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Hidrovia Tocantins-Araguaia: importância e impactos econômicos, sociais e ambientais segundo a percepção dos agentes econômicos locais. ; Tocantins-Araguaia waterway: importance and economic, social and environmental impacts, according to the perception of the local economic agents.

Almeida, Alivinio de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/09/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
O presente estudo avalia a percepção de potenciais usuários da Hidrovia Tocantins-Araguaia sobre seus possíveis impactos econômicos, sociais e ambientais em 7 municípios, no Estado do Tocantins. Foram entrevistados 24 indivíduos representantes do poder público, da iniciativa privada, de entidades de classe e de organizações não-governamentais ambientalistas. Como evidência de campo, verificou-se que, no rio Araguaia, a limitada infra-estrutura operacional, instalada em 1998, está completamente deteriorada e que as embarcações estão sem uso desde 2000. No rio Tocantins, verificou-se a inexistência de eclusas que permitam vencer os desníveis naturais mais agressivos, aumentando a navegabilidade e possibilitando o tráfego dos comboios. Diante disso, pode-se afirmar que a Hidrovia ainda está longe de se consolidar como um modal de transporte alternativo para o Estado. Quanto à opinião dos entrevistados, de modo geral,consideram interessante, oportuna e estratégica a presença da Hidrovia Tocantins-Araguaia em seus municípios, principalmente para o transporte de insumos e produtos. A despeito da pouca nformação de que dispunham sobre sua dimensão, potencial e impactos, manifestaram expectativas positivas quanto aos aspectos econômicos e sociais e negativas quanto aos ambientais. Vários assinalaram que o lento processo de implantação compromete sua inserção nos projetos institucionais ou empresariais e causa descrença sobre sua consolidação. A análise estatística dos dados de campo...

Impactos sociais e efeitos cumulativos decorrentes de grandes projetos de desenvolvimento: aplicação de rede de impactos e sobreposição de mapas em estudo de caso para o Litoral Norte Paulista; Social impacts and cumulative effects derived from large projects: impact network and map overlay application in North Coast of São Paulo, Brazil, study case

Utsunomiya, Renata
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/06/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
A prática de Avaliação de Impacto (AI) mostra-se consolidada como elemento de suporte ao processo decisório ao redor do planeta. No entanto, apresenta uma série de limitações relacionadas à inclusão dos impactos sociais e efeitos cumulativos como objeto de análise, que se mostram mais intensas no contexto da implantação de grandes projetos de desenvolvimento. No Estado de São Paulo, a região do Litoral Norte se destaca pela perspectiva de intensificação dos processos de desenvolvimento econômico a partir da implantação de projetos ligados à exploração de óleo e gás e seus empreendimentos derivados. Ainda que as mudanças de caráter socioambiental venham sendo analisadas em estudos ambientais estratégicos e estudos de impactos ambientais de projetos, planos diretores municipais, dentre outros instrumentos, verifica-se uma lacuna em termos de seus aspectos cumulativos que, associada ao baixo grau de integração entre os instrumentos de planejamento aplicados na região, tem limitado a sua capacidade de influenciar as decisões tomadas. Nesse contexto, a presente pesquisa se utiliza de métodos de Avaliação de Impactos para a verificação de impactos sociais e seus efeitos cumulativos sobre o Litoral Norte paulista...

Fechamento da mina : aspectos tecnicos, juridicos e socioambientais; Mine closure : technical, legal, social and environmental aspects

Jose Cruz do Carmo Flores
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/12/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
o fechamento de mina insere-se como uma nova fase na vida do projeto de mineração. Seus principais objetivos são garantir que a saúde e a segurança públicas não serão comprometidas no futuro; que os recursos ambientais não serão expostos a posterior deterioração biológica, física e ou química; que o uso pós-mineração da propriedade será benéfico à comunidade e sustentável no longo prazo; e que quaisquer impactos socioeconômicos adversos serão mitigados. Os conceitos e procedimentos relativos ao fechamento de mina vêm se expandindo rapidamente, em termos de escopo e responsabilidade dos principais grupos interessados, dentre eles governo, empresas, comunidades impactadas e organizações não-governamentais (ONGs), instituições financeiras de crédito e outros componentes da sociedade civil. O Direito - como ciência social que o é - vem explicitando a consciência e a preocupação da sociedade com o adequado e seguro fechamento das minas, e internalizando as melhores práticas par.a se atingir seus objetivos. Esta tese dedica-se ao estudo e análise da arte do fechamento de mina sob os seus diversos aspectos. Ressalta-se a importância econômica e social da mineração, através da análise dos aspectos positivos e negativos desta atividade humana. Introduz-se o fechamento de mina como uma nova fase do projeto de mineração. Apresentam-se os conceitos de alguns termos usualmente encontrados nos trabalhos relativos ao tema fechamento de mina. Apontam-se as principais causas que conduzem ao fechamento...

Using experts interviews to create electricity scenarios and to assess social impacts

Ribeiro, Fernando; Ferreira, Paula Varandas; Araújo, Maria Madalena Teixeira de
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
This paper focus on the assessment of the social dimension of electricity planning, resourcing to participative methodologies. A guide for interviewing power systems experts, covering a wide range of themes is presented. The guide focus on evolution of electricity consumption and supply according to each type of technology, driving forces among emerging technologies, energy policy, the relevance of sustainable development among institutions and markets and, finally, a first impression on the relevance of social impacts for candidate technologies. The main aim of the methodology is to gather discourses among experts and try to understand the connection between narratives and their consequences on the best scenarios under the social point of view. Therefore, the interview uses both uantitative and qualitative questions. The former are used for creating electricity generation scenarios within a 10 year range, while the latter aim at gathering each position’s underlying explanations, which will be useful for cluster analysis in future work. The results presented in this paper refer to interviews which took place among the members of the working group of the project “Sustainable Electricity Power Planning”.; This work was financed by: the QREN – Operational Programme for Competitiveness Factors...

Impacto social da operação integrada de desenvolvimento da Península de Setúbal (1988-1992)

Guerra, Isabel; Rodrigues, Walter
Fonte: CIES-ISCTE / CELTA Publicador: CIES-ISCTE / CELTA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1996 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Este artigo sintetiza a aplicação de um dispositivo de avaliação de impactes sociais (AIS) a uma situação concreta: a avaliação da Operação Integrada de Desenvolvimento da Península de Setúbal. Trata-se de uma exemplificação de um processo de avaliação de impactes sociais, razão porque mais do que a exaustividade dos dados e resultados empíricos, o artigo tem a preocupação de delinear as dimensões teóricas e metodológicas da AIS e os respectivos instrumentos metodológicos operacionalizados no caso concreto em que o referido dispositivo de avaliação foi aplicado. Pretende-se, deste modo, apresentar um contributo para o debate sobre a AIS, com base num dispositivo cuja possibilidade de replicação a outros contextos parece evidente e cada vez mais necessária em face dos questionamentos mais recentes sobre os métodos de planeamento e intervenção em matéria de desenvolvimento regional e local.; This article sums up the application of a tool for the evaluation of social impacts (ESI) to a concret situation: the evaluation of the Integrated Development Operation of the Setúbal Peninsula. It is an exemplification of a process for the evaluation of social impacts, which is why the article concerns itself with outlining the theoretical and methodological dimensions of the ESI and the respective methodological instruments put to use in the concrete case in which the evaluation tool referred to was applied rather than exhaustive data and empirical results. In this way...

Self-help women organizations in Guinea Bissau: analysing economic and social impacts

Afonso, Aline
Fonte: The Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa Publicador: The Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /06/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
The main goal of this text is to enlighten the role of self-help women organizations in Guinea Bissau, emphasizing on the access of women and their families to health care. The economic instability caused by the economic liberalization process contributed to the increase of poverty and the reinforcement of the gender inequality in Guinea Bissau. The liberalization process was conducted in an uncontrolled way, without the State’s development of public policies capable to protect the human resources involved in this process, being the women the most affected. Inequality of opportunities, social inequality and discrimination against women undertake the development of the whole social, due to the women’s weight at all social levels. To Iman (1997)1 the study of women in general and African women in particular has contributed to broaden and deepen the knowledge about African realities. A more detailed knowledge of health care options for women and their choices in this sector is essential for the implementation of an effective health strategy coordinating both public health planning and the heterogeneous non-public sector.Deriving from the collected depositions in Guinea Bissau, the purpose of this article is, in the context of the economic liberalization process...

Agroindústria canavieira e unidade de conservação: Impactos Sociais na comunidade de pescadores de Baía Formosa (RN); Sugar cane agro-industry and conservation unity: Social impacts in the fisher s community of Baía Formosa (RN)

Govindin, Julienne Louise dos Santos
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa Regional de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente PRODEMA; Meio Ambiente, Cultura e Desenvolvimento Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa Regional de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente PRODEMA; Meio Ambiente, Cultura e Desenvolvimento
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
The conservation unities emerged in response to the environmental damages. In the Atlantic Forest of the Brazilian Northeast, the most of the damages come from the sugar-cane agro-industry, especially by the deforestation for the introduction of sugar-cane fields and installation of the industry structure. Besides the damages over the biodiversity, there are critical social problems that affect the communities which survive using directly or indirectly the biome from the Atlantic Forest. The objective of this research is to analyze the social impacts on the fishermen of Baía Formosa/RN generated by the changes and socio-environmental transformations occurred starting the installation of a sugar-cane factory and the creation of a conservation area in the municipality of Baía Formosa/RN community. The research is based on a qualitative and diachronic perspective, for both approach, it was used the method of oral history in conjunction with the literature search and some technical and research tools such as direct observation, interview, records images and recordings . The results show that social and symbolic practices of the community in the conservation unit Mata Estrela last more strongly presented. Today fewer natural resources are used...

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) : Reviewing the Link with In-Country Policy and Planning Processes - Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
The synthesis report concerns to go beyond a summary of the country studies to provide lessons and recommendations on how to further improve Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) effectiveness. To do so, it draws on findings from country case studies, the literature and recent internal Bank reviews (World Bank 2006, 2008) on PSIA. The synthesis is structured in three parts. Section two reviews the role of PSIA in country work drawing on internal guidance from the Bank and the wider literature. It introduces the PSIA framework and the main elements of an effective PSIA. Section two ends with a presentation of the review framework and the approach to sampling and methodology for the country studies. Section three presents the bulk of the review findings and lessons learned with a focus on lessons for embedding PSIA into country processes. Section four addresses the future of PSIA with recommendations aimed at: (i) improving the influence that PSIA has on policy and planning processes in-country, and (ii) ensuring that it is applied more routinely by partner governments and Bank programs.

Tools for Institutional, Political, and Social Analysis of Policy Reform : A Sourcebook for Development Practitioners

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
This Sourcebook deals with social analysis in policy reform, encompassing the transition from gaining a better understanding of the distributional impacts of proposed or continuing reform to influencing a more informed and locally embedded process of policy review and design. In a generic sense, the term "social analysis" encompasses institutional, political, and social analyses. These three overlapping areas, derived from different disciplinary backgrounds, focus on the rules and relations that underpin and influence reform outcomes: Institutional analysis looks at the rules that people develop to govern group behavior and interaction in political, economic, and social spheres of life. Institutional analysis is based on an understanding that these rules-whether formally constructed or informally embedded in cultural practice-mediate and distort, sometimes fundamentally, the expected impacts of policy reform. Political analysis looks at the structure of power relations and often-entrenched interests of different stakeholders that affect decision making and distributional outcomes. Political analysis is built on recognition that political interests underpin many areas of policy debate and economic reform...

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis of Reform : Lessons and Examples from Implementation

Coudouel, Aline; Dani, Anis A.; Paternostro, Stefano
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) is an approach used increasingly by governments, civil society organizations, the World Bank, and other development partners to examine the distributional impacts of policy reforms on the well-being of different stakeholders groups, particularly the poor and vulnerable. PSIA has an important role in the elaboration and implementation of poverty reduction strategies in developing countries because it promotes evidence-based policy choices and fosters debate on policy reform options. This publication presents a collection of case studies that illustrate the spectrum of sectors and policy reforms to which PSIA can be applied; it also elaborates on the broad range of analytical tools and techniques that can be used for PSIA. The case studies provide examples of the impact that PSIA can have on the design of policy reforms and draw operational lessons for PSIA implementation. The case studies deal largely with policy reforms in a single sector, such as agriculture (crop marketing boards in Malawi and Tanzania and cotton privatization in Tajikistan); energy (mining sector in Romania and oil subsidies in Ghana); utilities (power sector reform in Ghana...

Social Assessment Builds a Project for People and Parks in Argentina

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
In the Argentina Biodiversity Conservation Project, a social assessment (SA) helped the Government of Argentina/World Bank team develop a cooperative approach to protected areas management. Social analysis and participatory research helped the task team understand the range of potential social impacts and risks to people living in proposed protected areas, and to the project itself. The resulting recommendations were put forth in a mitigation plan and a public participation/training plan for the project that will promote collaboration among the public sector, private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), increased community participation in protected areas management, and sustainable land use practices that will reduce the threats to protected areas.

Regional and Country Reports of the ASEAN Assessment on the Social Impact of the Global Financial Crisis

ASEAN Secretariat; World Bank
Fonte: Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat Publicador: Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
The effects of the global economic slowdown on peoples' employment and earnings are at the core of its social impacts, manifested largely through increased job uncertainties and reduced worker earnings in crisis-affected sectors, as opposed to widespread open unemployment. The global economic slowdown has been transmitted to ASEAN economies through several channels, including decreased global demand for the member states' manufactured exports; declines in key commodity prices; lower levels of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); fewer tourist arrivals; and reduced remittance receipts from overseas migrants. This has made policy makers keenly aware of the need to not only understand better the social consequences of economic volatility but also to strengthen social protection and labor market policies. This assessment of the social impact of the global financial crisis aims to support ASEAN's mission to strengthen the foundations for a region of lasting peace, security and stability, sustained economic growth...

Analyzing the Effects of Policy Reforms on the Poor : An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of World Bank Support to Poverty and Social Impact Analyses

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
The current global financial and economic crises are likely to put enormous pressure on governments to respond with immediate measures and to undertake far-reaching reforms in the medium term, requiring a substantial increase in donor support. To protect the poor and enhance benefits to them, key policy reforms will need to be underpinned by systematic analysis of their expected poverty and social impacts. The World Bank's experience to date with the Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) approach provides useful lessons for addressing these issues. Overall, implementation of the PSIA approach has had considerable limitations. There have been tensions between the various operational objectives assigned to PSIAs. The tensions concern inconsistencies between informing country and Bank policy decisions in a timely way and building country analytic capacity. PSIAs have had limited ownership by Bank staff and managers and have often not been effectively integrated into country assistance programs. Quality assurance...

Economic and Social Impacts of Self-help Groups in India

Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
Although there has been considerable recent interest in micro-credit programs, rigorous evidence on the impacts of forming self-help groups to mobilize savings and foster social empowerment at the local level is virtually non-existent, despite a large number of programs following this pattern. The authors use a large household survey to assess the economic and social impacts of the formation of self-help groups in India. They find positive impacts on empowerment and nutritional intake in program areas overall and heterogeneity of impacts between members of pre-existing and newly formed groups, as well as non-participants. Female social and economic empowerment in program areas increased irrespective of participation status, suggesting positive externalities. Nutritional benefit was more pronounced for new participants than for members of pre-existing groups. Evidence of higher consumption - but not income or asset formation - by participants suggests that at the time of the survey, the program's main economic impact had been through consumption smoothing and diversification of income sources rather than exploitation of new income sources. Evaluation of such programs in ways that allow heterogeneity of program impact can yield highly policy-relevant insights.

Social Impacts of Costa Rica's PSA Program

Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Salas, Fiorella
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
This paper discusses the social impacts of Costa Rica's Payments for Environmental Services (PSA) program and their effect on rural poverty. Although the analysis is hampered by significant information gaps, we believe that the PSA Program has probably managed to have an impact on the poor. This impact is almost certainly positive on the poor who were able to participate, but is difficult to quantify. However, except for very few cases, it seems unlikely that the PSA was able to actually lift participants out of poverty. Participation of the poor was initially low but increased as measures were introduced to target the poor and facilitate their participation.

Enabling Reforms : A Stakeholder-Based Analysis of the Political Economy of Tanzania’s Charcoal Sector and the Poverty and Social Impacts of Proposed Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
Although charcoal is the single most important energy source for millions of urban dwellers in Tanzania, being used by all tiers of society from laborers to politicians, it seems to be politically neglected and even unwanted, given that it is not considered as a possible mean to achieve long-term sustainable development, for example as a low-carbon growth option contributing to energy security, sustainable forest management, and poverty alleviation strategies. The largely unregistered and unregulated production and use of charcoal give reason to serious environmental concerns that call for a comprehensive reform of the sector: with Tanzania's total annual charcoal consumption being estimated at 1 million tons, the annual supply of wood needed to meet this demand is about 30 million cubic meters. Systematic initiatives trying to halt forest degradation and to make the sector more environmentally and economically sustainable are missing or have remained largely ineffective. Building on the World Bank's recent policy note on potential reforms of the charcoal sector in Tanzania...

Towards Sustainable Mineral-Intensive Growth in Orissa : Managing Environmental and Social Impacts

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Environmental Analysis (CEA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
The study's objective was to support the socio-economic development program of the Government of Orissa by helping to analyze and formulate practical strategies for strengthening an institutional and regulatory framework with respect to managing the environmental and social impacts of investments in the mining and industry sectors. This study, conducted for about a year, focused on two sets of issues: (i) the need to create mechanisms to share the concentrated benefits of mineral-intensive investments across the community, and (ii) the need to address the externalities of accelerated mineral-intensive through improved enforcement and compliance of environmental and mining regulations. Significant attention was given to the capacity needs of the Orissa Pollution Control Board (OPCB), as the main agency to monitor and enforce compliance with environmental regulations and standards. This analytical work was undertaken with strong support from the Department of Environment (DOE), the Orissa Pollution Control Board (OPCB)...

Influencing Project Design Through Participation : Pakistan Ghazi-Barotha Hydropower Project

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
The Ghazi-Barotha Hydropower Project is a major run-of-river power project designed to meet the acute shortage of power in Pakistan. It is being implemented by the Water and Power Development Authority of Pakistan (WAPDA). The project consists of a barrage located near Ghazi village in the North West Frontier Province, a 52 km long concrete lined power channel and a power complex located near Barotha village in the province of Punjab. It is expected to have an installed capacity of 1450 MW and provide an estimated energy output of 6600 GWh. The project is a major element of the Government's strategy for meeting future power demand in Pakistan. Impacts of the project include changes of land use in areas temporarily and permanently acquired for construction. This will affect about 20,000 people, including resettlement of 179 families with a surveyed population of 899 persons. From the earliest stages of project development, assessment of social impacts was incorporated into the evaluation and selection of alternatives for the siting of major infrastructure components. The analysis of alternatives has allowed for a significant reduction in the extent of resettlement and archeological impacts. The project serves as an example of inclusive project planning. Communities and NGOs worked with social scientists and engineers to develop engineering solutions to mitigate adverse social impacts and to make the project design responsive to social concerns.

Caracterización de Impactos Ambientales y Sociales generados por la construcción de grandes centrales hidroeléctricas en el país.; Characterization of Environmental and Social Impacts generated by the construction of large hydropower plants in the country.

Viviescas Santana, María Alejandra; Ruiz Suárez, Erika Johana
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ingeniería; Especialización en Planeación Ambiental y Manejo Integral de los Recursos Naturales Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ingeniería; Especialización en Planeación Ambiental y Manejo Integral de los Recursos Naturales
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
A través de la revisión de impactos ambientales y sociales generados por la construcción de centrales hidroeléctricas en el país determinados en los estudios de impactos, aquellos manifestados por las comunidades y los identificados en la evaluación áreas sensibles con la herramienta Tremarctos, se estableció que las implicaciones de la construcción de estas obras incurren en afectaciones sociales como el desplazamiento, el cambio en las dinámicas poblacionales, en la economía local y regional y finalmente se constituyen en mayores perjuicios que beneficios para quienes reciben directamente las consecuencias. Adicionalmente generan efectos irreversibles para los ecosistemas y sus componentes en el largo plazo; Through the revision of environmental and social impacts generated by the construction of hydroelectric centrals in the country determined by the impacts studies, those expressed by the communities and they identified by the evaluation with Tremarctos tool, was established that the implications of construction of those works incur social threats such as displacement, change of demographic dynamic, local and regional economy and, finally constitute further damage than benefits for those who directly receive consequences. Additionally...

The Potential Social Impacts of Shale Gas Development in North Carolina

Raimi, Daniel
Fonte: North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources Publicador: North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Tipo: Masters' Project
Publicado em 01/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
A review and analysis of the potential social impacts of developing shale gas in North Carolina.