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Exclusão social e ruptura dos laços sociai : analise critica do debate contemporaneo; Social exclusion and rupture of social ties : a critical analysis of contemporary debate

Giuliana Franco Leal
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/04/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
Nesta tese, aborda-se teoricamente a noção de exclusão social tal como utilizada pelas ciências humanas brasileiras desde a década de 1990. A partir de um mapeamento inicial de suas definições mais recorrentes, examina-se em profundidade uma delas: a exclusão social como fragilização e ruptura de laços sociais. Depois de investigar suas origens na produção bibliográfica francesa, o estudo concentra-se na bibliografia brasileira, analisando criticamente o conceito supra-citado de exclusão social, a perspectiva dentro da qual ele se constrói e as teses elaboradas em torno dele. Investiga-se sua pertinência para caracterizar o fenômeno ao qual se refere, a relação entre a emergência do conceito e o contexto social e, por fim, as implicações práticas do uso de tal conceito para pensar possibilidades de superação do problema da exclusão social; In this dissertation, I deal theoretically with the notion of social exclusion as employed by Brazilian human sciences since the 1990s. Based on an initial mapping of the main definitions of social exclusion, I analyze more deeply one of them: social exclusion as weakening and rupture of social ties. After investigating their origins in French bibliography, the study concentrates on Brazilian bibliography...

As desigualdades socioespaciais urbanas numa metrópole interiorana : uma análise da Região Metropolitana de Campinas (SP) a partir de indicadores de exclusão/inclusão social; Urban socio-spatial inequalities in an inland metropolis : an analysis of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, based on social exclusion/inclusion indicators

Ederson Nascimento
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/08/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Esta tese apresenta uma análise da estruturação socioespacial urbana da Região Metropolitana de Campinas, no Estado de São Paulo, à luz do processo de exclusão/inclusão social. Parte-se do pressuposto de que o espaço urbano-metropolitano é configurado, em relação à sua organização interna e ao seu conteúdo social, em áreas sociais segregadas, as quais resultam de (e implicam em) graus diferenciados de inclusão ou exclusão social de sua população. Examina-se a evolução dos processos de urbanização e de expansão das áreas urbanizadas na região, e realiza-se uma caracterização dos espaços intraurbanos sob as perspectivas funcional e social. Elabora-se também, com base em variáveis censitárias intraurbanas, um sistema de indicadores sociais de exclusão/inclusão social, visando mensurar e representar espacialmente a dinâmica das desigualdades socioespaciais no espaço urbano-metropolitano entre 1991 e 2010, através de índices calculados em relação a quatro dimensões de análise do processo de exclusão/inclusão social: autonomia de renda, desenvolvimento humano, equidade e qualidade domiciliar. Os resultados da pesquisa caracterizam a estrutura socioespacial desigual urbana, a qual é marcada por grandes diferenciais de condições de vida (sobretudo na cidade de Campinas) e pela segregação das populações em arranjos espaciais setorizados...

"They Are Not Like Us" : Understanding Social Exclusion

Lakhani, Sadaf; Sacks, Audrey; Heltberg, Rasmus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Negative attitudes toward groups in society are widespread and underpin systematic processes of social exclusion that marginalize people and deny them opportunities and dignity. This paper looks at the processes underlying social exclusion. It uses data covering Eastern Europe and Central Asia to study the responses to a simple hypothetical survey question about which specific groups respondents would not like to have as neighbors. Unwelcoming attitudes toward groups such as immigrants, ethnic minorities, the poor, HIV+ individuals, and others are surprisingly common. These attitudes fall into three distinct clusters: intolerance for the poor and for different lifecycle stages; intolerance toward stigmatized attributes and behaviors; and intolerance toward specific identity groups. An empirical analysis of the determinants of attitudes shows that country-specific factors are far more important than socio-economic characteristics. These findings could have important implications for theories about exclusion and for the design of appropriate social inclusion policies. The authors argue that strategies to address social exclusion need to consider ways to change social norms...

Unión Europea y lucha contra la pobreza y la exclusión social: de la Estrategia Europea 2020 a la Plataforma Europea; European Union and the fight against poverty and social exclusion: from the Europe 2020 Strategy to the European Platform

Ruiz Agudo, Andrea
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
RESUMEN: Las situaciones de pobreza y exclusión social y las medidas necesarias para superarlas han sido percibidas por la Unión Europea como una de las prioridades a las que debe enfrentarse de un modo más activo. A lo largo del presente trabajo, y después de realizar un breve análisis del proceso de integración europea, la política social de la UE y la Estrategia Europea del Empleo (conocida como Estrategia de Lisboa), se revisan los elementos esenciales de la Estrategia Europa 2020 para finalizar analizando el contexto y los desarrollos generados a partir de la Plataforma Europea contra la Pobreza y la Exclusión Social, adoptada por la Comisión en 2010. Tras examinar los indicadores y el contexto en el que ésta se enmarca, se analizan los ámbitos de actuación definidos y el proceso de revisión que se está llevando a cabo.; ABSTRACT: Situations of poverty and social exclusion and the measures needed to overcome them have been collected by the European Union as one of the priorities that must confront a more active way. Throughout this work, and after performing a brief analysis of the process of European integration, social policy of the EU and the European Employment Strategy (known as the Lisbon Strategy), the essential elements of the Europe 2020 strategy are reviewed to finish analyzing the context and developments generated from the European Platform against Poverty and Social Exclusion...

Adolescentes em conflito com a lei: a saga das punições na rota da exclusão social

Nunes, Cléa Nadja Roseno de Castro
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Serviço Social; Serviço Social, Formação Profissional, Trabalho e Proteção Social; Serviço Social, Cultura e Relaçõe Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Serviço Social; Serviço Social, Formação Profissional, Trabalho e Proteção Social; Serviço Social, Cultura e Relaçõe
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This work deals with the problematic of the determinations that contribute to become the adolescents involved with law. Thus, in this research, the social exclusion is apprehended as one of the most important determining to understand this problematic, once we defend that it is part of the trajectory of this adolescent's life since its birth as a punishment that starts before they becoming envolved in act's that break the law. It is still questioned the discussion of the reduction of the penal age, viewed aa a proposal that will contribute to perpetuate the repression. The objectives of the research were: analyze the problematic of adolescents in conflict with law, where social exclusion is seen here as a main category. The research also aims to understand the situation towards social exclusion and that this public is undertaken in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, more specifically in Natal. This is dane through analysis of the profile of adolescents that are submitted to the treatment at Centro Integrate de Atendimento ao Adolescente Acusado de Ato Infracional - CIAD in 2005. This is dane on arder to identify of the State's and society's actions towards this issue, how it has prevailed in analyzing if there is punishing or social protection. The research also contributed with discussion towards the non penal reduction of for underage minors. The approach realized if of qualiquantitative nature. The research was realized with 190 male adolescent subjects...

El maltrato entre iguales por abuso de poder y exclusión social en estudiantes de una universidad privada de la ciudad de Barranquilla; Peer maltreatment due to abuse of power and social exclusion in a private university in the city of Barranquilla; O mau-trato entre iguais por abuso de poder e exclusão social em estudiantes de uma universidade privada da cidade de Barranquilla

Hoyos de los Ríos, Olga Lucía; Romero Santiago, Lidia Margarita; Valega, Sandra Johana; Brito, Carmen Molinares
Fonte: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali Publicador: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; "Artículo revisado por pares"; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artículo Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
SPA; ENG; POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
En este artículo se presentan los resultados de un estudio descriptivo cuyo objetivo era determinar la incidencia de las manifestaciones del maltrato entre iguales por abuso de poder y exclusión social en una muestra de 116 estudiantes de una universidad privada de la ciudad de Barranquilla. Se utilizó un cuestionario para estudiantes, diseñado inicialmente para poblaciones escolares en España y posteriormente adaptado a la población colombiana por Hoyos y Córdoba, y para efectos de esta investigación se realizaron ajustes con relación al contexto universitario. Los resultados confirman la presencia de la situación de maltrato entre iguales en el contexto universitario, aunque la situación no es alarmante. El fenómeno se presenta con algunas particularidades a lo largo de todas las edades y semestres, así como en ambos géneros. Se resalta que el maltrato verbal es el que más se presenta, destacándose el hablar mal de él/ella y poner apodos, seguido de la exclusión social.; In this paper we present the results of a descriptive study whose main goal was to determine the incidence of peer maltreatment due to the abuse of power and social exclusion, demonstrated in a sample of 116 students of a private university in the city of Barranquilla. We used a student questionnaire (Defensor Del Pueblo...

Social housing and social exclusion 2000-2011

Tunstall, Rebecca
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2011 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.16%
By some definitions, social housing, social housing tenants are necessarily socially excluded. In other terms, in 2000, social housing tenants were at greater risk of being socially excluded than owner occupiers and private renters on measures of income, employment, education, health, and housing and neighbourhood quality. However, by 2011, basic housing quality in social housing had overtaken that in home ownership, and slight reductions in social exclusion of social tenants in terms of income, employment, and neighbourhood quality at least disproved arguments of inevitable tenurial polarisation. There is evidence that housing and regeneration policies contributed to these changes, but the economy was also important, and population turnover is likely to have played a role. Finally, the gains of 2000-2011 may not be sustained.

Tackling difficult estates: CASE/Social Exclusion Unit seminar held at the National Tenants Resource Centre, Trafford Hall

Richardson, Liz
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1998 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.11%
There are up to 2,000 difficult social housing estates across the UK. Residents, landlords, local authorities, government and other agencies face a challenging set of problems in trying to make these ‘difficult to live in’ areas work. In some of these estates there are individuals and organisations who are successfully rebuilding communities - tackling unemployment, crime, health, family and youth problems and co-ordinating service delivery. This report summarises the presentations and discussion at a seminar on ‘Tackling Difficult Estates’ organised by CASE on behalf of the Social Exclusion Unit. It took place at the National Tenants Resource Centre, at Trafford Hall near Chester, on 30th-31st March 1998. The seminar brought together front line practitioners, civil servants, policy makers and community representatives – all interested in looking at positive ways to make deprived neighbourhoods better. We heard presentations from practitioners who live and work on difficult estates about their experiences. Cutting across the different case study examples were several common themes about the types of approaches that have been shown to work, together with questions about how to replicate and implement these approaches in other estates. Those themes and outstanding questions are summarised here. The case studies are given in full in the second section. As well as the recommendations from the frontline project examples...

Indicators of progress: a discussion of approaches to monitor the Government’s strategy to tackle poverty and social exclusion

Hills, John
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2001 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
This report is a summary of a joint CASE/DSS workshop that discussed indicators to monitor the Government's strategy to tackle poverty and social exclusion. Held on 19 July 2000, the day was comprised of a series of talks from academics, people from non-governmental organisations and officials, followed by discussion. The workshop was organised to discuss, and promote expert debate on, the pros and cons of different approaches to monitoring poverty and social exclusion. It was split into three sessions covering measurement of income poverty and deprivation, wider aspects of social exclusion and overall approaches to monitoring success, and primarily focussed on child poverty. Around 50 people attended the workshop. Most of the speakers have kindly produced papers of their talks. DSS and CASE do not necessarily share the views they have expressed. The workshop predated the second Opportunity for All report and therefore some of the papers may not reflect developments within it - or work that is currently being developed on, for example, the health inequalities indicator.

Urban social exclusion in transitional China

Li, Bingqin
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2004 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.26%
This paper demonstrates that urban social exclusion in China does not only include restricted participation by the ¿underclass¿ in urban life, but also the deprivation of certain political, social and economic rights. In addition, the paper describes how the character of urban social exclusion has changed over time. The author also examines the social exclusion of rural workers living and working in urban areas. The paper concludes by arguing that urban social exclusion in China needs coordinated reforms that target the whole set of problems in the urban ¿underclass¿ lacking political rights, social protection and economic opportunities.

Capital and the determinants of poverty and social exclusion

Piachaud, David
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2002 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.13%
Types of capital which determine the ability of individuals, of communities and of nations to avoid poverty and social exclusion are analysed. This analysis draws on changing explanations of economic growth and the recent literature on social capital. Five forms of capital are distinguished ¿ financial capital, physical capital, human capital, public infrastructure and social capital ¿ and their inter-relationships are discussed. The theoretical and policy implications of the different forms of capital are considered.

Social exclusion and children: a European view for a US debate

Micklewright, John
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2002 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.27%
The concept of social exclusion has been widely debated in Europe but its application to children has seen relatively little discussion. What could be meant by exclusion of children is the first main theme of the paper. Among other things, I consider the choice of reference group, the geographical dimension of exclusion, and the issue of who is responsible for any exclusion of children. The second main theme is the use of the concept of exclusion in the USA, where in contrast to Europe it has achieved little penetration to date. To assess whether there is fertile ground for discussion of social exclusion as it relates to children in the US, I discuss various features of US society and institutions including the measurement of poverty, analysis of children's living standards, state versus federal responsibilities, welfare reform and the emphasis on 'personal responsibility'.

The roles of schooling and educational qualifications in the emergence of adult social exclusion

Hobcraft, John
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2000 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.19%
From a detailed analysis of the roles of childhood experience, schooling and educational qualifications in the emergence of adult social exclusion, two key patterns emerge: Educational qualifications show a strong relationship to all 36 measures of adult disadvantage (at ages 23 and 33 for both men and women; and the association is generally stronger at age 33 than at age 23. This relationship emerges net of controls for a wide range of childhood factors. Childhood poverty is the most frequent clear predictor of negative adult outcomes. Additionally: Mother's interest in schooling is more salient for women, whilst father's interest matters more for men; Low parental interest in schooling, frequent absence from school, and low educational test scores are all quite influential on subsequent disadvantage, even net of qualification levels; Early contact with the police is more closely related to adult outcomes for men, but school absences are more influential for women. Specific continuities in exclusion also emerge: The father being in Social Classes IV or V remains a clear predictor of male survey members also being in these Classes at ages 23 and 33; Growing up in social housing shows a similar specific legacy of being in social housing for both men and women at ages 23 and 33; Childhood behaviour indicators most specifically relate to adult malaise.

Schools, education and social exclusion

Sparkes, Jo
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/1999 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.18%
A review of research evidence suggests that low levels of educational attainment are crucial in generating and sustaining social exclusion. Test scores at school are the most effective predictor of many adult outcomes. School attendance and soft skills are also important. Reviewing the factors accounting for the variance in educational attainment, it is evident that combinations of social disadvantage powerfully affect school performance with up to 75% of school variation in 16 year old attainment at GCSE associated with pupil intake factors. But school factors can raise attainment by up to 14 GCSE points for average pupils. Hence schools are a good place to improve children's skills. Research suggests that higher per pupil spending, smaller class sizes and teacher quality in schools all seem to make a difference and some have most impact on disadvantaged pupils. However an approach which focuses solely on the improvement of average school performance is likely to be a less effective means of reducing social exclusion than an approach which creates incentives that rewards improvement among the least able. Other factors such as the behaviour and hiring decisions of employers also require attention if improved educational performance is to provide high pay offs.

Childhood poverty, early motherhood and adult social exclusion

Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/1999 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.12%
Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a number of subsidiary questions relating to the magnitude of these associations, the particular threshold levels of childhood poverty that prove most critical, and whether it is, as often assumed, only teenage mothers who are subsequently disadvantaged, or also those who have their first birth in their early twenties? The source of data for this study is the National Child Development Study. We examine a range of outcomes at age 33 in a number of domains representing different aspects of adult social exclusion, including: welfare, socio-economic, physical health, and emotional well-being, as well as demographic behaviour. We control for a wide range of childhood factors: poverty; social class of origin and of father; mother's and father's school leaving age; family structure; housing tenure; mother's and father's interest in education; personality attributes; performance on educational tests; and contact with the police by age 16. We show that there are clear associations for the adult outcomes with age at first birth...

Intergenerational and life-course transmission of social exclusion: influences and childhood poverty, family disruption and contact with the police

Hobcraft, John
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/1998 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.18%
This study uses data from the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a longitudinal study of children born in 1958, to examine the following questions. How far is social exclusion and disadvantage transmitted from parents to their children and from childhood into adulthood? In particular, how far do childhood experiences of poverty, family discruption, and contact with the police link to adult outcomes? What associations are there for a range of other parental and childhood factors - social class of origin, social class during childhood, housing, tenure, father's and mother's interest in schooling, 'aggression', 'anxiety', and 'restlessness', and educational test scores? And how do these factors link to outcomes by age 33, including three indicators of demographic behaviour, one of psychological well-being, three of welfare position, two of educational qualifications and three of economic position? Which childhood factors have a general influence on adult exclusion and are there specific 'inheritance' patterns?

Social exclusion, social isolation and the distribution of income

Barry, Brian
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/1998 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.34%
Social exclusion can be distinguished from social isolation, defining social isolation as the phenomenon of non-participation (of an individual or group) in a society's mainstream institutions, while reserving 'social exclusion' for the subset of cases in which social isolation occurs for reasonsthat are beyond the control of those subject to it. The familiar form of social exclusion affects those who are unable to participate in the institutions patronised by the majority. There is also, however, exclusion of the majority by a minority who are in a position to opt out of the mainstream institutions: the epitome of this is the 'gated community'. Social exclusion is a violation of the demands of social justice in two ways: it conflicts with equality of opportunity and is associated with an inability to participate effectively in politics. An alternative account of what is wrong with social exclusion is that it undermines social solidarity. Voluntary social isolation has the same effect, but is less likely to have such adverse consequences. The relation between social exclusion and the distribution of income is not the same in all societies. However, for a society such as that of Britain, it seems plausible that to avoid the social exclusion of a minority it is necessary for nobody to have less than half the median income...

Individual choice and social exclusion

Le Grand, Julian
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2003 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.28%
Why is social exclusion a problem? What about ‘voluntary’ social exclusion – when an individual chooses to exclude him or herself from the wider society? Brain Barry has addressed these questions in a recent CASE book, arguing that social exclusion, voluntary or involuntary, offends against social justice and social solidarity. This paper contends that Barry’s arguments are weak for voluntary social exclusion and argues that, perhaps surprisingly, a better case can be made for treating voluntary social exclusion as a problem on welfarist grounds.

Outsider and insider expertise: the response of residents of deprived neighbourhoods to an academic definition of social exclusion

Le Grand, Julian; Richardson, Liz
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2002 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.23%
The aim of this paper is to compare academic interpretations of the term social exclusion with the understanding of people with direct experience of the phenomenon. A pre-selected group of residents of deprived neighbourhoods were asked about various aspects of the concept and their responses compared with the definitions of social exclusion used by Burchardt, Le Grand and Piachaud in their 1999 article in the journal Social Policy and Administration. In general, the residents’ understanding of the term corresponded well with the more academic definitions; however, in one or two key areas there were significant differences, for example, the importance of neighbourhood and ‘service poverty’, and the need for action against aspects of social exclusion on the grounds of social justice. This confirms that it might be useful for more academic concepts to be tested against the views of those with experience of the phenomenon which the concept is trying to capture.

Childhood experiences and the risks of social exclusion in adulthood

Hobcraft, John
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/1998 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.13%
This CASEbrief summarises findings from CASEpaper 15, 'Intergenerational and life-course transmission of social exclusion: influences of childhood poverty, family disruption, and contact with the police' by John Hobcraft