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Gestão sustentável de recursos e reservas para mineração a pequena escala.; Sustainable management of resources and reserves in small-scale mining.

Seccatore, Jacopo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Um dos maiores desafios para a mineração no Novo Milênio é a integração da Pequena Mineração no sistema ativo e sustentável de exploração dos recursos minerais. A Pequena Mineração (PM) é uma atividade de mineração definida por baixas despesas e receitas de capital e baixa produtividade. A Mineração Artesanal (MA) é apenas um subconjunto de PM, caracterizada pela mecanização rudimentar, recuperação ineficiente, condições operacionais inseguras e exploração do trabalho. Essa tese pretende demonstrar as seguintes questões de pesquisa: 1) A PM pode ser sustentável? 2) Se sim, como pode ser avaliada? 3) Como a PM sustentável pode ser conseguida na prática? Ao longo da tese é mostrado como a PM pode ser sustentável só saindo da dimensão artesanal. Tal processo depende da sua própria capacidade para operar de forma eficiente. Quando a eficiência operacional é alcançada, a sustentabilidade vem como consequência. Através da eficiência operacional, uma operação de SSM sai da condição artesanal, torna-se sustentável e a sustentabilidade dos meios de subsistência e ambiente circundante é estritamente consequente. Esta tese aborda a questão da PM, de forma quantitativa e não qualitativa. Indicadores básicos são individualizados especificamente para medir as características peculiares de minas artesanais...

Gender Dimensions of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining : A Rapid Assessment Toolkit

Eftimie, Adriana; Heller, Katherine; Strongman, John; Hinton, Jennifer; Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala; Mutemeri, Nellie
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is a global reality. It represents a longstanding and important livelihood for more than 100 million men and women around the world. In some places, communities have practiced it for generations; in other places, the prospect of new mineral finds draws large numbers of people suddenly to mining areas. Whether newly begun or long established, ASM has the potential to help men and women out of poverty when conducted in an informed and responsible way. In different communities, different techniques are used, and men and women share different divisions of labor, risks, and opportunities. ASM assessments, and the recommendations for action arising from these, are critical to the objectives of every ASM stakeholder, whether the large-scale mining (LSM) company seeking to improve the outcomes of its corporate social responsibility programs, a government agency or nongovernmental organization (NGO) seeking to fulfill its policy mandate, a microfinance organization promoting small and medium enterprise development in mining areas...

Assessment of the Environmental Regulatory Framework of the Mining Sector

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
In Nigeria, up to now mining activities have systematically escaped environmental control. In 1989, the Government of Nigeria issue the document "national policy on the environment", which was revised in 1999 in response to the advances in knowledge and the need of integrating development issues concerning all sectors of the economy. The new environmental policy goals followed the sustained development principles of conserving and using natural resources for the benefit of present and future generations, and ensure an adequate environmental quality for good health and well being of the population. Recognizing the sectoral potential to cause serious environmental degradation, strategies regarding the implementation of policy directives in mining development included mandatory preventive environmental impact assessment (EIA), minimization of environmental damages and risks, prescription of regulation and standards specific for mining wastes, and promotion of legal small-scale mining activities. None of them has yet been fully put into practice. Although the EIA decree has been in force since 1992...

The Afghanistan Mining Sector as a Driver of Sustainable Growth : Benefits and Opportunities for Large-Scale Mining

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.36%
This study attempts to quantify the benefits that could be obtained for the country of Afghanistan from the developments of the Aynak copper and Hajigak iron ore deposits and to discuss policies and programs-based on the experience of other countries-that will tend to maximize the benefits from these and other mines. In this study, the potential economic benefits to Afghanistan of its mining sector will be analyzed, focusing on the Aynak copper and Hajigak iron ore deposits. After an overview of the Afghan mineral industry and global trends in mining, a quantitative analysis will be made of the economic contribution of the development of these deposits and related infrastructure for income and employment in Afghanistan. Various scenarios will be presented as well as sensitivity analysis of key parameters. The analysis will focus on income, fiscal revenues, employment, sidestream linkages (sourcing), and the multiplier effects of expenditure by both the government and consumers. In the Afghanistan context...

Mining Together : Large-Scale Mining Meets Artisanal Mining, A Guide for Action

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
The present guide mining together-when large-scale mining meets artisanal mining is an important step to better understanding the conflict dynamics and underlying issues between large-scale and small-scale mining. This guide for action not only points to some of the challenges that both parties need to deal with in order to build a more constructive relationship, but most importantly it sheds more light on some potential interventions for conflict prevention, management, and even transformation. This guide, then, represents a step in the right direction to start transforming the relationship between large-scale and artisanal miners through win-win solutions that emerge out of the genuine interaction and dialogue of all stakeholders involved: governments, companies, communities, miners and development organizations. Large-Scale Mining (LSM) companies increasingly come across Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) workers during their exploration or production activities in the developing world. The ASM-LSM relationship is often conflictual because both types of miners compete for the same resource or because they perceive each other as a threat. However the ASM-LSM relationship is now also undergoing a largely positive evolution in part thanks to new Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) commitments. This guide is the result of this collaboration and provides an informative overview of the growing experiences of the most typical ASM-LSM issues and guidance for appropriate interventions.

Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan : Mining as a Source of Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
This Note examines the potential of the mining sector to be a source of growth for the Afghanistan economy. In order to address this fundamental and strategic issue, this Note will ask and provide answers to three principal questions. First, what is the potential in Afghanistan for large and small scale minerals development? Second, given the potential, what are the constraints for development of the sector in terms of the enabling environment (policy, regulatory, taxation) for private investment, institutional capacities, infrastructure and other constraints? And, third, what would be a reasonable sector development scenario over the next five years and what could be the benefit streams (production value, taxes, jobs, value added, etc.) generated under such a scenario? It is intended that the Note serve as a baseline document to help the government reflect on sector policies and strategies and to provide a "roadmap" for development of the sector. The roadmap will help the government to know where it wishes t o go...

Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin : Mining

Hund, Kirsten; Megevand, Carole; Gomes, Edilene Pereira; Miranda, Marta; Reed, Erik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
This report aims at providing stakeholders with a good analysis of the potential impacts of mining development on the Congo Basin forests. It is one of a series of outputs prepared during a two-year exercise to analyze and better understand the deforestation dynamics in the Basin. It presents the main findings of an analysis of the mining potential in the Congo Basin as well as the global trends in demand of minerals tries to identify ways to reconcile mining development and preservation of the Congo Basin forests. It is based on an in depth analysis of the sector. The report is structured as follows: first chapter gives an overview of the mineral wealth in the Congo Basin; second chapter analyses the prospects for mining development in the Congo Basin; Third chapter assesses the potential impact of mining developments on forests; and the last chapter tries to identify ways to reconcile mining development and preservation of the Congo Basin forests.

Economic Contributions from Industrial Mining in Madagascar; Retombees economiques de lexploitation miniere industrielle a Madagascar : resume de recherche

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Mining, Oil, and Gas
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
The contribution of mining used to be seen essentially through taxes and royalties; it tends to be viewed now in a more integrated manner. This report, the result of a 2-year research project, attempts to improve that information and to structure the debate around the long term economic impact of industrial mining. The objectives of this research were to assess the fiscal and non-fiscal contribution of mining to Madagascar economy, and by so doing to reinforce the capacities of main stakeholders to prepare for the related challenges and opportunities. Its scope was deliberately focused on large-scale mining, excluding i) mining exploration; ii) artisanal and small-scale mining; and iii) quarrying. This explains why the reader may notice important differences between historical data and information published by EITI in Madagascar, which also includes petroleum exploration activities. The research focused on economic spillovers as a first step. Admittedly, additional research on the environmental and social impacts of industrial mining over time should complement this work to provide for a more complete picture of the contribution of the sector towards sustainable development.

Mining Industry as a Source of Economic Growth in Kyrgyzstan

Bogdetsky, Valentine; Ibraev, Karybek; Abdyrakhmanova, Jyldyz
Fonte: World Bank, Bishkek Publicador: World Bank, Bishkek
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
The study 'Mining as a source of economic growth in Kyrgyzstan' is developed by the project implementation unit of the World Bank for 'building capacity in governance and revenues streams management for mining and natural resources'. This study is aimed at defining a role for the mining industry in the country and evaluating its possible impacts on economic development in the future. Mineral resources development is an essential condition for successful economic development of Kyrgyz Republic. In fact, it is the only possible way to raise social welfare in remote high mountainous regions. At the present time, some recovery of investment activities in mining industry has been observed. However, the lack of long-term capital investments in mining and geological exploration projects is still acutely felt. International experts have noted more than once that in spite of the significant size of territory and good level of geological study, the minerals potential of the country remains underdeveloped. At present...

Republic of Congo : Mining Sector Review; Republique du Congo - Revue du secteur minier

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
The Republic of Congo covers an area of 342,000 square kilometers (km), of which forests occupy three-fifths, the rest being dominated by savannah. Oil has long been the principal resource of Congo. Since the first exploitations were launched in 1970, the oil sector has become the dominant economic activity and major source of income for the state. The growth rate in real terms was 8.8 percent in 2010, with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita reaching $4532. In 2010, GDP nearly reached two digit growths, driven up by a significant increase of oil production, by reinforcement of non-oil activities, in particular forest industry, construction and telecommunications. The Government made development of the mining sector a priority to diversify the economy. The present review of the mining sector, led by World Bank in partnership with the Ministry of Geology and Mining, aims to update and understand further these characterizations, to document the prospects and challenges of mining development and to prioritize actions that optimize the sector's contribution to economic diversification and sustainable development. This review of mining sector helped to characterize the issues of governance in following four areas: (1) promotion of geological heritage and mineral resources; (2) facilitating entry into production; (3) continuous improvement of the political...

Albania : Mining Sector Reform, Restructuring and Future Prospects; Reforma ne sektorin minerar ne shqiperi ristrukturimi dhe mundesite net e ardhmen

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
This report provides a concise overview of the current situation of the mining sector in Albania. It evaluates the major events that took place in the last two decades (especially regarding the privatization process), and examines its governance, overarching policies and its legal frameworks that have guided the sector development. Having identified the weaknesses and difficulties that the sector faces, the report then suggests an outline for a comprehensive reform program. The main findings in this regard are related to: improving sector governance; improving regulatory effectiveness; strengthening the technical capacities; addressing environmental and social legacy, and community benefit sharing issues; and sustaining sector growth through sector promotion. The report also summarizes an evaluation of the mineral legal and regulatory environment, in order to inform an overall reform strategy and to identify commodities and/or resource areas of particular interest going forward, 'low hanging fruit' that might offer new growth opportunities. The overall conclusion of the report is that sector reform should emphasize new Greenfield resource potential through generative exploration by smaller and medium-sized international 'junior' mining companies. New resource development will be undertaken within a strengthened governance framework reinforced by a competitive...

The World Bank's Evolutionary Approach to Mining Sector Reform

McMahon, Gary
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
In this report, in addition to aggregate results, six brief case studies are used to highlight the impact of Bank supported mining sector reform on various indicators at different links of the value chain. These include: the impacts on investment; production and employment in Argentina; institutional capacity building in Papua New Guinea; production and fiscal revenues in Tanzania; community and regional development in Madagascar; mining sector reform and sustainable development in Mongolia; and mining and resource corridors in Liberia. The reforms of the 1990s and early 2000s, which focused on increasing investment and building regulatory capacity, have often had spectacular results with respect to investment and good results with respect to institution building. The work on increasing the efficiency and transparency of fiscal regimes has also achieved significant success, although it is still too early to make a final assessment. While the mining sector-specific aspects of the management and allocation of fiscal revenues are still in early days...

Nigeria - An Economic Analysis of Natural Resources Sustainability for the Mining Sector Component

Eyre, J. M.; Agba, A. V.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Environmental Analysis (CEA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
This report firstly presents an analysis of the Nigerian economy as the environment within which the solid minerals sector is situated. It discusses the economy in terms of its distinguishing characteristics, structure and related issues, such that the place of the sold minerals sector can be appreciated. An examination of policy issues and economic reforms to aid the development process is also presented. This study, carried out between February and April 2007, specifically addresses the prospects of developing an industrial mining sector in Nigeria. The current mining sector is dominated by small-scale operations, working below their full potential and literally scratching the surface. Preliminary investigations indicated a lack of up to date information on deposits and lack of microeconomic information on the feasibility of extraction. The study is considered to be important from two different perspectives. First, solid mineral resources are economically, socially and environmentally crucial for Nigeria. There are key knowledge gaps in the sector. In addition the utilization of solid mineral resources is well aligned with the Bank's country partnership strategy...

Environmental management in small mining enterprises: comparative analysis of three Brazilian cases through the lenses of ISO 14001

Baumbach,Miriam de Oliveira; Prado Filho,José Francisco do; Fonseca,Alberto
Fonte: Escola de Minas Publicador: Escola de Minas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
ISO 14001 is the world's most successful environmental management system (EMS) standard. More than two hundred thousand organizations, mostly large corporations located in industrialized countries, have become ISO14001-certified, hoping to improve their environmental, operational and reputational aspects. Nonetheless, the adoption of ISO 14001 by small organizations is still uncommon. Accordingly, there has been a call for research on the particularities of small enterprises and their environmental management approaches. This article responds to this call, while analyzing the environmental challenges and EMSs of three small mining enterprises located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data was collected through the application of a questionnaire and an ISO14001-based checklist. The analysis revealed low levels of ISO 14001 implementation across the sample. The three companies met 8%, 46% and 56% of the checklist items. Findings from the questionnaire suggest that two companies adopt a predominantly reactive approach to dealing with environmental challenges. The other company seems more aligned with a pro-active strategy. All three companies are not sufficiently aware of their impacts on the environment: a fact that helps to explain the simplistic EMSs they currently have. The article concludes by highlighting the value of pursuing more sophisticated EMS for small mining companies.

Comparison between artisanal and small-scale mining in Ghana and South Africa: lessons learnt and ways forward

Debrah,A.A.; Watson,I.; Quansah,D.P.O.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) plays a fundamental role in the national and local economies of resource-rich countries in Africa. As such, more effort must be geared towards fostering this type of economic activity to sustain livelihoods in rural communities. Across Africa, efforts to operationalize ASM based on a sustainable development framework have been quite tedious and often ineffective. This is because most of these frameworks lacked context and an understanding of the continuum from the artisanal through small-scale and up to the junior miner, grouped under the general term 'ASM'. Driven by the need to contextualize some of the definitional issues in this niche sector, and gain a clearer understanding of their peculiar challenges, this paper aims to contribute to the debate on ASM by considering two of Africa's resource-rich countries - Ghana and South Africa. Since South Africa has made greater inroads in protecting the interests of small-scale miners, we thus draw comparisons from both countries' approach to ASM, outline the lessons learnt, and provide recommendations regarding the ways forward.

An expert system for hydraulic excavator and truck selection in surface mining

Kirmanli,C.; Ercelebi,S.G.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
The purpose of this paper is to develop an expert system for hydraulic excavator and truck selection in surface mining. Hydraulic excavators and trucks are finding increasing applications in mining operations. Hydraulic excavators are extensively used especially when bringing electricity to rural areas is difficult and for small-scale mining. This paper describes an expert system, which selects the optimum hydraulic excavator truck configuration such that unit production cost is minimized and technical constraints such as geological, geotechnical and mining constraints are satisfied. The system has four modules: user interface, rules and an methods, databases and output module. The expert system in this study is developed within KappaPC shell. It supports object-orientated technology for the MS Windows environment. The software provides a very useful tool to practitioners, saving time and cost. Equipment selection is a recurring and expensive problem of mine planning and often involves interdisciplinary experts from different fields. It is very difficult and expensive to bring together all these experts. The capabilities of the expert system developed are illustrated in the paper. The software overcomes the difficulties of selecting the proper equipment for surface mining operations...

Meeting the milestones: Are South African small- to medium-scale mines up to the task?

Dekker,J.J.; Edwards,A.L.; Franz,R.M.; van Dyk,T.; Banyini,A.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Controlling noise has proven difficult in mining, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains common. In 2008, a South African Mine Health and Safety Council study focused on small- to mediumsized mines in relation to the milestones set by the industry to prevent NIHL. An evaluation of the compliance of ten diamond, sand, aggregate and Readymix concrete mines and production sites with standards, legislation and best practice guidelines relating to NIHL prevention was conducted, using a noise compliance audit tool. The findings indicated that all mines surveyed had poor compliance with the international standards, compliance with International Standards Organization standards being the poorest. There was a clear distinction between the small and the mediumsized mines in their compliance with local standards and legislation (ranging from 14 per cent to 66 per cent). The areas of best compliance were audiology and medical examinations. The lower-than-expected compliance was largely attributable to shortcomings in hearing conservation programmes for occupational noise. Initiation of remedial practices in the small- to medium-scale mining sector to facilitate improvements in NIHL prevention and compliance with standards and legislation is recommended.

Profiles of noise exposure levels in South African Mining

Edwards,A.L.; Dekker,J.J.; Franz,R.M.; van Dyk,T.; Banyini,A.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
OBJECTIVES: A two-year study focused on current noise exposure levels in the South African mining industry, aimed at helping the Mine Health and Safety Council of South Africa meet its milestones for eliminating noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). METHODS: A multi-task methodology was adapted from international baseline studies to determine the exposure to noise in both large-scale and small- to medium-scale mines. RESULTS: On average, 66.7 per cent of the employees sampled in year 1 and 78.4 per cent in year 2 were exposed to noise levels of above the 85 dBA legislated occupational exposure level. CONCLUSIONS: Information obtained through the study could be developed into a national personal noise exposure database, including audiometric results, equipment noise emission levels and initiatives for noise engineering control by mines and equipment manufacturers to facilitate targets of eliminating NIHL.

Application of systemic flow-based principles in mining

Claassen,J.O.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Mining value chains are dynamic systems and should be managed according to systemic flow-based principles. This includes a detailed focus on the impact of variable geological conditions on material flow, product quality, and production cost, visibility of the total mining system to operators and managers, as well as the synchronization of resources and activities in downstream processes. Thirty mining operations across the African continent were studied to establish to what extent systemic flow-based principles are applied in day-to-day operations. The study indicated that although most mining operations have identified the relevant geo-processing variables, only a small number apply this information in a flow-based management approach. Most mining operators do not focus on developing a clear flow view of the mining value chain and on making it visible to operators and managers to enable them to optimally set and reset operations. Daily synchronization of geoprocessing variables is limited to a small number of variables, e.g. synchronizing ore hardness with drilling or milling requirements, in less than 30% of the operations evaluated. Operations where these principles have been adopted reported a noteworthy improvement in performance. The study indicates that notable potential exists in most of the operations evaluated to implement flow-based management principles...

Managing the geotechnical and mining issues surrounding the extraction of small pillars at shallow depths at Xstrata Coal South Africa

Pethö,S.Z.; Selai,C.; Mashiyi,D.; van der Merwe,J.N.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Pillar extraction at shallow depths with small pillars that were not originally intended for secondary extraction can provide a huge benefit to the coal mining industry in those areas where a significant percentage of the remaining coal reserves are locked up in small pillars at shallow depths and where opencast mining methods are simply not as cost-effective and practical to implement. A system considering all of the pertinent geotechnical and mining aspects for the safe and efficient pillar extraction of small pillars at shallow depths at Xstrata Coal South Africa (XCSA) has been further developed and implemented as part of an ongoing improvement process addressing all of the relevant legal and associated risk aspects. This work follows on from the previous pillar extraction work carried out at the ATC, Boschmans, and Spitzkop Collieries. The process involved a number of in-house workshops and sessions arranged with all key personnel from Tavistock Colliery, and also included Professor Nielen van der Merwe of the University of the Witwatersrand, a world renowned authority on pillar extraction, towards reviewing and developing the Modified NEVID pillar extraction system employed previously at Boschmans Colliery. The system is currently being employed at Tavistock Colliery with success and no major accidents...