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The role of black oak woodlands (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) in small ruminant production in Northeast Portugal

Castro, Marina; Castro, José; Gómez Sal, Antonio
Fonte: Catena Verlag Publicador: Catena Verlag
Tipo: Parte de Livro
ENG
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The use of black oak woodlands (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) by small ruminant flocks was investigated in the northeast Portugal. In their daily grazing itineraries, the animals crossed a large and heterogeneous set of vegetation patches, returning to their corrals every night. Two goats’ flocks and two sheep’ flocks led by shepherds were monthly surveyed from May 1999 to May 2000. A hand rover Global Position System (GPS), recording time, geographical position and land cover, monitored shepherding paths every two minutes. The utilization of black oak woodlands was analyzed by three different approaches: 1) time spending by the flocks at black oak woodlands in relation to total time of itineraries, 2) relation of time spending at black oak woodlands and the crossing length of it, and 3) the contribution of black oak in the diets. GPS data revealed changes in black oak woodlands utilization among seasons and/or kind of flocks. Diet estimation indicated also differences in the intensity and sort of black oak woodlands consumption related to kind of animal and season in the course of the year.

Imunofluorescência utilizando isolados brasileiros no diagnóstico sorológico de infecção por lentivírus em caprinos; Immunofluorescence using Brazilian isolates for serological diagnosis of lentivirus infection in goats

Reischak, Dilmara; Ravazzolo, Ana Paula; Moojen, Valeria
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Os lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes (SRLV) têm distribuição mundial e causam infecções persistentes em ovinos e caprinos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFA), utilizando isolados brasileiros de SRLV, para o diagnóstico sorológico de infecção por estes agentes em caprinos. A técnica de IFA foi comparada, quanto à sensibilidade e à especificidade, ao teste de AGID com antígeno do vírus Maedi-Visna WLC-1. Cultivos celulares secundários de membrana sinovial ovina infectadas com dois isolados de SRLV de origem caprina (CAEV Br/UFRGS-2 e CAEV Br/UFRGS-5) foram utilizados para o teste de IFA. Duzentas e trinta e nove amostras de soro caprino foram submetidas aos dois testes. O teste de AGID detectou 129 (53.9%) amostras de soro caprino com anticorpos para SRLV. O teste de IFA detectou mais amostras reagentes, sendo que resultados diferentes foram observados de acordo com o isolado de SRLV empregado. Quando o isolado CAEV Br/UFRGS-2 foi utilizado como antígeno, 216 (90.3%) amostras de soro caprino foram reagentes, enquanto que o isolado CAEV Br/UFRGS-5 detectou 213 (89.1%) amostras de soro positivas. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre esses dois isolados. O teste de IFA desenvolvido teve sensibilidade de 94.6% e 96.9% e especificidade 14.5% e 20%...

Evaluation of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil in lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus

Katiki, L. M.; Chagas, A. C. S.; Takahira, R. K.; Juliani, H. R.; Ferreira, J. F. S.; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 312-318
ENG
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Hematophagous gastrointestinal parasites cause significant economic losses in small ruminant grazing systems. The growing reports of multi-drug resistant parasites call for intensive research on alternative treatments for anthelmintics to help small ruminants cope with these parasites. Two-month-old lambs with mean body weight (BW) of 22.5 kg were experimentally infected with a multidrug-resistant Haemonchus contortus strain. Infected animals were dosed orally with Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil to evaluate its anthelmintic potential. Eighteen animals were allocated into three groups of six animals, and each received one of the following treatments: Group 1 - control (10 mL of water), Group 2 - C. schoenanthus essential oil (180 mg/kg BW); and Group 3 - C schoenanthus essential oil (360 mg/kg BW). Animals received the oil once a day for 3 consecutive days. Lambs were evaluated clinically for blood biochemistry before, at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after treatment, and then were euthanized to assess the total worm burden. No statistically significant reduction in fecal egg count, packed cell volume or total worm count was observed after treatments. Also, no statistical difference among group means for blood levels of urea, creatinine...

Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. from small ruminant mastitis in Brazil

França,Chirles A.; Peixoto,Rodolfo M.; Cavalcante,Marielly B.; Melo,Natoniel F.; Oliveira,Celso José B.; Veschi,Josir Laine A.; Mota,Rinaldo A.; Costa,Mateus M.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
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The study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and to identify molecular resistance markers in Staphylococcus spp. (n=210) isolated from small ruminant mastitis in Brazil. The antimicrobial resistance patterns were evaluated by the disk diffusion test and by detection of the presence of mecA, blaZ, ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes by PCR. The efflux pump test was performed using ethidium bromide and biofilm production was determined by Congo red agar test along with PCR for detection of the icaD gene. The isolates were most resistant to amoxicillin (50.0%), streptomycin (42.8%), tetracycline (40.4%), lincomycin (39.0%) and erythromycin (33.8%). Pan-susceptibility to all tested drugs was observed in 71 (33.8%) isolates and 41 Staphylococcus isolates were positive for the efflux pump. Although phenotypic resistance to oxacillin was observed in 12.8% of the isolates, none harbored the mecA gene. However, 45.7% of the isolates harbored blaZ indicating that beta-lactamase production was the main mechanism associated with staphylococci resistance to beta-lactams in the present study. The other determinants of resistance to antimicrobial agents ermA, ermB, ermC, and msrA were observed in 1.4%, 10.4%, 16.2%, and 0.9% of the isolates...

A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System

Tedeschi,Luis Orlindo; Cannas,Antonello; Fox,Danny Gene
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2008 EN
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A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S) was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS). The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolizable energy (ME) and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats in the SRNS are predicted based on the equations developed for CNCPS-S, modified to account for specific requirements of goats, including maintenance, lactation, and pregnancy requirements, and body reserves. Feed biological values are predicted based on carbohydrate and protein fractions and their ruminal fermentation rates, forage, concentrate and liquid passage rates, and microbial growth. The evaluation of the SRNS for sheep using published papers (19 treatment means) indicated no mean bias (MB; 1.1 g/100 g) and low root mean square prediction error (RMSPE; 3.6 g/100g) when predicting dietary organic matter digestibility for diets not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS accurately predicted gains and losses of shrunk body weight (SBW) of adult sheep (15 treatment means; MB = 5.8 g/d and RMSPE = 30 g/d) when diets were not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS for sheep had MB varying from -34 to 1 g/d and RSME varying from 37 to 56 g/d when predicting average daily gain (ADG) of growing lambs (42 treatment means). The evaluation of the SRNS for goats based on literature data showed accurate predictions for ADG of kids (31 treatment means; RMSEP = 32.5 g/d; r2= 0.85; concordance correlation coefficient...

Efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for maintenance and gain and evaluation of Small Ruminant Nutrition System model in Santa Ines sheep

Regadas Filho,José Gilson Louzada; Pereira,Elzânia Sales; Villarroel,Arturo Bernardo Selaive; Pimentel,Patrícia Guimarães; Fontenele,Rildson Melo; Costa,Marcus Roberto Góes Ferreira; Maia,Iana Sérvulo Gomes; Sombra,Weberte Alan
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2011 EN
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This study was carried out to estimate efficiencies of the utilization of metabolizable energy for maintenance (k m) and weight gain (k g) and to evaluate the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) model in predicting dry matter intake and average daily gain of growing Santa Ines sheep. Twenty-four non-castrated Santa Ines sheep, at 50 days of age and with average body weight of 13.00 ± 0.56 kg, respectively, were used. After a 10-day adaptation period, four animals were slaughtered to be used as reference for estimating initial empty body weight and body composition of the other animals. The remaining animals were distributed in a random block design, with the treatments consisting of diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy (2.08, 2.28, 2.47 and 2.69 Mcal/kg of DM), with five replicates. The metabolizable energy use efficiencies for maintenance and for weight gain were calculated from the relationship between the dietary net energy for maintenance and gain and ME concentration in the diets. Evaluation of the SRNS model was performed by adjustment of simple linear regression model between the predicted (independent variable) and observed (dependent variable) values. The estimated energy use efficiency for maintenance (k m) was 0.70; and for gain weight (kg) it showed to be inversely proportional to the increase of metabolizable energy concentration in the diet. The dry matter intake predicted by the SRNS model did not statistically differ from that observed...

Prevalence and zoonotic aspects of small ruminant mange in the lateritic and waterlogged zones, southern Benin

Salifou,Sahidou; Attindehou,Sabbas; Salifou,Chakirath Folake Arike; Pangui,Louis-Joseph
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
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An epidemiological survey was undertaken from March to September 2010 to assess the prevalence and zoonotic aspects of scabies in small ruminants in two agro-ecological zones in southern Benin. Small ruminant (n = 444) smallholders and 1,807 of their animals (1,233 West African dwarf goats and 574 West African dwarf sheep) were included in the study. The animals underwent physical examination and, when scabies-like lesions were found, crusts and integument scrapings were collected for microscopic parasitological tests. The samples collected in each survey were coded in accordance with the owner-animal pairings in order to assess the degree of correlation between mange cases in humans (smallholders) and their animals. The overall prevalence of scabies was 28.33% and 9.5% in animals and smallholders (human cases) respectively. Infestations were significantly (p < 0.001) more frequent in goats (39.6%) than in sheep. The uniqueness of the etiological agent (Sarcoptes scabiei), the very high predictive value of human scabies in infected farms (83.67%) and a very high odds ratio (OR = 2,019.25) indicate that small ruminant scabies has been transmitted to smallholders by their animals. Close contact between these smallholders and their animals was a determining factor in this interspecies communicability of sarcoptic mange.

Host Range of Small-Ruminant Lentivirus Cytopathic Variants Determined with a Selectable Caprine Arthritis- Encephalitis Virus Pseudotype System

Hötzel, Isidro; Cheevers, William P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The small-ruminant lentiviruses ovine maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) cause encephalitis, progressive pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in sheep and goats. Icelandic MVV strains, which are lytic in tissue culture, have a wide species distribution of functional receptors, which includes human cells. In contrast, functional receptors for the nonlytic CAEV CO are absent from human cells. To determine if the wide species distribution of functional receptors is a common property of MVV strains or related to cytopathic phenotype, we tested the infectivity of viruses pseudotyped with the envelope glycoproteins of MVV K1514, CAEV CO, and lytic and nonlytic North American MVV strains to cells of different species. Replication-defective CAEV proviral constructs lacking the env, tat, and vif genes and carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase gene in the vif-tat region were developed for the infectivity assays. Cotransfection of human 293T cells with these proviral constructs and plasmids expressing CAEV, MVV, or vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoproteins produced infectious pseudotyped virus which induced resistance of infected cells to G418. Using these pseudotypes, we confirmed the wide species distribution of Icelandic MVV receptors and the narrow host range of CAEV. However...

Genetic Heterogeneity of Small Ruminant Lentiviruses Involves Immunodominant Epitope of Capsid Antigen and Affects Sensitivity of Single-Strain-Based Immunoassay

Grego, Elena; Profiti, Margherita; Giammarioli, Monica; Giannino, Laura; Rutili, Domenico; Woodall, Chris; Rosati, Sergio
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The pol and gag gene fragments of small ruminant lentivirus field isolates collected in the last decade in Italy were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of ovine isolates form a distinct cluster more similar to caprine lentivirus prototypes than to the visna virus prototype. These findings confirm and extend those reported by Leroux et al. (Arch. Virol., 142:1125-1137, 1997). Moreover, we observed that a variable region of Gag, included in the fragment analyzed, corresponded to one of the three major capsid antigen epitopes, which suggests that the antibody response to this epitope may be type specific. To test this hypothesis, two recombinant peptides, derived from the Icelandic prototype K1514 and this novel genotype, were expressed and used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to screen a panel of ovine and caprine sera collected from different geographical locations in Italy. Several sera reacted in a type-specific manner, indicating that in a diagnostic setting the combination of at least these two type-specific peptides is necessary to cover a wide range of infections. Additionally, these results support the hypothesis of cross-species transmission based on the phylogenetic analysis described above. This has implications for the control and eradication of small ruminant lentivirus infections.

Direct Evidence for Natural Transmission of Small-Ruminant Lentiviruses of Subtype A4 from Goats to Sheep and Vice Versa

Shah, Cyril; Huder, Jon B.; Böni, Jürg; Schönmann, Marietta; Mühlherr, Janine; Lutz, Hans; Schüpbach, Jörg
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), which include the caprine arthritis-encephalitis and the maedi-visna virus, cause persistent inflammatory infections in goats and sheep. SRLV are mainly transmitted from mother to offspring through milk. Transmission after prolonged contact between adult animals has also been observed. The observation that certain SRLV subtypes are found in both goats and sheep suggests that interspecies transmission has occurred on several occasions in the past. We investigated seropositive goats and sheep that were kept together in small mixed herds. Phylogenetic analysis of long proviral sequences in gag and pol, combined with epidemiologic information, demonstrated natural sheep-to-goat transmission of the recently identified SRLV subtype A4 in two instances and goat-to-sheep transmission of the same subtype in one instance. In a further mixed cluster, the direction of the interspecies transmission could not be determined. These findings present for the first time direct evidence that natural interspecies transmission of SRLV is ongoing in both directions. The findings are of relevance to virus eradication programs in both species.

Evaluation of Five Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and an Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test for Detection of Antibodies to Small Ruminant Lentiviruses▿

Brinkhof, J.; van Maanen, C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
In the framework of the Dutch control program for small ruminant lentiviral (SRLV) infections, too many drawbacks were encountered with respect to serological testing. To improve the quality of testing, five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and an agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) were evaluated. The focus was on the sensitivity, specificity, and variances of the commercially available tests. Clear differences were found among the tests in analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and overall diagnostic performance, whereas no significant differences in specificity were found. For serodiagnosis of sheep with clinical symptoms of maedi-visna virus (MVV) (histopathologically confirmed), one ELISA was significantly more sensitive than the other ELISAs and than the AGIDT, while for asymptomatic sheep originating from infected flocks, three ELISAs and the AGIDT demonstrated similar performance. The diagnostic performance appeared to be related to animal species and virus infection (MVV or caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]) as well as the phase of infection/progression of disease. Receiver operating characteristic analysis, demonstrating the diagnostic potential of tests irrespective of defined cutoffs, again revealed clear differences between tests with respect to diagnostic performance for detection of antibodies against CAEV or MVV. An indirect ELISA...

Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Polymorphism G520R in Sheep Is Associated with Seropositivity for Small Ruminant Lentivirus

Sarafidou, Theologia; Stamatis, Costas; Kalozoumi, Georgia; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Fthenakis, George C.; Billinis, Charalambos; Mamuris, Zissis
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Infectious diseases of sheep are of major economic importance causing direct and indirect losses. Among the major sheep infectious agents are Small Ruminant Lentivirus, Chlamydophila abortus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections, mainly due to their worldwide distribution and economic impact that they cause. Based on the differential susceptibility to infectious diseases between and within breeds and on the recent findings regarding the putative involvement of TLR9 in disease susceptibility, the aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of nucleotide variation of TLR9 and its mediator MyD88 in three sheep flocks originated from different breeds and assess their possible association with seropositivity/seronegativity for different infectious agents. The analysis indicated that the change of G to R at codon 520 of TLR9 polypeptide shows a significant association with Small Ruminant Lentivirus seropositivity. This amino-acid substitution, which can result in polarity change, might influence structure and function of LRR17, interfering with ligand binding and thus could be used in studies investigating susceptibility/resistance to Small Ruminant Lentivirus infections in sheep.

Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep...

Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction

Larruskain, Amaia; Jugo, Begoña M.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are members of the Retrovirus family comprising the closely related Visna/Maedi Virus (VMV) and the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV), which infect sheep and goats. Both infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and cause lifelong infections. Infection by VMV and CAEV can lead to Visna/Maedi (VM) and Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) respectively, slow progressive inflammatory diseases primarily affecting the lungs, nervous system, joints and mammary glands. VM and CAE are distributed worldwide and develop over a period of months or years, always leading to the death of the host, with the consequent economic and welfare implications. Currently, the control of VM and CAE relies on the control of transmission and culling of infected animals. However, there is evidence that host genetics play an important role in determining Susceptibility/Resistance to SRLV infection and disease progression, but little work has been performed in small ruminants. More research is necessary to understand the host-SRLV interaction.

Evolution of Specific Antibodies and Proviral DNA in Milk of Small Ruminants Infected by Small Ruminant Lentivirus

Barquero, Nuria; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Arjona, Alvaro; Toural, Cristina; las Heras, Alfonso; Fernández-Garayzabal, José F.; Domenech, Ana
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
The diagnosis of Small Ruminant Lentivirus (SRLV) is based on clinical signs, pathological lesions and laboratory testing. No standard reference test for the diagnosis of maedi visna has been validated up to the present, and it is puzzling that tests which detect antibodies against the virus and tests which detect the proviral genome may render opposite results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence in milk throughout a lactation period of specific antibodies by ELISA and of SRLV proviral DNA by a PCR of the highly conserved pol region. A six-month study was conducted with the milk of 28 ewes and 31 goats intensively reared. The percentage of animals with antibodies against SRLV increased throughout the study period. Seroprevalence in sheep was 28% at the beginning of the study and by the end it had increased up to 52.4%. In goats, initial seroprevalence of 5.6% increased to 16%. The percentage of PCR positive ewes was stable throughout the study period. Of the positive sheep, 21.4% were PCR-positive before antibodies could be detected and most of them became PCR-negative shortly after the first detection of antibodies. This might suggest that antibodies have a neutralizing effect. In addition, an equal percentage of sheep were always PCR-negative but either became ELISA-positive or was always ELISA-positive...

Small ruminant macrophage polarization may play a pivotal role on lentiviral infection

Crespo, Helena; Bertolotti, Luigi; Juganaru, Magda; Glaria, Idoia; de Andrés, Damián; Amorena, Beatriz; Rosati, Sergio; Reina, Ramsés
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) infect the monocyte/macrophage lineage inducing a long-lasting infection affecting body condition, production and welfare of sheep and goats all over the world. Macrophages play a pivotal role on the host’s innate and adaptative immune responses against parasites by becoming differentially activated. Macrophage heterogeneity can tentatively be classified into classically differentiated macrophages (M1) through stimulation with IFN-γ displaying an inflammatory profile, or can be alternatively differentiated by stimulation with IL-4/IL-13 into M2 macrophages with homeostatic functions. Since infection by SRLV can modulate macrophage functions we explored here whether ovine and caprine macrophages can be segregated into M1 and M2 populations and whether this differential polarization represents differential susceptibility to SRLV infection. We found that like in human and mouse systems, ovine and caprine macrophages can be differentiated with particular stimuli into M1/M2 subpopulations displaying specific markers. In addition, small ruminant macrophages are plastic since M1 differentiated macrophages can express M2 markers when the stimulus changes from IFN-γ to IL-4. SRLV replication was restricted in M1 macrophages and increased in M2 differentiated macrophages respectively according to viral production. Identification of the infection pathways in macrophage populations may provide new targets for eliciting appropriate immune responses against SRLV infection.

Estimation of the Use of Antibiotics in the Small Ruminant Industry in the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012

Santman-Berends, Inge; Luttikholt, Saskia; den Brom, René Van; Schaik, Gerdien Van; Gonggrijp, Maaike; Hage, Han; Vellema, Piet
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
The aim of this study was to estimate the quantity of antibiotics and classes of antibiotics used in the small ruminant industry in the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012. Twelve large veterinary practices, located throughout the Netherlands were selected for this study. All small ruminant farms associated with these practices that had complete records on the quantity of antibiotics prescribed were included. The veterinary practices provided data on all antibiotics prescribed, and the estimated animal used daily dose of antibiotics per year (AUDD/Y) was calculated for each farm. The median AUDD/Y in small ruminant farms was zero in both years (mean 0.60 in 2011, and 0.62 in 2012). The largest quantity of antibiotic use was observed in the professional goat industry (herds of ≥32 goats) with a median AUDD/Y of 1.22 in 2011 and 0.73 in 2012. In the professional sheep industry (flocks of ≥32 sheep), the median AUDD/Y was 0 in 2011 and 0.10 in 2012. In the small scale industry (flocks or herds of <32 sheep or goats), the median AUDD/Y never exceeded 0. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics in the small scale industry and professional sheep farms belonged to the penicillin class. In professional goat farms, antibiotics of the aminoglycoside class were most frequently prescribed. This study provides the first assessment on the quantity of antibiotic use in the small ruminant industry. Given a comparable attitude towards antibiotic use...

Highly Sensitive Detection of Small Ruminant Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy within Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Mixes by Serial Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification

Gough, Kevin C.; Bishop, Keith; Maddison, Ben C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
It is assumed that sheep and goats consumed the same bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat and bone meal that was fed to cattle and precipitated the BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom that peaked more than 20 years ago. Despite intensive surveillance for cases of BSE within the small ruminant populations of the United Kingdom and European Union, no instances of BSE have been detected in sheep, and in only two instances has BSE been discovered in goats. If BSE is present within the small ruminant populations, it may be at subclinical levels, may manifest as scrapie, or may be masked by coinfection with scrapie. To determine whether BSE is potentially circulating at low levels within the European small ruminant populations, highly sensitive assays that can specifically detect BSE, even within the presence of scrapie prion protein, are required. Here, we present a novel assay based on the specific amplification of BSE PrPSc using the serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification assay (sPMCA), which specifically amplified small amounts of ovine and caprine BSE agent which had been mixed into a range of scrapie-positive brain homogenates. We detected the BSE prion protein within a large excess of classical, atypical...

The Prevalence of Parasitic Infestation of Small Ruminant Farms in Perak, Malaysia

Zainalabidin, Fazly Ann; Raimy, Nurulaini; Yaacob, Muhamad Hazmi; Musbah, Adnan; Bathmanaban, Premalaatha; Ismail, Erwanas Asmar; Mamat, Zaini Che; Zahari, Zawida; Ismail, Mohd Iswadi; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani
Fonte: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia Publicador: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Helminthiasis due to strongyles such as Haemonchus contortus, coccidiosis caused by Eimeria sp. and blood parasite diseases such as theileriosis by Theileria sp. have been reported to cause severe morbidity and mortality annually in small ruminants in Malaysia. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of helminthiasis, coccidiosis and theileriosis and to determine the packed cell volume (PCV) value of small ruminants in Perak, Malaysia. Blood and faecal samples were obtained from a total of 175 animals from 7 small ruminant farms in Kampar, Larut Matang and Selama, Kuala Kangsar and Manjung districts in Perak; the samples were examined for parasitic infestations from April to July 2011. The results of this study show that H. contortus was found in 152 (86.86%) animals, Eimeria sp. was found in 162 (92.57%) animals and the blood protozoa Theileria sp. was found in 25 (14.30%) animals. The PCV values of all of these animals were recorded between 7% and 44%. A total of 42 (24%) animals were anaemic, with a PCV of less than 21%. Continuous monitoring of small ruminant farms will provide important information for assisting farmers with managing the spread of parasitic infections and maintaining the productivity of animals.

Small-Ruminant Lentivirus Enhances PrPSc Accumulation in Cultured Sheep Microglial Cells ▿

Stanton, James B.; Knowles, Donald P.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M.; Mathison, Bruce A.; Baszler, Timothy V.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Sheep scrapie is the prototypical transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease), which has a fundamental pathogenesis involving conversion of normal cellular prion protein (PrPC [C superscript stands for cellular]) to disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc [Sc superscript stands for sheep scrapie]). Sheep microglial cell cultures, derived from a prnp 136VV/171QQ near-term fetal brain, were developed to study sheep scrapie in the natural host and to investigate potential cofactors in the prion conversion process. Two culture systems, a primary cell culture and a cell line transformed with the large T antigen of simian virus 40, were developed, and both were identified as microglial in origin as indicated by expression of several microglial phenotype markers. Following exposure to PrPSc, sheep microglial cells demonstrated relatively low levels (transformed cell line) to high levels (primary cell line) of PrPSc accumulation over time. The accumulated PrPSc demonstrated protease resistance, an inferred beta-sheet conformation (as determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), specific inhibition by anti-PrP antibodies, and was transmissible in a dose-dependent manner. Primary microglia coinfected with a small-ruminant lentivirus (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-Cork strain) and PrPSc demonstrated an approximately twofold increase in PrPSc accumulation compared to that of primary microglia infected with PrPSc alone. The results demonstrate the in vitro utility of PrPSc-permissive sheep microglial cells in investigating the biology of natural prion diseases and show that small-ruminant lentiviruses enhance prion conversion in cultured sheep microglia.