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Aspectos teóricos e práticos envolvidos na elaboração da matriz avaliativa de um serviço de tratamento do tabagismo; Theoretical and practical aspects involved in the evaluative framework elaboration of a tobacco smoking treatment service

Lopes, Ana Lucia Mendes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/05/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
Introdução: O tabagismo é um problema crônico e de enfrentamento complexo. A ampliação da legislação, a conscientização da sociedade e a menor aceitação social do tabagismo, aumentaram a procura por serviços de cessação do tabagismo. A avaliação de programas desse tipo é tarefa complexa, considerando os diferentes níveis de intervenção, a diversidade de cenários e atores envolvidos. A avaliação de programas de cessação do tabagismo necessita incorporar ferramentas participativas, capazes de apontar a eficiência do programa, além de fomentar ações de transformação das práticas. Esta pesquisa buscou configurar uma matriz avaliativa capaz de contribuir na organização e autoaprendizagem de serviços dirigidos aos sujeitos em suas tentativas de parar de fumar, captando os diferentes contextos presentes na intervenção, nos cenários e nos atores. As questões da pesquisa foram: Quais são os indicadores que podem apontar o quanto um serviço se aproxima ou se distancia das práticas baseadas em evidências e dos modelos e diretrizes da promoção da saúde? Quais são os elementos que indicam ou não a qualidade de um serviço de tratamento do tabagismo? Objetivos: Desenvolver a matriz de indicadores de um serviço de tratamento do tabagismo. Para tanto buscou-se a) Identificar a percepção de experts...

Prevalência e perfil tabágico de pacientes adultos internados em unidades cirúrgicas de um hospital universitário; Prevalence and smoking profile of adult patients hospitalized in surgical wards of a university hospital; Prevalencia y perfil de fumar de los pacientes adultos hospitalizados en salas de cirugía de un hospital universitario

Corrêa, Ana Paula Almeida
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
Introdução: Seis milhões de pessoas morrem no mundo anualmente em decorrência do tabagismo. Consideram-se altas as taxas de morbidades associadas ao fumo, tais como cânceres, diabetes, doenças cardiovasculares e doenças crônicas do pulmão. A cirurgia ou a própria hospitalização induzem o fumante a repensar no seu comportamento, motivando-o para a cessação do tabagismo, contudo, nem todos são efetivamente orientados e incentivados pelos profissionais de saúde. Objetivo: Identificar a prevalência e o perfil tabágico de pacientes adultos cirúrgicos internados em um hospital universitário. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado nas unidades cirúrgicas do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), no período de fevereiro a maio de 2013. A amostra foi aleatória constituída por pacientes adultos cirúrgicos internados nestas unidades do hospital. A coleta de dados foi realizada pela pesquisadora e auxiliares de pesquisa, por meio de entrevistas com os pacientes a beira do leito e consulta ao prontuário eletrônico. Também foram aplicadas a Escala de Fagerstrom para avaliar o nível de dependência à nicotina e a Escala de Prochaska e Di Clemente para avaliar estágio motivacional para cessação do tabagismo. Os dados foram analisados no programa Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) versão 18. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do HCPA sob número 12-0461. Resultados: Foram analisados 1439 prontuários...

Comparison between objective measures of smoking and self-reported smoking status in patients with asthma or COPD: are our patients telling us the truth?

Stelmach,Rafael; Fernandes,Frederico Leon Arrabal; Carvalho-Pinto,Regina Maria; Athanazio,Rodrigo Abensur; Rached,Samia Zahi; Prado,Gustavo Faibischew; Cukier,Alberto
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
OBJECTIVE: Smoking prevalence is frequently estimated on the basis of self-reported smoking status. That can lead to an underestimation of smoking rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between self-reported smoking status and that determined through the use of objective measures of smoking at a pulmonary outpatient clinic. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 144 individuals: 51 asthma patients, 53 COPD patients, 20 current smokers, and 20 never-smokers. Smoking status was determined on the basis of self-reports obtained in interviews, as well as through tests of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and urinary cotinine. RESULTS: All of the asthma patients and COPD patients declared they were not current smokers. In the COPD and asthma patients, the median urinary cotinine concentration was 167 ng/mL (range, 2-5,348 ng/mL) and 47 ng/mL (range, 5-2,735 ng/mL), respectively (p < 0.0001), whereas the median eCO level was 8 ppm (range, 0-31 ppm) and 5 ppm (range, 2-45 ppm), respectively (p < 0.05). In 40 (38%) of the patients with asthma or COPD (n = 104), there was disagreement between the self-reported smoking status and that determined on the basis of the urinary cotinine concentration, a concentration > 200 ng/mL being considered indicative of current smoking. In 48 (46%) of those 104 patients...

Brazil : The Role of the Tobacco Control Program in Curbing Smoking

Iglesias, Roberto; Jha, Prabhat; Pinto, Márcia; Costa e Silva, Vera Luiza da; Godinho, Joana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Available evidence indicates that there was a significant decline in smoking in Brazil between 1989 and 2006. About two decades ago, the government launched a tobacco control program, with a marked acceleration of efforts since 1990, focusing on non-price interventions such as bans on advertising, restrictions on smoking in public places, and other activities. Although the Brazil tobacco control program is considered one of the most comprehensive in the developing world, no formal evaluation has been carried out. A recent study assessed the smoking situation in Brazil and the role of the tobacco control program, and compared it to experience in other countries. The study assessed key trends in smoking rates and lung cancer in Brazil, and reviewed price and non-price interventions. A discussion of fiscal instruments and smuggling is also included in the report. The study found that a 10 percent increase in smoking restrictions (legal and other restrictions), will reduce consumption by 2.3 percent in the long term...

The Determinants of Smoking Behavior among Teenagers in East Java Province, Indonesia

Martini, Santi; Sulistyowati, Muji
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
The Surabaya youth survey used a modified version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning smoking among 1,630 students in 40 high schools in Madiun City, Malang City, Jember Regency and Bangkalan Regency in 2003. Factors which predispose, enable, and reinforce smoking were examined to identify where tobacco control interventions might be appropriate and effective. Female students showed an unexpectedly high smoking rate. Students were aware of the health risks associated with smoking but underestimated how addictive cigarettes are. Generally, they found cigarettes affordable and accessible, but those who perceived cigarettes not very easy to obtain smoked less. Schools appeared to be smoker-friendly environments. Students who lived in households with smokers were more likely to smoke, but parental disapproval of smoking was associated with a lower smoking rate. Smokers, in particular, affirm many social and personal reasons to smoke. These findings suggest many possibilities for interventions.

Time Trends and Predictors of Initiation for Cigarette and Waterpipe Smoking Among Jordanian School Children: Irbid, 2008-2011

McKelvey, Karma L, PhD
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Smoking prevalence among adolescents in the Middle East remains high while rates of smoking have been declining among adolescents elsewhere. The aims of this research were to (1) describe patterns of cigarette and waterpipe (WP) smoking, (2) identify determinants of WP smoking initiation, and (3) identify determinants of cigarette smoking initiation in a cohort of Jordanian school children. Among this cohort of school children in Irbid, Jordan, (age ≈ 12.6 at baseline) the first aim (N=1,781) described time trends in smoking behavior, age at initiation, and changes in frequency of smoking from 2008-2011 (grades 7 – 10). The second aim (N=1,243) identified determinants of WP initiation among WP-naïve students; and the third aim (N=1,454) identified determinants of cigarette smoking initiation among cigarette naïve participants. Determinants of initiation were assessed with generalized mixed models. All analyses were stratified by gender. Baseline prevalence of current smoking (cigarettes or WP) for boys and girls was 22.9% and 8.7% respectively. Prevalence of ever- and current- any smoking, cigarette smoking, WP smoking, and dual cigarette/WP smoking was higher in boys than girls each year (p These studies reveal intensive smoking patterns at early ages among Jordanian youth in Irbid...

Determinants of Waterpipe and Cigarette Smoking Progression among a School Based Sample of Adolescents in Irbid, Jordan: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study (2008-2011)

Jaber, Rana Mohammed
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The prevalence of waterpipe smoking exceeds that of cigarettes among adolescents in the Middle East where waterpipe is believed as less harmful, less addictive and can be a safer alternative to cigarettes. This dissertation tested the gateway hypothesis that waterpipe can provide a bridge to initiate cigarette smoking, identified the predictors of cigarette smoking progression, and identified predictors of waterpipe smoking progression among a school-based sample of Jordanian adolescents (mean age ± SD) (12.7 ±0.61) years at baseline. Data for this research have been drawn from Irbid Longitudinal Study of smoking behavior, Jordan (2008-2011). The grouped-time survival analysis showed that waterpipe smoking was associated with a higher risk of cigarette smoking initiation compared to never smokers (P < 0.001) and this association was dose dependent (P < 0.001). Predictors of cigarette smoking progression were peer smoking and attending public schools for boys, siblings’ smoking for girls, and the urge to smoke for both genders. Predictors of waterpipe smoking progression were enrollment in public schools, frequent physical activity, and low refusal self-efficacy for boys, ever smoking cigarettes, friends’ and siblings’ waterpipe smoking for girls. Awareness of harms of waterpipe among boys and seeing warning labels on the tobacco packs by girls were protective against waterpipe smoking progression. In Conclusion...

Smoking-related beliefs and behaviours among adults with asthma in a representative population sample

Wakefield, M.; Ruffin, R.; Campbell, D.; Roberts, L.; Wilson, D.
Fonte: Adis International Pty Ltd Publicador: Adis International Pty Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
Background : Smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke are inadvisable for adults with asthma. Aims : To determine the smoking prevalence and daily smoking rate of asthmatics and compare smoking-related beliefs and behaviours among smokers with and without asthma. To compare beliefs of asthmatics about passive smoking and asthma, how many are exposed at home and what they do when they are exposed, with people who do not have asthma. Methods : A representative population survey of 3019 South Australian adults aged 15 years and older interviewed in their own homes in late 1992. Results : Twenty-eight per cent of asthmatics were smokers ; mean daily smoking rate was 17.6. Asthmatics had similar patterns of smoking, readiness to quit and quit attempt histories as people without asthma. More than 40% of smokers with asthma did not perceive that smoking had greatly affected their health, over half did not believe they were at risk in future and two-thirds did not think future health problems would be serious. Among non-smokers, despite being more convinced of the effects of passive smoking on asthma, and being more concerned about exposure, those with asthma were no more likely to take protective action in response to actual or imminent exposure than those without asthma. One in ten non-smokers with asthma were exposed to smoking at home. Conclusions : The smoking habits of adults with asthma are cause for concern...

Aboriginal health workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

Dawson, A.; Cargo, M.; Stewart, H.; Chong, A.; Daniel, M.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
Introduction: Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods: We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results: Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke...

Tabakentwöhnung bei Patienten mit einer Alkoholabhängigkeit im Rahmen einer stationären Alkoholentwöhnungstherapie; Smoking cessation in alcohol dependent patients within an inpatient alcohol withdrawal therapy

Niethammer, Sabrina
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
Einleitung: Nikotin und Alkohol sind die am weitesten verbreiteten Suchtstoffe und treten sehr häufig als kombinierte Abhängigkeit auf. Dabei findet man für beide Substanzen stärkere Abhängigkeiten als beim isolierten Konsum. Auch die gesundheitlichen Folgen potenzieren sich beim kombinierten Gebrauch. Eine Therapie beider Abhängigkeiten ist demzufolge von immenser Bedeutung. Fragestellung: In der vorliegenden Studie wurde bei N=90 (von 94) stationär aufgenommenen Patienten untersucht, wie gut eine parallel zu einer Alkoholentwöhnung angebotene Tabakentwöhnungstherapie von den Patienten angenommen wird und wie sich die Tabakabstinenz auf das Outcome nach drei Monaten auswirkt. Ebenso wurden weitere mögliche Prädiktoren für einen Rückfall in die beiden Abhängigkeiten untersucht. Methoden: Neben dem Rauchstatus und Rauchcharakteristika wurden die Stärke der Alkohol- (AUDIT) und Tabakabhängigkeit (FTND), die Bereitschaft und Motivation zur Abstinenz, Entzugssymptome (QSU), der Grad der Depressivität (BDI) und der Abstinenzverlauf drei Monate nach Ende der stationären Therapie erhoben. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt waren 77 % der befragten Patienten Raucher. Die angebotene Tabakentwöhnung wurde von 40,6 % der rauchenden Patienten durchgeführt. Die Motivation und Bereitschaft zur Teilnahme liegt hier um das Dreifache höher als in der Gesamtbevölkerung. Als ein ausschlaggebender Faktor konnten dabei die Gewissensbisse der Patienten identifiziert werden. Nach sechs Wochen waren 26 % aller Teilnehmer abstinent. Ohne die vorzeitigen Therapieabbrecher liegt die Erfolgsrate bei fast 37 %. Nach drei Monaten rauchen bei einer im Schnitt um 20 % geringeren Zigarettenzahl alle Teilnehmer wieder...

Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: a cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

Ravara, Sofia B.; Calheiros, José M.; Aguiar, Pedro; Barata, Luis Taborda
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/09/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods: Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1,112 staff; mean age 38.3+/-9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results: Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p < 0.001); 43.2% in auxiliaries, 26.1% in nurses, 18.9% among physicians, and 34.7% among other non-health professionals (p=0.024). The findings showed a very high level of agreement with smoking bans...

Smoking prevalence and perspectives on smoking on campus by employees in Australian teaching hospitals

Jones, T.E.; Williams, J.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking prevalence has been declining over decades in Western countries especially in higher socioeconomic groups. Employees of Australian hospitals span the socioeconomic spectrum, but there are few data on smoking prevalence from these workplaces. Because smoking is a health hazard, some argue that it should be banned on hospital premises, but employees' opinions appear not to have been widely canvassed. Cigarette smoking is a particular problem in hospitals because of the need for prolonged abstinence by immobile patients and the stressors that accompany life-and-death events for patients and/or relatives. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital has had a Stop Smoking Service for >10 years, but how smoking prevalence has changed and how it compares with similar hospitals is unknown. AIMS: The aims of this study were (i) to determine smoking prevalence by employees of The Queen Elizabeth Hospital and to compare this with employees of other hospitals and (ii) to ascertain employees' perspectives regarding smoking on hospital grounds. METHODS: Single page questionnaires were forwarded to employees of four South Australian/Northern Territory hospitals enquiring about smoking status, employment category, views about smoking on hospital premises...

Restrictions on smoking at home and urinary cotinine levels among children with asthma

Wakefield, M.; Banham, D.; Martin, A.; Ruffin, R.; McCaul, K.; Badcock, N.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Inc Publicador: Elsevier Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which various levels of restrictions on smoking in the home may be associated with children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). METHODS: The methodology consisted of a cross-sectional survey involving 249 children with asthma aged 1 to 11 attending hospital outpatient clinics, with at least one parent who smoked, linked to the child's urinary cotinine to creatinine ratios (CCR). RESULTS: After adjustment for child's age, mother's smoking status, and total parental daily cigarette consumption, a total ban was associated with significantly lower urinary CCR levels (7.6 nmol/mmol) than bans with exceptions or limited smoking in the home. Where exceptions to bans were made (14.9 nmol/mmol), children's urinary CCR levels were no different from homes in which smoking was allowed in rooms the child rarely frequented (14.1 nmol/mmol). These two intermediate levels of restriction were in turn associated with significantly lower CCR levels than unrestricted smoking in the home (26.0 nmol/mmol). CONCLUSIONS: Making exceptions to bans on smoking at home measurably undermines the protective effect of a ban. However, making some exceptions to a ban and limiting smoking to rooms where the child rarely goes may result in reduced exposure to ETS...

Attitudes and experiences of restauranteurs regarding smoking bans in Adelaide, South Australia

Jones, K.; Wakefield, M.; Turnbull, D.
Fonte: BRITISH MED JOURNAL PUBL GROUP Publicador: BRITISH MED JOURNAL PUBL GROUP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
OBJECTIVES---To determine compliance with a voluntary code of practice (VCP) for restricting smoking in restaurants and to canvass the attitudes of restaurateurs towards tougher smoking restrictions. DESIGN---Cross-sectional survey conducted in 1996 using a telephone questionnaire. SETTING---Metropolitan restaurants and cafés in Adelaide, South Australia. PARTICIPANTS---276 (86.8%) of a sample of randomly selected owners and managers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES---Restaurant non-smoking policies, reported and anticipated change in business, and restaurateurs' attitudes towards smoking restrictions. RESULTS---26.8% of restaurants had a total smoking ban; 40.6% restricted smoking some other way; and 32.6% permitted unrestricted smoking. Only 15.1% of restaurants with a ban or restrictions had used the VCP to guide the development of their policy, and only half of these were complying with it. Although 78.4% of those with bans and 84.4% of those with restrictions reported that their non-smoking policy had been associated with either no change or a gain in business, only 33.3% of those allowing unrestricted smoking expected that this would be the case, if they were to limit smoking. A total of 50.4% of restaurateurs, including 45.3% of those with no restrictions...

'I know it's bad for me and yet I do it': exploring the factors that perpetuate smoking in Aboriginal Health Workers - a qualitative study

Dawson, A.; Cargo, M.; Stewart, H.; Chong, A.; Daniel, M.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
BACKGROUND Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) have a mandate to deliver smoking cessation support to Aboriginal people. However, a high proportion of AHWs are smokers and this undermines their delivery of smoking cessation programs. Smoking tobacco is the leading contributor to the burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and must be prevented. Little is known about how to enable AHWs to quit smoking. An understanding of the factors that perpetuate smoking in AHWs is needed to inform the development of culturally relevant programs that enable AHWs to quit smoking. A reduction of smoking in AHWs is important to promote their health and also optimise the delivery of smoking cessation support to Aboriginal clients. METHODS We conducted a fundamental qualitative description study that was nested within a larger mixed method participatory research project. The individual and contextual factors that directly or indirectly promote (i.e. perpetuate) smoking behaviours in AHWs were explored in 34 interviews and 3 focus groups. AHWs, other health service staff and tobacco control personnel shared their perspectives. Data analysis was performed using a qualitative content analysis approach with collective member checking by AHW representatives. RESULTS AHWs were highly stressed...

Econometric Analysis of Youth Smoking Behavior in Turkey

Önder, Zeynep
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The report is organized as follows. The information about the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is provided in the first part. The second part gives some descriptive statistics about the prevalence rate of students and their consumption based on several characteristics observed in the survey. The third part presents the empirical model and the variables used to estimate the probability of smoke and the quantity consumed. The fourth part presents the empirical results obtained from the analysis. The last part summarizes the results and concludes the paper with some policy recommendations. A total of 202 schools and 15,957 students were surveyed in the analysis. The GYTS questionnaire asks about the general characteristics of students, such as age, grade, sex, income level, region, and their family whether their parents work, and their education levels. Other questions ask about smoking habits, accessibility, smoking habits of their family members and friends; as well as exposure to pro / anti cigarette promotions and their thoughts about tobacco control measures. The results of this study have some important policy implications. First...

Smoking and Its Consequences in Pregnant Women in Ukraine

Andreeva, Tatiana I.; Gilpin, Elizabeth; Salyuk, Tetyana O.; Krasovsky, Konstantin S.; Dovbakh, Anna V.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of a number of complications of pregnancy and can have adverse effects on the child. This study provides data from Ukraine that are consistent with the international literature on the effects of smoking during pregnancy. The study of nearly 700 women in Ukraine examined the rate of smoking during pregnancy and factors related to continued smoking. It documents the outcomes of pregnancy in women who smoked prior to pregnancy, and who smoked during pregnancy compared to those who did not. It also looks at pregnancy outcomes with respect to the baby's father smoking. Smoking during pregnancy is at low levels in Ukraine (less than 5 percent of pregnant women), but is associated with family structure, the baby's father smoking, and the number of previous abortions. It is also associated with placental insufficiency, low birth weight, fetus hypotrophy, and hip joint dysphasia. The father's smoking is associated with decreased fertility, late toxicosis, miscarriage threat in third trimester...

An impact evaluation of the Ontario ban on smoking in schools and on school property : does the ban on smoking influence high school students' intentions to smoke cigarettes?

Corbett, Bradley A.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Ontario Tobacco Control Act of 1994 imposed a total ban on smoking in schools, and on school property for every school in the province. The imposition of this policy created problems for school administrators. For instance, students who were smoking on walkways and properties adjacent to school boundaries, clashed with neighbouring property owners who were angry about the resulting damage and disruption. The enforcement of this policy consumes valuable resources at each school; therefore, knowledge about the impact of the policy is important. If effective, this policy has the potential to improve the health of students over their lifetime, by preventing or delaying smoking behaviour. Alternatively, an ineffective policy will continue to create administrative problems for the school and serve no legitimate purpose. Therefore, knowledge about the impact of the smoking ban policy on students' smoking intentions assists policy makers and school administrators in their understanding of the policy's impact within the schools. This research provided an impact evaluation of the ban on smoking in schools and on school property in Ontario. A total of 2069 students, from five high schools, in the Niagara Region, provided complete responses to a survey...

Where there's smoke, there's fire : the brain reactivity of chronic smokers to anti-smoking stimuli

Dinh-Williams, Lê-Anh Laurence
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Contexte: Plusieurs études ont démontré que les indices environnementaux associés à la cigarette peuvent provoquer des envies de consommer (« cravings ») chez les fumeurs, ce qui nuit aux efforts d’abandon de la substance et favorise le maintien du tabagisme. Un bon nombre d’études en imagerie cérébrale ont examiné les bases neurophysiologiques de cette caractéristique clinique. Le tabagisme se caractérise aussi par l’incapacité des représentations négatives de la consommation (méfaits médicaux et sociaux) d’influencer la consommation des fumeurs. Étonnamment toutefois, très peu de travaux de recherche se sont intéressés à examiner les bases neurophysiologiques de cette insouciance envers les méfaits de la cigarette chez les fumeurs. En utilisant l'imagerie cérébrale fonctionnelle, l'objectif de cette étude était: d’examiner la réponse neurophysiologique des fumeurs chroniques à des images qui illustrent les effets négatifs de la cigarette (campagne anti-tabac); d’examiner le caractère affectif de cette réactivité utilisant des conditions contrôles (c.-à-d., images aversives non-liées au tabac et appétitives liées au tabac); d'examiner la connectivité fonctionnelle durant cette tâche entre les systèmes affectifs et exécutifs (une interaction qui peut favoriser ou entraver l'impact des évènements aversifs). Méthodes: 30 fumeurs chroniques ont passé une session de neuroimagerie durant laquelle ils devaient regarder des images appétitives et aversives de cigarettes...

Proposed Smoking Policy and Smoking Task Force Report to President Destler - August 2014

Smoking Task Force
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Proposed Smoking Policy and Smoking Task Force Report to President Destler (August 2014)