Social competence is a multidimensional construct with an important role in adolescents´ career development. It allows the establishment of positive relations with adults and peers, the acquisition of information and feedback relevant to career exploration and decision-making, and it helps to cope with day-to-day challenges, by the adoption of positive social behaviors. This study aims to present and discuss the Portuguese adolescents´ perceptions about their social competence to deal with interpersonal situations in career education situations. Participants were 880 adolescents, 512 girls (58.2%) and 368 boys (41.8%), aged 11 to 20 years old (μ=14.40±1.49), attending the 8th (N=495), 10th (N=198), and 11th (N=187) grades, at elementary and secondary schools, in the northern, central and southern Portugal. Adolescents´ were administered the Perceived
Social Competence in Career Scale (PSC-Car; Araújo, Teixeira, & Candeias, 2008), as part of a broader longitudinal project titled “Career and Citizenship: Personal and contextual conditions for ethical questioning of life-career projects”. PSC-Car is a
self-report instrument which consists of six subscales related to perceived social competence in each of six hypothetical career education situations and two other subscales related with perceived poor or excellent performance and in all of those situations.
PSC-Car was administered in three different assessment moments...
HIV researchers have long appreciated the need to understand the social and behavioral determinants of HIV-related risk behavior, but the cumulative impact of individual behaviors on population-level HIV outcomes can be subtle and counterintuitive, and the methods for studying this are rarely part of a traditional social science or epidemiology training program. Mathematical models provide a way to examine the potential effects of the proximate biologic and behavioral determinants of HIV transmission dynamics, alone and in combination. The purpose of this article is to show how mathematical modeling studies have contributed to our understanding of the dynamics and disparities in the global spread of HIV. Our aims are to demonstrate the value that these analytic tools have for social and behavioral sciences in HIV prevention research, to identify gaps in the current literature, and to suggest directions for future research.
Studies over the last decade have demonstrated the effectiveness of public health interventions based on social and behavioral science theory for many health problems. Little is known about the extent to which health departments are currently utilizing these theories. This study assesses the application of social and behavioral science to programs in the New York City Department of Health (NYCDOH). Structured open-ended interviews were conducted with executive and program management staff of the health department. Respondents were asked about the application of social and behavioral sciences within their programs, and about the benefits and barriers to increasing the use of such approaches. Themes related to the aims of the study were identified, a detailed coding manual developed, narrative data were coded independently by two investigators (κ. 85), and data analyzed. Interviews were conducted with 61 eligible individuals (response rate 88%). The most common applications of social and behavioral science were individual-level behavior change to prevent HIV transmission and community-level interventionsl utilizing community organizing models and/or media interventions for health promotion and disease prevention. There are generally positive attitudes about the benefits of utilizing these sciences; however...
A recent poll showed that most people think of science as technology and engineering—life-saving drugs, computers, space exploration, and so on. This was, in fact, the promise of the founders of modern science in the 17th century. It is less commonly understood that social and behavioral sciences have also produced technologies and engineering that dominate our everyday lives. These include polling, marketing, management, insurance, and public health programs.
A range of efficacies have been reported for biomedical HIV prevention interventions, including antiretroviral treatment, male circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides and preventive vaccines. This range of efficacies likely results from the influence of multiple inputs and processes during trials, including the strength and target of the intervention, host factors, target population characteristics, level of HIV exposure and intervention dose. Expertise in social and behavioral science, in conjunction with basic science, clinical research, epidemiology, biostatistics and community, is needed to understand the influence of these inputs and processes on intervention efficacy, improve trial design and implementation, and enable interpretation of trial results. In particular, social and behavioral science provides the means for investigating and identifying populations suitable for recruitment into and retention in trials, and for developing and improving measures of HIV exposure and intervention dose, all within the larger socio-cultural context. Integration of social and behavioral science early in idea generation and study design is imperative for the successful conduct of biomedical trials and for ensuring optimal data collection approaches necessary for the interpretation of findings...
Proper scoring rules, particularly when used as the basis for a prediction market, are powerful tools for eliciting and aggregating beliefs about events such as the likely outcome of an election or sporting event. Such scoring rules incentivize a single agent to reveal her true beliefs about the event. Othman and Sandholm introduced the idea of a decision rule to examine these problems in contexts where the information being elicited is conditional on some decision alternatives. For example, “What is the probability having ten million viewers if we choose to air new television show X? What if we choose Y?” Since only one show can actually air in a slot, only the results under the chosen alternative can ever be observed. Othman and Sandholm developed proper scoring rules (and thus decision markets) for a single, deterministic decision rule: always select the the action with the greatest probability of success. In this work we significantly generalize their results, developing scoring rules for other deterministic decision rules, randomized decision rules, and situations where there may be more than two outcomes (e.g. less than a million viewers, more than one but less than ten, or more than ten million).; Engineering and Applied Sciences
The rapid adoption of mobile phone technologies in Africa is offering exciting opportunities for engaging with high-risk populations through mHealth programs, and the vast volumes of behavioral data being generated as people use their phones provide valuable data about human behavioral dynamics in these regions. Taking advantage of these opportunities requires an understanding of the penetration of mobile phones and phone usage patterns across the continent, but very little is known about the social and geographical heterogeneities in mobile phone ownership among African populations. Here, we analyze a survey of mobile phone ownership and usage across Kenya in 2009 and show that distinct regional, gender-related, and socioeconomic variations exist, with particularly low ownership among rural communities and poor people. We also examine patterns of phone sharing and highlight the contrasting relationships between ownership and sharing in different parts of the country. This heterogeneous penetration of mobile phones has important implications for the use of mobile technologies as a source of population data and as a public health tool in sub-Saharan Africa.
Objective: Environmental exposure to food sources may underpin area level differences in individual risk for overweight. Place of residence is generally used to assess neighbourhood exposure. Yet, because people are mobile, multiple exposures should be accounted for to assess the relation between food environments and overweight. Unfortunately, mobility data is often missing from health surveys. We hereby test the feasibility of linking travel survey data with food listings to derive food store exposure predictors of overweight among health survey participants. Methods: Food environment exposure measures accounting for non-residential activity places (activity spaces) were computed and modelled in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, using travel surveys and food store listings. Models were then used to predict activity space food exposures for 5,578 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey. These food exposure estimates, accounting for daily mobility, were used to model self-reported overweight in a multilevel framework. Median Odd Ratios were used to assess the proportion of between-neighborhood variance explained by such food exposure predictors. Results: Estimates of food environment exposure accounting for both residential and non-residential destinations were significantly and more strongly associated with overweight than residential-only measures of exposure for men. For women...
Background: Oxytocin is known to be related to social behaviors, including trust. However, few studies have investigated the association between oxytocin levels and social capital. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous oxytocin levels are positively associated with social capital. We also considered whether the association differed across gender because previous studies have shown differential effects of OT on social behaviors depending on gender. Methods: We recruited a convenience sample of 50 women and 31 men in Japan via community sampling from whom we obtained urine sample with which to measure oxytocin levels. Individual-level cognitive social capital (social trust and mutual aid) and structural social capital (community participation) were assessed using a questionnaire. We used multivariate regression, adjusted for covariates (age, number of children, self-rated health, and education), and stratified by gender to consider associations between oxytocin and social capital. Results: Among women, oxytocin was inversely associated with social trust and mutual aid (p<0.05). However, women participating in only 1 organization in the community showed higher oxytocin than women who participated in either no organizations (p<0.05) or 2 or more organization (i.e. inverse-U shape association). Among men...
Atypical face processing plays a key role in social interaction difficulties encountered by individuals with autism. In the current fMRI study, the Thatcher illusion was used to investigate several aspects of face processing in 20 young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 20 matched neurotypical controls. “Thatcherized” stimuli were modified at either the eyes or the mouth and participants discriminated between pairs of faces while cued to attend to either of these features in upright and inverted orientation. Behavioral data confirmed sensitivity to the illusion and intact configural processing in ASD. Directing attention towards the eyes vs. the mouth in upright faces in ASD led to (1) improved discrimination accuracy; (2) increased activation in areas involved in social and emotional processing; (3) increased activation in subcortical face-processing areas. Our findings show that when explicitly cued to attend to the eyes, activation of cortical areas involved in face processing, including its social and emotional aspects, can be enhanced in autism. This suggests that impairments in face processing in autism may be caused by a deficit in social attention, and that giving specific cues to attend to the eye-region when performing behavioral therapies aimed at improving social skills may result in a better outcome.
Background: Despite advances in our understanding of the countercyclical association between economic contraction and suicide, less is known about the levels of and changes in inequalities in suicide. The authors examined social and geographical inequalities in suicide in Japan from 1975 through 2005. Methods: Based on quinquennial vital statistics and census data, the authors analyzed the entire population aged 25–64 years. The total number of suicides was 75,840 men and 30,487 women. For each sex, the authors estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% credible intervals (CIs) for suicide using multilevel logistic regression models with “cells” (cross-tabulated by age and occupation) at level 1, seven different years at level 2, and 47 prefectures at level 3. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographical inequalities in suicide. Results: Adjusting for age and time-trends, the lowest odds for suicide was observed among production process and related workers (the reference group) in both sexes. The highest OR for men was 2.52 (95% CI: 2.43, 2.61) among service workers, whereas the highest OR for women was 9.24 (95% CI: 7.03, 12.13) among security workers. The degree of occupational inequalities increased among men with a striking change in the pattern. Among women...
It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004–10) were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models...
Globally, small-scale fisheries (SSFs) are driven by climate, governance, and market factors of social-ecological change, presenting both challenges and opportunities. The ability of small-scale fishermen and buyers to adapt to changing conditions allows participants to survive economic or environmental disturbances and to benefit from optimal conditions. This study presented here identifies key large-scale factors that drive SSFs in California to shift focus among targets and that dictate long-term trends in landings. We use Elinor Ostrom’s Social-Ecological System (SES) framework to apply an interdisciplinary approach when identifying potential factors and when understanding the complex dynamics of these fisheries. We analyzed the interactions among Monterey Bay SSFs over the past four decades since the passage of the Magnuson Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identified four modes from 1974 to 2012 that were dominated by squid...
The purpose of this research was to analyze how parent-child interactions differ in discourse structure, communicative function and linguistic behaviors between children who are at high-risk for developing a behavioral disorder such as ADHD, and those who are at high-risk for developing a behavioral disorder with a co-occurring language impairment. Participants consisted of 20 children ages three to five years old and their parents. A five-minute parent-child interaction was video recorded and analyzed using an adapted version of the “Coding parent/child interaction as a clinical outcome: a research note” designed by Law, Barnett, and Kot (1999).
Results revealed slight differences in each communication parameter amongst the two groups, however, statistical results of parametric and non-parametric tests determined that there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups, with the exception of increased verbal initiations (p=.040) in children with no language impairment when compared to those with a language impairment as was expected.
Background: Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. Methodology/Principal Findings: The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (\(\beta\) = .04; SE = .02; p = .03), predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time.
Objective: To examine which contextual features of the workplace are associated with social capital. Methods: This is a cohort study of 43,167 employees in 3090 Finnish public sector workplaces who responded to a survey of individual workplace social capital in 2000–02 (response rate 68%). We used ecometrics approach to estimate social capital of work units. Features of the workplace were work unit's demographic and employment patterns and size, obtained from employers' administrative records. We used multilevel-multinomial logistic regression models to examine cross-sectionally whether these features were associated with social capital between individuals and work units. Fixed effects models were used for longitudinal analyses in a subsample of 12,108 individuals to examine the effects of changes in workplace characteristics on changes in social capital between 2000 and 2004. Results: After adjustment for individual characteristics, an increase in work unit size reduced the odds of high levels of individual workplace social capital (odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.91–0.98 per 30-person-year increase). A 20% increase in the proportion of manual and male employees reduced the odds of high levels of social capital by 8% and 23%...
The Missouri Institute of Psychiatry Library Current Contents Service offers free dissemination of ISI's Current Contents: Behavioral, Social and Management Sciences to 144 mental health professionals employed at twelve locations in the Missouri Division of Mental Health system. The service includes free document delivery of up to 100 articles per subscription. Sixty percent of the participants in the project are sharing copies of CCBSMS with their colleagues. Operation of the service is described, and data on degree of use are analyzed by user professional orientation and hospital location. The most frequently cited journal titles are compared to lists of heavily used titles derived from other sources. These lists of titles are offered as empirical guides to frequently consulted behavioral science journals. After six months experience participants appear to be highly satisfied. Ninetytwo percent responding to an evaluative questionnaire want to continue the service another year.
There is widespread emphasis on reform in the teaching of introductory
statistics at the college level. Underpinning this reform is a consensus among
educators and practitioners that traditional curricular materials and
pedagogical strategies have not been effective in promoting statistical
literacy, a competency that is becoming increasingly necessary for effective
decision-making and evidence-based practice. This paper explains the historical
context of, and rationale for reform-oriented teaching of introductory
statistics (at the college level) in the health, social and behavioral sciences
(evidence-based disciplines). A firm understanding and appreciation of the
basis for change in pedagogical approach is important, in order to facilitate
commitment to reform, consensus building on appropriate strategies, and
adoption and maintenance of best practices. In essence, reform-oriented
pedagogy, in this context, is a function of the interaction among content,
pedagogy, technology, and assessment. The challenge is to create an appropriate
balance among these domains.; Comment: Refereed Journal Publication
While this report builds on the old Academy inventory, it is not
merely an extension of that publication. It differs somewhat in both
coverage and format. The end product is a result of a series of decisions we had to make in developing our new inventory. It lists and provides relevant information on disaster field studies in the social and
behavioral sciences in English language sources and references for more than a sixty year period. The work on our inventory was accomplished as a part of a larger effort at the Disaster Research Center (DRC) which included the production of a companion volume, Inventory of the Japanese Disaster Research Literature in the Social and Behavioral Sciences.; Grant PFR-8009036 from the National Science Foundation.
This inventory has two sections. The first section provides three lists: (1) A list of the 62 Japanese social and behavioral science publications on the topic of disasters written through 1981. The items listed constitute the bulk of the empirically based literature produced in Japan; (2) A list of 39 English language writings by Japanese researchers. Some of these sources reproduce in whole or in part some of the material from the first list, but there is also original material; (3) A list of 16 non-social science but disaster relevant sources which would be of value for anyone planning to do field work on Japanese disasters. English language translations are provided for the Japanese titles which are only a fraction of this kind of literature available. The second section of the inventory provides information and an abstract of the 62 Japanese publications in the first list. For each empirical report the following is presented: title, author(s), publisher and year, type of disaster agent, date of occurrence, location of event, casualties and damage in the situation, date of study and methodology used, and detailed hypotheses and findings.; Grant PFR-8009036 from the National Science Foundation.