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Transformações contemporâneas do trabalho e processos de subjetivação : os jovens face a nova economia e à economia solidária; Contemporary work changes and subjectification processes: young workers facing new economy and social economy

Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Yates, Denise Balem
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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66.13%
O mercado de trabalho contemporâneo aprofundou o fosso social que separa a população inserida no mercado daquela que sobrevive de forma precária. A economia solidária surgiu como contraponto à fratura social daí decorrente. Utilizando a abordagem biográfica, discutimos as trajetórias de trabalho de 30 jovens divididos em dois grupos. O primeiro grupo é composto por 15 jovens empregados no setor da nova economia (informática, telecomunicações e Internet) e 5 jovens empregados no setor bancário pós-reestruturação; o segundo grupo é composto por 5 jovens ligados a um projeto de economia solidária e 5 jovens vinculados a um projeto comunitário. As entrevistas dos jovens inseridos no primeiro grupo revelam a adesão ao discurso gerencial e a constituição de uma ética individualista. Para os jovens do segundo grupo, a economia solidária e o associativismo constituem somente uma alternativa ao desemprego. Frente a essa constatação, perguntamos se estes projetos se constituem efetivamente como um contraponto à lógica de adesão ao discurso de gestão contemporâneo.; Contemporary labor market increased society’s social gap between those inserted in the labor market and those surviving in a precarious way. Social economy emerged in opposition to this social fracture. Using the biographical approach...

Innovation and sustainability in the social economy : a case study of organizational change of a social Portuguese organization

Barbosa, Fernando de Oliveira; Romero, Fernando
Fonte: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Publicador: Academic Conferences and Publishing International
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2014 ENG
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In Europe, the Social Economy is responsible for about 10% of the European business sector, with a share of about 6% in total employment (about 11 million people), revealing an industry that will be called to give a greater contribution to the current problems of unemployment and social cohesion in Europe due to the ongoing social and economic transformation. However, research on the phenomena of the Social Economy still lacks in many respects, concerning, for example, its role in the development of local, regional and national competitiveness. There is a lack of methodologies, tools and indicators appropriate to the social economy. This could be caused by the complexity and diversity of the organizations, on one hand, which is a barrier to their comparability, and on the other hand, to its late and recent recognition on the production of public services. Changes on public policies, the economic and financial crisis, the spread of unemployment and poverty, brings to the light the importance of these organizations, which are ceasing to be residual in economic terms, and are becoming, alongside the State and the Market, a mainstay of the economy. This article is a case study of a Social Economic Organization, where we will examine...

Pension Reform in Southeastern Europe : Linking to Labor and Financial Market Reforms

Holzmann, Robert; MacKellar, Landis; Repansek, Jana
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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The reform of public pension systems and, more generally, the review of old-age income support are on the reform agenda worldwide. The reform discussion is more intense in countries where population aging is well advanced, including the member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), much of Latin America, China, Russia, and the former transition economies of Southeastern Europe (SEE). But developing countries in the global South are also awakening to the challenges of aging and old-age income support in view of changing family structures, urbanization, and migration. Over 80 percent of the increase in the numbers of persons age 65 and older up to 2050 will take place in countries with current per capita incomes of US$1,000 and below. Whereas the North grew rich before becoming old, the South risks becoming old before becoming rich. The remainder of the chapter attempts to substantiate this point. The next section briefly describes aging and its fiscal implications in the light of demographic developments in the countries of Southeastern Europe. There follows an outline of the drivers of pension reform that go beyond population aging and have to be understood when choosing among reform options. Subsequent sections take up recent international reform trends and lessons and underline key points concerning the labor market and financial market reforms needed to support pension reform. The chapter ends with some concluding remarks.

Trade Remedies and Non-Market Economies : Economic Implications of the First US Countervailing Duty Case on China

Zhao, Longyue; Wang, Yan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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In 2007, the United States Department of Commerce altered a 23-year old policy of not applying the countervailing duty law to non-market economies, and initiated eight countervailing and antidumping duty investigations on Chinese imports. The change brings heated debate on trade remedy policies and issues of non-market economies. This study focuses on the first countervailing duty case on imported coated free sheet paper from China and analyzes the implications of this test case for United States-China bilateral trade, and industrial policies in transitioning market economies. The paper also provides a brief review of the economics of subsidies, World Trade Organization rules on subsides and countervailing measures, and United States countervailing duty laws applied to non-market economies. While recently acceded countries should review their domestic development policies from the perspective of economic efficiency and comply with the World Trade Organization rules, it is also important to further clarify the issues of non-market economies under the multilateral trading system...

Armenia - Labor Market Dynamics : Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This study is intended to help Armenian policymakers better understand the main factors behind modest labor market outcomes and to identify policy options to create more and better jobs. The report is based on data from administrative statistics, labor force surveys, and household surveys. The objective of the study is to determine the main factors behind poor labor market outcomes in Armenia: high unemployment of long duration despite rapid economic growth. To do so, it will assess, first, the key characteristics of the demand for labor. These include (a) the impact of macroeconomic policies on job growth; (b) wage flexibility and unit labor costs; (c) cost-of-doing-business factors, including costs, risks, and barriers to competition faced by firms; and (d) employment promotion legislation and labor market institutions. Recommendations are made on policies that can promote an effective and sustainable increased demand for labor; second, the key characteristics of the supply of labor, including the impact of long-term demographic developments and labor migration...

Beyond Corporate Social Responsibility : The Scope for Corporate Investment in Community Driven Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The last decade has witnessed expanded awareness among companies, especially multinational corporations, of their responsibilities toward the communities they impact, elaborated in the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and allied notions such as a Social License to Operate (SLTO). CSR is the realization of business contributions to sustainable development goals. It refers to how business takes account of its economic, social and environmental impacts in the way it operates -- maximizing the benefits and minimizing the downsides.

Market Facilitation by Local Government and Firm Efficiency : Evidence from China

Cull, Robert; Xu, Lixin Colin; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Li-An; Zhu, Tian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper uses data from a large survey of Chinese firms to investigate whether local government efforts to facilitate market development improve firm efficiency. Both government provision of information about products, markets, and innovation and government assistance in arranging loans are positively associated with firm efficiency. Those private firms with weak access to and knowledge of financial, input, and product markets benefit most from such assistance. These patterns are robust across multiple estimation approaches. Case studies of specific types of market facilitation by local governments are provided. The evidence is consistent with the notion that government facilitation can help some firms overcome market failures in the early stages of development. The paper argues that changing fiscal dynamics that forced local governments to become increasingly self-reliant in generating revenue and a government promotion system based on local economic performance compelled these efforts at market facilitation.

Impacto de los procesos de globalización y exigencias a los procesos de cambio: necesidad de un orden económico-social para resolver los problemas actuales; The impact of globalisation processes and its demands upon processes of change: The need for a socio-economic order to solve current problems

García Echevarría, Santiago
Fonte: Universidad de Alcala. Instituto de Dirección y Organización de Empresas (IDOE) Publicador: Universidad de Alcala. Instituto de Dirección y Organización de Empresas (IDOE)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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La dinámica globalizadora de la economía se ha convertido en la clave de referencia tanto a nivel societario como económico-social impactando de forma relevante en el propio diseño de las empresas, de sus modelos de negocio y en su capacidad de liderazgo. Ya no se trata en la globalización de un contexto de grandes empresas. Es la realidad dinamizadora de la economía como consecuencia de la actividad global de las medianas y pequeñas empresas. No se trata de una mera internacionalización de la actividad empresarial, es, más bien, el motor de cambio de las empresas medianas y pequeñas que han sabido posicionarse con una acertada política empresarial, con alta tecnología y su interculturalidad integrando al cliente y a su propio personal. Es otra concepción de empresa y de organización necesariamente orientada a la persona con otras dimensiones organizativas y de management que les facilita el liderazgo y el desarrollo de las personas y de sus instituciones. Es otra forma de pensar, conceptualizar y concebir el funcionamiento de la empresa, de la economía y de la Sociedad.; The economy’s globalising dynamic has become a key reference at both a societal and socio-economic level, impacting significantly upon the very design of a business as well as upon its business models and its leadership capabilities. Today’s globalisation is no longer globalisation in the context of big businesses – it is the dynamising reality behind the economy as a result of the global activity undertaken by small- and medium-sized enterprises. Globalisation is not merely the internationalisation of business activity; it is rather the motor of change that drives forward those small- and medium-sized enterprises whose successful and intelligent business policy has enabled them to position themselves with the globalised economy. Such businesses’ multiculturalism and use of high technology have succeeded in integrating both its customers and personnel. This...

La crisis financiero-económica desde la perspectiva alemana y la respuesta empresarial: principios económico-financieros y política empresarial; The financial and economic crisis from the german perspective and the response of buisness: economic and financial principles and business policy

García Echevarría, Santiago
Fonte: Universidad de Alcala. Instituto de Dirección y Organización de Empresas (IDOE) Publicador: Universidad de Alcala. Instituto de Dirección y Organización de Empresas (IDOE)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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El pensamiento del debate dentro de la Unión Europea sobre el papel de la Política Monetaria en los procesos económico-sociales y políticos arrastra una amplia serie de problemas, malentendidos y contradicciones. Todo ello con la consiguiente repercusión en el Euro, en la situación de las finanzas públicas y en las graves consecuencias sociales de los procesos de adaptación de los déficits de los Países. Hay un trasfondo más que cultural en la forma de de entender la Política Monetaria en el Gobierno de los Países. Las diferencias son de tal naturaleza que paralizan los procesos que se habían abierto con la introducción del Euro en el Sistema Monetario Europeo. Se han destruido así grandes avances logrados en décadas de desarrollo de la Unión Europea. Tambalea a veces, así parece, la credibilidad de muchas personas en lo que ha sido y es el gran proyecto europeo. La Política Monetaria es la base de la confianza en la economía y sin estabilidad monetaria no hay crecimiento estable. Pero para ello hay que entender su papel en el ordenamiento económico-social de un País. La "Economía Social de Mercado", en la que se sitúa el ordenamiento (finales de los años 40) económico-social de Alemania y de varios Países Centroeuropeos se construye en torno a una Política Monetaria y a una interpretación del papel del Banco Emisor en esas Sociedades. Son dos mundos...

El papel de las pequeñas y medianas empresas en la sociedad actual; The role of small and medium-sized enterprises in today´s society

García Echevarría, Santiago
Fonte: Universidad de Alcala. Instituto de Dirección y Organización de Empresas (IDOE) Publicador: Universidad de Alcala. Instituto de Dirección y Organización de Empresas (IDOE)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Las empresas medianas y pequeñas no son el "resto de la economía", más bien son la columna vertebral de la estructura económica en todos los países. Pero su alcance va más allá de "lo económico", siendo una parte sustantiva no solo del "orden económico", sino del propio proceso de configuración del "Orden de Sociedad". Esta configuración societaria de las empresas medianas y pequeñas no se debe a su número y tamaño, sino a su contribución al desarrollo de las personas y de la Sociedad. Este Mittelstand, en términos centroeuropeos, constituye la cantera del desarrollo de "empresarios Schumpeterianos" clave para el crecimiento económico, el empleo y la competitividad. Son las empresas que generan el empleo, globalizan la economía, empujan la investigación y la innovación en el marco del largo plazo desarrollando tecnología y personas. Son un pilar tanto de la economía como de la Sociedad. Para su desarrollo precisan de libertad y responsabilidad en el marco de una "economía de mercado", sin este orden societariamente responsable ni pueden desarrollarse, ni surgen "empresarios Schumpeterianos". Pero la garantía de su desarrollo y contribución lo garantiza un "orden de competencia" y esta es la aportación para el desarrollo de las competencias de las personas y de las Instituciones. Son un entramado clave en una Sociedad abierta que se oriente a las libertades y a la responsabilidad. Su impulso y desarrollo son clave en la configuración de la forma de actuar de la economía...

Market Integration in China

Chen, Qingqing; Goh, Chor-Ching; Sun, Bo; Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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Over the last three decades, China's product, labor, and capital markets have become gradually more integrated within its borders, although integration has been significantly slower for capital markets. There remains a significant urban-rural divide, and Chinese cities tend to be under-sized by international standards. China has also integrated globally, initially through the Special Economic Zones on the coast as launching grounds to connect with world markets, and subsequently through the accession to the World Trade Organization. For future policy considerations, this paper argues that its economic production needs to be spatially concentrated, and its social services need to be spread out to the interior to ensure harmonious development and domestic integration (through inclusive rural-urban transformations and effective territorial development).

Bosnia and Herzegovina 2001-2004 : Enterprise Restructuring, Labor Market Transitions and Poverty

Tiongson, Erwin R.; Yemtsov, Ruslan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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This paper takes stock of labor market developments in Bosnia and Herzegovina over the period 2001-2004, using the panel Living Standards Measurement Study/Living in Bosnia and Herzegovina survey. The analysis estimates a multinomial logit model of labor market transitions by state of origin (employment, unemployment, and inactivity) following the specification of widely used models of transition probabilities, and analyzes the impact of standard covariates. The results provide strong evidence that there are indeed significant differences in labor market transitions by gender, age, education, and geographic location. Using the panel structure of the multi-topic survey data, the authors find that these transitions are related to welfare dynamics, with welfare levels evolving differently for various groups depending on their labor market trajectories. The findings show that current labor market trends reflecting women's movement out of labor markets and laid-off male workers accepting informal sector jobs characterized by low productivity will lead to adverse social outcomes. These outcomes could be averted if the planned enterprise reform program creates a more favorable business environment and leads to faster restructuring and growth of firms.

The Russian Labor Market : Moving from Crisis to Recovery

World Bank
Fonte: Moscow: Izdatelstvo Ves Mir and the World Bank Publicador: Moscow: Izdatelstvo Ves Mir and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report suggests measures to help Russia develop a formal, competitive labor market over the medium term. The study addresses four major questions: (1) How well has Russia been able to redress the misallocation of labor inherited from its socialist past? (2) Do wages increasingly reflect market forces? (3) Are labor market institutions consistent with those required in a market economy? (4) How well has Russia been able to reduce explicit protection offered by firms and create an effective safety net? The report addresses each question in a separate chapter and also highlights key issues and policy options in each area. The development of a well functioning labor market will contribute to Russia's ability to integrate with the global economy, particularly as it faces the opportunity and challenges that will come with World Trade Organization accession.

An Essay on Economic Reforms and Social Change in China

Lindbeck, Assar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
The author applies a systems-oriented "holistic" approach to China's radical economic reforms during the past quarter of a century. He characterizes China's economic reforms in terms of a multidimensional classification of economic systems. When looking at the economic consequences of China's change of economic system, he deals with both the impressive growth performance and its economic costs. The author also studies the consequences of the economic reforms for the previous social arrangements in the country, which were tied to individual work units-agriculture communes, collective firms, and state-owned enterprises. He continues with the social development during the reform period, reflecting a complex mix of social advances, mainly in terms of poverty reduction, and regresses for large population groups in terms of income security and human services, such as education and, in particular, health care. Next, the author discusses China's future policy options in the social field, whereby he draws heavily on relevant experiences in industrial countries over the years. The future options are classified into three broad categories: policies influencing the level and distribution of factor income, income transfers including social insurance...

The Political Economy of Policy Reform : Issues and Implications for Policy Dialogue and Development Operations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
This study addresses the political economy of sector reforms. Sustainable reform processes which improve equity, efficiency and effectiveness in key economic and social sectors are often important elements of national poverty reduction strategies in low- and middle-income countries. For international development agencies wishing to engage in these processes, understanding the significance of power relations within the sector, vested interests, and the links to national political processes can be critical to being an effective actor in policy dialogue. This study explores these issues through the analysis of case studies of World Bank engagement in two areas: agricultural liberalization, and public-private partnerships in water supply and sanitation. The objectives of the study are twofold: (a) to analyze the political economy of reform by looking at stakeholder interests, incentives, institutions, risks, opportunities, and processes from a social analysis perspective; and (b) to illustrate 'what works...

Assets, Livelihoods, and Social Policy

Moser, Caroline; Dani, Anis A.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
This series "New Frontiers of Social Policy" aims to promote social development through systematic attention to the underlying social context and the social outcomes of development interventions and public policy. This book series has been conceived and produced for the broader development community, rather than for social policy specialists alone. This book is particularly, although not exclusively, relevant to those concerned with the one-third of the world's population that still depends on the informal economy for its livelihood. By making the case for an asset-based social policy, it moves well beyond social welfare palliatives for needy households toward public actions that give people the means and opportunities to accumulate assets and have greater control over their livelihoods. To be successful, an asset-based social policy needs to address several challenges, initial inequality, informality, imbalance in asset building opportunity, and inadequate state effectiveness, endemic in many developing countries.

Social Protection and Labor at the World Bank, 2000-08

Holzmann, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
In autumn 2000, the World Bank's board approved the first ever strategy for the new social protection and labor sector, and in January 2001, the sector published the strategy. The subtitle, from safety net to springboard, indicated the World Bank's move toward a broader understanding of poverty reduction and the relationship of risk to poverty. Because risks and access to appropriate risk management instruments matter for poverty reduction and development, the strategy proposed a new conceptual framework - social risk management that will review and reform existing interventions and propose new ones to better assist the vulnerable in addressing the many risks to which they are exposed. After seven years of implementation, it was time to review the strategy and work of the areas of selected core competence: labor market, social insurance (in particular pensions), social safety nets, social funds, disability and development, and risk and vulnerability analysis. The strategic position, its development, and the results by the sector since the launch of its strategy were reviewed and presented to the World Bank's committee on development effectiveness at the end of 2007. The review included a stocktaking of the analytical work and lending operations in each of the six core competence areas. The result of this review and the six stocktaking papers are presented in this publication. They reveal the progress that the World Bank has made in understanding the importance of social risk management for poverty reduction and the critical contribution it makes to equitable and sustainable growth.

China's Information Revolution : Managing the Economic and Social Transformation

Qiang, Christine Zhen-Wei
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report presents a comprehensive overview of the information, communication and technological sector in China, and the role it has played during economic and social transformation in the past decade. It provides guidance on the kind of reforms policy makers in China may wish to consider in pursuing the country's quest for continued ICT development. It also combines local perspectives with international experiences on how issues in areas such as legal and regulatory environment, telecommunications infrastructures, and IT industry have been addressed by other countries.

Del cooperativismo a la economía socialmente orientada

Martínez Cuero, Julieta; Molina, José Luis; Valenzuela García, Hugo
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 SPA
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A partir de una revisión de la literatura sobre la economía social y de los resultados de una investigación sobre empresariado social llevada a cabo en Cataluña, hemos identificado la necesidad de avanzar en una conceptualización teórica de la “economía social” que tenga en cuenta sus orígenes, realidad actual y marco normativo pero que dé cuenta también de la relativamente reciente irrupción del fenómeno de “empresariado social” y de otras iniciativas surgidas a partir de la crisis financiera e inspiradas especialmente en el modelo cooperativo. A partir del análisis crítico de las características atribuidas al “empresariado social” por actores públicos y privados, se propone el concepto de “economía socialmente orientada” como campo que incluye tanto la economía social tradicional como los nuevos espacios orientados bien al mercado, bien al intercambio, pero que toman en cualquier caso la economía social como modelo.; From a review of the literature on social economy and the research carried out in Catalonia, it has been identified the need to advance in a theoretical conceptualization of the "social economy" sector that take into account not just its historical origins, and its normative framework but also the recent emergence of the "social entrepreneurship” phenomenon...

Social economy and collective work: theories and realities

Leite,Marcia de Paula
Fonte: Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais Publicador: Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
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66.01%
This text is a balance of current studies on Social Economy, with three goals in mind: firstly, it seeks to set out a profile of theoretical discussions, examining those authors who consider Social Economy a process of social transformation or those who emphasize the ephemeral character of economic units inside this sector; secondly, it analyzes the Argentinean experience, one of the most important social phenomenon in the first years of the current decade; finally, based on some balances on the national level, it looks at the Brazilian experience. The closing remarks underline the complexity of the Social Economy phenomenon, criticizing dualistic analyses, which emphasize either its potentialities or its limits.