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Social behaviour of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) under three space allowances

NOGUEIRA, S. S. da C.; SILVA, M. G.; DIAS, C. T. dos S.; POMPEIA, S.; CETRA, M.; NOGUEIRA-FILHO, S. L. G.
Fonte: UNIV FEDERATION ANIMAL WELFARE Publicador: UNIV FEDERATION ANIMAL WELFARE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
Captive breeding of peccaries is on the increase in neotropical countries. Few studies, however, have reported behavioural responses of wild animals under farmed conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of space allowance on the occurrence of social behaviour patterns on farmed collared peccary (Pecan tajacu). We observed three herds of collared peccaries each containing eight acquainted individuals. Using a 3 x 3 Latin square design, herds were allocated, in a random order, to one of the three experimental enclosures, each with a different size. 375, 750 and 1,500 m(2) of total available area, each with three wooden shelters. We recorded all the occurrences of selected positive and agonistic behavioural patterns that occurred 90 min before and during feeding Enclosure size had a significant effect on agonistic patterns of peccaries during feeding, in that more agonistic behaviour was observed in smaller spaces We also found that shelter usage increased as space decreased Differing space allowances, however, did not have an effect on the occurrence of positive interactions that were more frequent before compared to during feeding. We concluded that enclosure size had an effect on the expression of agonistic be and the use of shelters by collared peccaries Thus...

Reporting social behaviours of mixed-species troops formed by Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata (Primate, Callitrichidae)

Valença-Silva,G; Maciel,FG; Zaganini,RL; Lucindo,AS; Caramaschi,S; Paula,HMG. de
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
In New World primates, mixed-species troops have been reported. Here, we analysed the performance of affiliative and agonistic behaviours of Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata living in mixed groups. For this purpose, we recorded the interaction of the individuals from two groups located in Bauru city, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). Our data show that in both groups, affiliative behaviours appeared more frequently than agonistic ones. We concluded that there is cohesion inside the mixed-species troops observed. We suggest that a deeper knowledge about the social behaviour of mixed-species troop species certainly may be useful in projects linked with the management of the impact caused by them.

Complex social behaviour derived from maternal reproductive traits

Amdam, Gro V.; Csondes, Angela; Fondrk, M. Kim; Page, Robert E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
A fundamental goal of sociobiology is to explain how complex social behaviour evolves1, especially in social insects, the exemplars of social living. Although still the subject of much controversy2, recent theoretical explanations have focused on the evolutionary origins of worker behaviour (assistance from daughters that remain in the nest and help their mother to reproduce) through expression of maternal care behaviour towards siblings3,4. A key prediction of this evolutionary model is that traits involved in maternal care have been co-opted through heterochronous expression of maternal genes5 to result in sib-care, the hallmark of highly evolved social life in insects6. A coupling of maternal behaviour to reproductive status evolved in solitary insects, and was a ready substrate for the evolution of worker-containing societies3,4,7,8. Here we show that division of foraging labour among worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) is linked to the reproductive status of facultatively sterile females. We thereby identify the evolutionary origin of a widely expressed social-insect behavioural syndrome1,5,7,9, and provide a direct demonstration of how variation in maternal reproductive traits gives rise to complex social behaviour in non-reproductive helpers.

The influence of refuge sharing on social behaviour in the lizard Tiliqua rugosa

Leu, Stephan T.; Kappeler, Peter M.; Bull, C. Michael
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Refuge sharing by otherwise solitary individuals during periods of inactivity is an integral part of social behaviour and has been suggested to be the precursor to more complex social behaviour. We compared social association patterns of active versus inactive sheltering individuals in the social Australian sleepy lizard, Tiliqua rugosa, to empirically test the hypothesis that refuge sharing facilitates social associations while individuals are active. We fitted 18 neighbouring lizards with Global Positioning System (GPS) recorders to continuously monitor social associations among all individuals, based on location records taken every 10 min for 3 months. Based on these spatial data, we constructed three weighted, undirected social networks. Two networks were based on empirical association data (one for active and one for inactive lizards in their refuges), and a third null model network was based on hypothetical random refuge sharing. We found patterns opposite to the predictions of our hypothesis. Most importantly, association strength was higher in active than in inactive sheltering lizards. That is, individual lizards were more likely to associate with other lizards while active than while inactive and in shelters. Thus, refuge sharing did not lead to increased frequencies of social associations while lizards were active...

Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females

Darden, Safi K.; Watts, Lauren
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female–female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female–female social behaviour...

The socio-ecology of two species of Australian native rodent - Notomys mitchelli and Notomys alexis.

Bradley, Clare Eileen
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Past research suggests that social organisation in Australian rodent species is determined by the predictability of resources in the environment (Happold 1976a). Notomys alexis (the spinifex hopping mouse or tarrkawarra) is widely distributed throughout the Australian arid-zone (Breed 1998a; Watts & Aslin 1981). Large groups of animals have been found sharing burrows in the wild and laboratory observations suggest that the species is highly social (Happold 1976a; Stanley 1971). A closely related species, Notomys mitchelli (Mitchell’s hopping mouse or pankot) is relatively common throughout the southern semi-arid zone (Watts 1998a; Watts & Aslin 1981). Much less is known about N. mitchelli; field studies have been subject to low recapture rates and few laboratory studies have involved this species (Baverstock 1979; Cockburn 1981a; Crichton 1974). Following Happold (1976a), it was hypothesised that the socio-ecology of N. mitchelli will be qualitatively different to that of N. alexis. Studying wild populations of Notomys mitchelli in the Middleback Ranges, South Australia and N. alexis outside the desert township of Roxby Downs, S.A., this research aimed to describe the socio-ecology of these species, with reference to the predictability of their environments. Uniquely...

A right antenna for social behaviour in honeybees

Rogers, L.J.; Rigosi, E.; Frasnelli, E.; Vallortigara, G.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
Sophisticated cognitive abilities have been documented in honeybees, possibly an aspect of their complex sociality. In vertebrates brain asymmetry enhances cognition and directional biases of brain function are a putative adaptation to social behaviour. Here we show that honeybees display a strong lateral preference to use their right antenna in social interactions. Dyads of bees tested using only their right antennae (RA) contacted after shorter latency and were significantly more likely to interact positively (proboscis extension) than were dyads of bees using only their left antennae (LA). The latter were more likely to interact negatively (C-responses) even though they were from the same hive. In dyads from different hives C-responses were higher in RA than LA dyads. Hence, RA controls social behaviour appropriate to context. Therefore, in invertebrates, as well as vertebrates, lateral biases in behaviour appear to be associated with requirements of social life.; Lesley J. Rogers, Elisa Rigosi, Elisa Frasnelli, Giorgio Vallortigara

El impacto de las TIC en las familias; The impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on the economic behaviour of the Spanish hoseholds

Pablo Martí, Federico; Mañas Alcón, Elena; Cuadrado Roura, Juan R.
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
En este trabajo se analizan algunos de los cambios que el desarrollo de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones están produciendo en el comportamiento económico de las familias. Las TIC permiten a las familias gestionar más eficientemente sus recursos, al liberar tiempo y dinero para otros usos alternativos. Por otra parte, facilitan que las familias se desenvuelvan en un entorno más integrado y transparente desde el punto de vista informativo, lo que aumenta su capacidad de elección y de negociación. La interacción entre las familias y las TIC es doble: por una parte, los comportamientos sociales y las pautas de consumo se ven modificados por las nuevas posibilidades tecnológicas; pero, por otra, estas se ven también impulsadas por las necesidades de las familias. La penetración de Internet en los hogares españoles ha superado su fase inicial y se encuentra ya en una segunda etapa de consolidación.; This paper analyses some aspects of the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on the economic behaviour of the Spanish households. ICT allows them to manage more efficiently their resources, releasing time and money for other alternative uses. On the other hand, the ICT are also helping the development of the households in a much more integrated and clear environment from the information point of view...

Reporting social behaviours of mixed-species troops formed by Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata (Primate, Callitrichidae)

Valenca-Silva, Graziela; Maciel, Fernanda de Góes; Zaganini, Rosangela Lopes; Lucindo, Anderson da Silva; Caramaschi, Sandro; Paula, Hugo Medeiros Garrido de
Fonte: Int Inst Ecology Publicador: Int Inst Ecology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 607-611
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
In New World primates, mixed-species troops have been reported. Here, we analysed the performance of affiliative and agonistic behaviours of Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata living in mixed groups. For this purpose, we recorded the interaction of the individuals from two groups located in Bauru city, in the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Our data show that in both groups, affiliative behaviours appeared more frequently than agonistic ones. We concluded that there is cohesion inside the mixed-species troops observed. We suggest that a deeper knowledge about the social behaviour of mixed-species troop species certainly may be useful in projects linked with the management of the impact caused by them.; Grupos mistos em espécies de primatas do Novo Mundo têm sido relatados. Aqui, nós avaliamos a emissão de comportamentos afiliativos e agonísticos em grupos mistos formados por Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata. Para tanto, registramos a interação de dois grupos, localizados no município de Bauru, Estado de São Paulo (Brasil). Nossos dados mostram que nos dois grupos a emissão de comportamentos afiliativos foi maior do que a de comportamentos agonísticos, indicando que há coesão dentro dos grupos mistos estudados. Sugerimos que um conhecimento mais elaborado sobre o comportamento social de grupos mistos pode ser útil em projetos de impactos causados por espécies invasoras.

The role of social behaviour and spacing in populations of the bush rat, Rattus fuscipes

Woodside, Dedee Patricia
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
Social behaviour and social spacing was studied in natural and enclosed populations of the bush rat Rattus fuscipes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of social behaviour in the population biology of this species. The approach taken involved the manipulation of resources and spatial environments of rats in enclosures in order to reveal details on the relationship b tween social behaviour and resource availability (primarily resource distribution)and to reveal the behavioural mechanisms responsible for the partitioning of resources among conspecifics. 71 trapping and tracking study in the field was used to reveal aspects of the social structure of natural populations and changes in spacing associated with natural changes in resource distribution. 71 comparison of information from three widely separated populations (from Kioloa, N,S,W., Lees Creek, A.C.T. and Mt Glorious, Qld.) was used to establish the general demographic and social characteristics of the species (using similarities in the data) and to establish the range of social responses to varying environments (differences in data.) The similarities in demography of rats in the three areas were as follows: (a)there was an annual cycle in abundance of animals and annual turnover of membership in the population...

Effects of experience on the development of social behaviour of house-dwelling bats; Effetti dell'esperienza sullo sviluppo del comportamento sociale nei chirotteri antropofili

ANCILLOTTO, LEONARDO
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
This study aims at clarifying the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social units in bats (Chiroptera), a characteristic shared by most species of this group of mammals, by investigating the effects of the early social environment, i.e. pursuing the hypothesis that imprinting-like influences on the development of social behaviour exist and may have a profound impact on the social lives of bats. First I present an overview on bats' social behaviour and systems: these mammals comprise a high number of species and thus constitute an excellent group for testing general hypotheses about evolution and development of social behaviour. Bat social systems in fact range from solitary species to others aggregating in conspicuous groups of up to millions individuals. Such complexity leads to a variety of social behaviours rarely found in other taxonomic groups: there is increasing evidence that bats are able of cooperative social behaviours such as allogrooming, communal nursing, group hunting and social learning, all interactions that require high-level cognitive skills. Investigating such a complex system needs a multi-disciplinary approach, fundamental for disentangling the mechanisms through which bat sociality develops. I performed a series of experiments and used classical ethological and statistical methods (ethogram composition...

Effects of experience on the development of social behaviour of house-dwelling bats; Effetti dell'esperienza sullo sviluppo del comportamento sociale nei chirotteri antropofili

ANCILLOTTO, LEONARDO
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
This study aims at clarifying the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social units in bats (Chiroptera), a characteristic shared by most species of this group of mammals, by investigating the effects of the early social environment, i.e. pursuing the hypothesis that imprinting-like influences on the development of social behaviour exist and may have a profound impact on the social lives of bats. First I present an overview on bats' social behaviour and systems: these mammals comprise a high number of species and thus constitute an excellent group for testing general hypotheses about evolution and development of social behaviour. Bat social systems in fact range from solitary species to others aggregating in conspicuous groups of up to millions individuals. Such complexity leads to a variety of social behaviours rarely found in other taxonomic groups: there is increasing evidence that bats are able of cooperative social behaviours such as allogrooming, communal nursing, group hunting and social learning, all interactions that require high-level cognitive skills. Investigating such a complex system needs a multi-disciplinary approach, fundamental for disentangling the mechanisms through which bat sociality develops. I performed a series of experiments and used classical ethological and statistical methods (ethogram composition...

Early Social Behaviour in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Best, LAURA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
The current studies addressed two questions regarding early social behaviour in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) that have not yet been directly explored. In Study 1 we examined the hypothesis that impaired imitation in this group may reflect a diminished social motivation to engage, rather than a core deficit in imitation. Young children with and without ASD engaged in imitation tasks during which controlled manipulations of reward (social and non-social) were administered for target behaviours. Children with ASD displayed increased levels of imitation with the incentive of an external reward in comparison to when this reward was absent. There was no differential impact of social versus non-social rewards. Typically developing (TD) children performed similarly, irrespective of whether or not reward was administered. We suggest that young children with ASD may be capable of imitating when appropriate incentives are present. Study 2 explored the breadth of social challenges faced in young children with ASD by examining a later-developing domain of social functioning that may be compromised by early social difficulties. We explored the tendency of children with ASD to engage in helping, sharing, and comforting behaviour in situations where the need for the prosocial behaviour was displayed and in perceptually similar situations where the need was absent. Children with ASD displayed low levels of helping and sharing...

Co-evolutionary behaviour selection in adaptive social networks predicts clustered marginalization of minorities

Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F.; Engemann, Denis A.; Levermann, Anders
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Human behaviour is largely shaped by local social interactions and depends on the structure of connections between individuals in social networks. These two dimensions of behaviour selection are commonly studied in isolation by different disciplines and are often treated as independent processes. To the contrary, empirical findings on spread of behaviour in social networks suggest that local interactions between individuals and network evolution are interdependent. Empirical evidence, however, remains inconclusive as social network studies often suffer from limited sample sizes or are prohibitive on ethical grounds. Here we introduce a co-evolutionary adaptive network model of social behaviour selection that provides insights into generative mechanisms by resolving both these aspects through computer simulations. We considered four complementary models and evaluated them with regard to emulating empirical behaviour dynamics in social networks. For this purpose we modelled the prevalence of smoking and and the network structure in response to changing societal and normative support for smoking. Our simulations corroborate empirical findings: we found a reduced prevalence of smoking. Remaining smokers were suffering from reduced influence in the network and were preferentially connected to other smokers. The analysis of partial models suggests that the feedback loop between local social interactions and network structure is indispensable for capturing empirically observed patterns of behavioural change. Importantly...

Metabolic correlates of the foraging and social behaviour of dart-poison frogs

Pough, F. Harvey; Taigen, Theodore
Fonte: Elsevier: Animal Behaviour Publicador: Elsevier: Animal Behaviour
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 37365 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
The foraging and social behaviour of four species of Panamanian dart-poison frogs, Dendrobatidae, were recorded and that information was combined with an analysis of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and with published information about food habits to test predictions about associations among behavioural, ecological and physiological characteristics of anurans. Several generalizations were supported by the data. The widely foraging species of frogs made more prey capture attempts in total and took more prey at each feeding station than did the sedentary species. The widely foraging species had higher capacities for aerobic metabolism and lower anaerobic capacities than did the sedentary species. Other generalizations were not supported. Dietary habits were only loosely related to foraging mode and neither aerobic capacity nor foraging mode was a good predictor of the frequency of vocalization or of agonistic behaviour. High aerobic capacity and widely foraging behaviour may be derived characters in the family Dendrobatidae, but the metabolic and behavioural requirements of territorial defence provide an alternate hypothesis for the association of some ecological and physiological characteristics of frogs.

Cannibalism and kin recognition in Delena cancerides (Araneae: Sparassidae), a social huntsman spider

Beavis, Amber; Rowell, David M; Evans, T
Fonte: Zoological Society of London Publicador: Zoological Society of London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
Social behaviour in spiders is rare: of the 39 000 species of spiders known, only 23 are considered to be cooperatively social. Delena cancerides is a social species of the huntsman spider that is endemic to Australia. This species is virtually unique among social spiders, having evolved social behaviour in the absence of a snare web. It is thought that this form of social behaviour in D. cancerides has evolved via the sub-social route, that is, the extension of an ancestrally occurring period of maternal care and the delayed dispersal of juveniles. Most social spiders show no aggression towards non-kin conspecifics, prompting suggestions that spiders cannot recognize kin; however, D. cancerides individuals are highly aggressive towards conspecifics introduced from outside their own colony. In order to determine whether selective aggression in D. cancerides has its basis in kin recognition, tolerance behaviour was assessed in the context of kinship and size. We observed that, in general, juveniles preferred to starve than engage in cannibalism of any conspecifics, related or not. However, where cannibalism did occur, non-kin were preferentially eaten, indicating that this species is clearly capable of kin recognition. Size thresholds were also established...

Social behaviour in an Australian velvet worm, Euperipatoides rowelli (Onychophora: Peripatopsidae)

Reinhard, Judith; Rowell, David M
Fonte: Zoological Society of London Publicador: Zoological Society of London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
Onychophora lead a cryptic lifestyle as predators in decaying logs and leaf litter. Hence, very little is known about their behaviour. They are generally assumed to possess only a limited behavioural repertoire, even though their surprisingly evolved brain suggests otherwise. Our studies on the Australian species Euperipatoides rowelli show for the first time that onychophorans are indeed capable of complex behaviour. Euperipatoides rowelli individuals form aggregations of up to 15 females, males and young. These aggregations are not random assemblages, but close social groups organized in a hierarchy based on female dominance. Food is hunted collectively, but the dominant female of a group feeds alone, before other females, males and young. Hierarchy within a group is established by aggressive-dominant and passive-subordinate behaviours, the latter leading to tolerance of body contact and aggregation. Euperipatoides rowelli from foreign groups, i.e. from different logs, are met with intense aggression, and individuals rarely aggregate. The reasons for this aggression are not clear, but we suggest that its origins lie in kin recognition. The evolution of social behaviour within the Onychophora is discussed with respect to their ecology...

Validação transcultural da Escala de Avaliação de Limitações no Comportamento Social - SBS-BR; Transcultural validation of the Social Behaviour Schedule (SBS)

Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Gonçalves, Sylvia; Lovisi, Giovanni; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2003 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Este trabalho apresenta os resultados referentes à validação da versão brasileira daSocial Behaviour Schedule - SBS, escala que avalia as limitações no comportamento social de pacientes psiquiátricos. O estudo de tradução e adaptação transcultural do instrumento foi realizado pelo Núcleo de Pesquisa do Instituto Municipal de Assistência à Saúde Juliano Moreira (IMASJM), RJ, e a coleta de dados foi feita nas Unidades Assistenciais do IMASJM. Análise das propriedades psicométricas da escala foi feita no Núcleo de Ensino e Saúde Coletiva (NESC) da UFRJ. A Escala de Avaliação do Comportamento Social foi submetida a uma backtranslation, assim como a um estudo piloto sendo avaliada por uma comissão de especialistas, para que fosse feita sua adaptação ao nosso contexto. A SBS-BR mostrou-se uma escala com qualidades psicométricas de validade e fidedignidade satisfatórias, no que se refere à consistência interna da escala, bem como à sua validade discriminante e de construto. A análise da estrutura fatorial da escala nos permitiu a identificação de quatro síndromes comportamentais bem definidas. Estudos futuros deverão aprofundar a investigação das qualidades psicométricas da presente escala, no que se refere à sua confiabilidade com relação a interentrevistados e interentrevistadores. A Escala SBS-BR tem muito a contribuir na avaliação do impacto dos novos programas de saúde mental...

Policing youth anti-social behaviour and crime: time for reform

Newburn, Tim
Fonte: Pier Professional Publicador: Pier Professional
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2011 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the policing of youth anti-social behaviour and crime. Design/methodology/approach – The paper considers the Independent Commission report, Time for a Fresh Start and argues that its analysis would be enhanced by a fuller consideration of the role of the police as gatekeepers to the criminal justice system. As such this represents something of a missed opportunity. Findings – The paper contends that, like many other reviews of youth justice, and proposals for reform, Time for a Fresh Start says relatively little about policing. As gatekeepers and agenda-setters for much of the criminal justice system, the police occupy a key position. This paper suggests that reform programmes must focus on the role the police play in regulating the flow of young people into the justice system and, in particular, argues in favour of a constructive reappraisal of the value of “diversion”. Originality/value – Without considering the role the police play in regulating the flow of young people into the justice system, any programme of reform is incomplete. We need to rehabilitate the idea of “diversion” and to rescue it from the one-sided picture that became dominant from the mid-1990s onward.

The point of view: towards a social psychology of relativity

Sammut, Gordon
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
The explanation of social behaviour requires an understanding of individual orientations to social issues as these exist relative to others. This thesis argues that whilst the attitude concept and social representations have illuminated certain aspects of social behaviour, both are handicapped by a restricted focus. The former’s focus on the evaluation of attitude objects excludes a reference to wider societal processes. The latter provides an account of societal contingencies, but excludes an explanation of individual orientations towards objects and issues in the social environment. This thesis postulates the point of view concept to bridge this gap, that provides an explanation of social behaviour at the situational level. This complements attitude and social representations in a nested, multilevel explanation of social behaviour. The point of view is defined as an outlook towards a social event, expressed as a claim, which can be supported by an argument of opinion based on a system of knowledge from which it derives its logic. It reflects an individual’s orientation towards a social object, relative to others. This thesis has demonstrated, in a series of empirical studies, that the point of view can be typified in three categories. A monological point of view is closed to another’s perspective. A dialogical point of view acknowledges another’s perspective but dismisses it as wrong. A metalogical point of view acknowledges the relativity of its’ perspective...