisão dos programas sociais com foco na família; Contributions for the supervision of social programs with a focus on the family

Campos, Carlos Eduardo Aguilera; UFRJ - Rio de Janeiro - RJ; Garcia, Joana Angélica Barbosa; UFRJ - Rio de Janeiro - RJ
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc) Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/04/2008 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802007000100011Este artigo explora os seguintes aspectos da intervenção: a composição profissional dos programas sociais voltados para famílias, a nova centralidade da família como foco das políticas sociais e a supervisão em equipes multiprofissionais. Tem como base de reflexão os recentes programas implementados em nível federal: Programa de Atenção Integral à Família e Programa Saúde da Família. Analisa a supervisão sem retratar uma abordagem estritamente teórica ou um roteiro de procedimentos de campo. A família é abordada como instituição social em permanente mudança de formatos e significados, exigindo um trabalho de reflexão e educação permanentes dos profissionais sociais.; This article explores the following factors of intervention: the professional composition of the social programs aimed at families, the new focus on the family in social policies and supervision by multi-disciplinary teams. It is based on an analysis of recent federal programs: the Integral Family Attention Program and the Family Health Program. It reviews the supervision without presenting a strictly theoretical approach or a list of field procedures. The family is considered as a social institution undergoing a permanent change of formats and meanings that require reflection and the continuous education of social professionals.