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Employer Voices, Employer Demands, and Implications for Public Skills Development Policy

Cunningham, Wendy; Villasenor, Paula
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Educators believe that they are adequately preparing youth for the labor market while employers lament the lack of skills. A possible source of the mismatch in perceptions is that employers and educators have different understandings of the types of skills valued in the labor market. This paper uses economics and psychology literature to define four skills sets: socio-emotional, higher-order cognitive, basic cognitive, and technical skills. The paper reviews the literature that quantitatively measures employer skill demand, as reported in preference surveys. A sample of 28 studies reveals remarkable consistency across the world in the skills demanded by employers. Although employers value all skill sets, there is a greater demand for socio-emotional and higher-order cognitive skills than for basic cognitive or technical skills. These results are robust across economy size and level of development, sector, export-orientation, and occupations. Employers perceive that the greatest skills gaps are in socio-emotional and technical skills. These findings suggest the need to re-conceptualize education and training systems. Taking into consideration the developmental process to acquire the skills identified by employers...

Demand and Supply of Skills in Ghana : How Can Training Programs Improve Employment?

Darvas, Peter; Palmer, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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Ghana has a youthful population of 24 million and has shown impressive gains in economic growth and in poverty reduction over the last two decades. The necessary sustained growth requires three critical steps: (1) increase productivity in the strategic economic sectors, (2) diversify the economy, and (3) expand employment. Raising the level and range of skills in the country provides a key contribution to these core drivers of sustained growth. Skills development in Ghana encompasses foundational skills (literacy, numeracy), transferable and soft skills, and technical and vocational skills. These skills are acquired throughout life through formal education, training, and higher education; on the job through work experience and professional training; through family and community; and via the media. This report focuses on one segment of Ghana s skills development system: formal and informal technical and vocational education and training (TVET) at the pre-tertiary level. Although TVET alone does not guarantee productivity gains or job creation...

Tanzania Skills for Competitiveness in the Small and Medium Enterprise Sector

Sabarwal, Shwetlena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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We examine the question of workforce skills for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Tanzania and find a mixed picture full of potential. On the one hand, education access has expanded at all levels and a more educated cohort is now entering the labor market - signaling the availability of a more skilled workforce for SMEs. On the other hand, acute shortages of secondary and postsecondary graduates persist. Disturbingly, the quality and relevance of primary education has come into question. It is unclear whether increased access to primary education is actually translating into acquisition of crucial basic skills in the country. In light of this, it is unsurprising that education attainment no longer appears to be a reliable proxy for relevant skills, as perceived by employers. Further, SMEs seem to have very little meaningful connection with education institutions for recruitment of workers. A related but equally concerning problem relates to the culture of recruitment among SMEs in Tanzania. It is one of passive hiring...

STEP Skills Measurement Surveys : Innovative Tools for Assessing Skills

Pierre, Gaelle; Sanchez Puerta, Maria Laura; Valerio, Alexandria; Rajadel, Tania
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The Skills Towards Employability and Productivity (STEP) program was designed to better understand the interplay between skills on the one hand and employability and productivity on the other. The STEP program developed survey instruments tailored to collect data on skills in low- and middle-income country contexts. The present note is a reference document for readers seeking background information on the STEP surveys and for users of the data, which is publicly available through the World Bank s Microdata Catalog. The note describes the design of the survey instruments and the constructs measured as well as the technical standards and implementation protocols adopted to ensure data quality and comparability across countries. It also provides guidance to users for the construction of aggregated skills indicators and for the use of the reading literacy assessment data.

The Skills Road : Skills for Employability in Uzbekistan

Ajwad, Mohamed Ihsan; Abdulloev, Ilhom; Audy, Robin; Hut, Stefan; de Laat, Joost; Kheyfets, Igor; Larrison, Jennica; Nikoloski, Zlatko; Torracchi, Federico
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report addresses a fundamental question facing policymakers in Uzbekistan: are worker skills hindering employment outcomes? The main finding of the report is that, indeed, worker skills gaps are hindering employment outcomes in Uzbekistan. In fact, employers—particularly formal sector employers—seek workers who possess both cognitive and non-cognitive skills. The higher employability and higher wage rates among higher skilled workers is mostly explained by the use of those skills in workplaces. But, skills gaps persist, leading a large share of employers to report shortages of high-skilled workers. These shortages are resulting in high wage premiums—tertiary graduates earn on average 55 percent more than similar workers with a general secondary education. However, large variations in observed skills among adults with the same level of educational attainment indicate that formal education is failing too many people. The report outlines weaknesses in the way skills are formed in Uzbekistan. While skills are developed during different stages in the life cycle and a host of actors are involved—families, for example, play a central role—the education and training system has a mixed record in skill formation. The report argues that the government could do more to align the skills imparted through the education and training system with the needs of employers. The government can also do more to get children off to the right start by investing in early childhood development...

The Skills Road : Skills for Employability in Tajikistan

Ajwad, Mohamed Ihsan; Hut, Stefan; Abdulloev, Ilhom; Audy, Robin; de Laat, Joost; Kataoka, Sachiko; Larrison, Jennica; Nikoloski, Zlatko; Torracchi, Federico
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.72%
This report addresses a fundamental question facing policy makers in Tajikistan: is the current level of worker skills hindering employment outcomes? Using a unique household survey, the study finds that skills are valued in Tajikistan’s labor market, yet skills gaps persist. Jobs have been created in more knowledge-intensive occupations and in the service sector as opposed to the more traditional manual jobs, and employment outcomes are stronger for workers with better skills. Analysis of worker skills shows that workers with better cognitive and non-cognitive skills are typically more likely to have the highly sought-after formal sector jobs; and in fact make more frequent and intense use of mathematics and reading skills on the job. Furthermore, workers with better non-cognitive skills tend to become supervisors. The study finds that there are large variations in observed skills among those with the same level of educational attainment, indicating that formal education is failing too many people even though skills are developed during different stages in the life cycle and a host of actors are involved—families, for example, play a central role. The report’s conclusion is that the government could shift the focus from providing access to educational institutions and instead focus on providing the skills (cognitive...

The Skills Road : Skills for Employability in the Kyrgyz Republic

Ajwad, Mohamed Ihsan; de Laat, Joost; Hut, Stefan; Larrison, Jennica; Abdulloev, Ilhom; Audy, Robin; Nikoloski, Zlatko; Torracchi, Federico
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.71%
This report is about education, skills, and labor market outcomes in the Kyrgyz Republic. The report shows that skills are valued in the Kyrgyz Republic labor market, yet skills gaps persist. Three findings are particularly noteworthy. First, higher skilled youth have better employment outcomes, meaning that youth with more cognitive and non-cognitive skills are more likely to be employed than inactive or discouraged youth. Second, workers with higher cognitive and non-cognitive skills are more likely to use those skills in their daily work. Third, workers with higher skills—cognitive skills especially—tend to have higher quality (formal sector, less repetitive tasks, less physical work) jobs. However, large variations in observed skills among those with the same level of educational attainment indicate that formal education is failing too many people, even though skill development occurs at different stages in the life cycle and a host of actors are involved—families, for example, play a central role. The report argues that the government could shift some of its focus from providing access to educational institutions and instead focus on providing the skills (cognitive, non-cognitive, and technical) students need to succeed as adults. The government can also do more to get children off to the right start by investing in early childhood development programs...

Developing Social-Emotional Skills for the Labor Market : The PRACTICE Model

Guerra, Nancy; Modecki, Kathryn; Cunningham, Wendy
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Although there is a general agreement in the literature of the importance of social-emotional skills for labor market success, there is little consensus on the specific skills that should be acquired or how and when to teach them. The psychology, economics, policy research, and program implementation literatures all touch on these issues, but they are not sufficiently integrated to provide policy direction. The objective of this paper is to provide a coherent framework and related policies and programs that bridge the psychology, economics, and education literature, specifically that related to skills employers value, non-cognitive skills that predict positive labor market outcomes, and skills targeted by psycho-educational prevention and intervention programs. The paper uses as its base a list of social-emotional skills that employers value, classifies these into eight subgroups (summarized by PRACTICE), then uses the psychology literature -- drawing from the concepts of psycho-social and neuro-biological readiness and age-appropriate contexts -- to map the age and context in which each skill subset is developed. The paper uses examples of successful interventions to illustrate the pedagogical process. The paper concludes that the social-emotional skills employers value can be effectively taught when aligned with the optimal stage for each skill development...

Botswana Labor Market Signals on Demand for Skills

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Botswana has an official unemployment rate of 17.8 percent. The low labor-intensity of growth is a potential explaining factor for this high level of unemployment. It is thus essential to analyze the role of education and training in the access to employment. This note finds that the role of education has changed under the effect of schooling expansion and persistent unemployment. Labor market institutions appear to have a limited impact on employment and wage levels, while the importance of active labor market programs is growing. This note aims to identify labor market signals that point to demand for specific current and future skills. The note seeks to answer the following questions: does the labor market place a higher premium on workers literacy and numeracy skills, technical skills, or behavioral skills?; is the labor market more in need of secondary or tertiary education graduates?; and will growing economic sectors (for example, tourism) benefit more by increasing the supply of sector-specific skills (for example...

Skills Gaps and the Path to Successful Skills Development

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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Relevant skills for the job market—the ability to do well a job that is also in demand—are becoming an important bottleneck to private sector growth in many countries in the former Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. Economic reforms together with structural and technological change are bringing about new business opportunities and with them demand for new skills. A new take on skills development is needed to help increase productivity, job creation, and wages. The different stakeholders—policy makers that coordinate the strategy around skills and education, workers, the jobless, students and their families who make decisions to invest in training, and firms—need to coordinate around the skills agenda.

Skills Employers Seek

Rutkowski, Jan J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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The note presents the results of the STEP employer skills survey. The survey was implemented in early 2013 using a stratified sample of 354 firms. The firms were stratified by activity and firm size, with a booster sample of large firms. Post-stratification weights were used to make the results representative of firm size. The structure of the sample by activity, size and some other characteristics is presented in annex one. The small sample size implies that the estimates are subject to a wide margin of error. This problem is mitigated by the fact it is qualitative rather than quantitative results that are of primary interest. One should bear in mind that the survey’s results represent subjective perceptions, and as such should be taken with a grain of salt (for example, the employers may express exaggerated views). There are some additional limitations resulting from the survey’s design. It uses a pre-determined list of skills, which may or may not correspond with the skills that employers themselves are concerned about. Moreover...

Workforce Skills in the Eyes of the Employers

Rutkowski, Jan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The objective of this note is to present the results of the recently completed employer skills survey, and to discuss their policy implications. The analysis finds that there is a skills shortage in Georgia despite high unemployment. It is difficult for employers, especially in the modern sector, to find workers with the required skills. Employers demand not only ‘hard’ technical skills, but also ‘soft’ social and behavioural skills (such as openness to experience) as well as higher-order cognitive skills (such as problem solving and creative thinking). And these are the skills that young Georgians often lack. Box one summarizes the main results of the analysis and shows the core employability skills that young workers lack most often. The note is organized as follows. Section one looks at the supply of and demand for skills, and shows that, despite high unemployment, there is a skills shortage. Section two examines the demand for skills more closely. It identifies skills that determine the employers hiring decisions...

Demand for Skills

Rutkowski, Jan J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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36.71%
This note summarizes the main findings of the STEP Employer Skills Survey carried out in Azerbaijan in 2013. The note argues that there is a skills shortage in Azerbaijan. Azeri employers claim that it is difficult to find workers with required skills. The shortage is particularly pronounced in the case of modern, innovative firms, which tend to required more advanced skills. The education system does not meet the needs of the majority of employers. In particular, it does not equip young workers with the practical skills that are required in the workplace, and with knowledge that is up-to-date. The note finds that employers seek not only technical, job-specific skills but also cognitive skills (such as literacy, numeracy and problem solving) and adequate socio-behavioural skills (such as communication, teamwork, leadership and ability to work independently). Conscientiousness stands out as a personality trait that is critical for employability. Unfortunately, many young job applicants lack the skills demanded by employers. The key employability skills that young workers are most frequently lacking include job-specific technical skills...

Skills for the Labor Market in the Philippines

di Gropello, Emanuela; Tan, Hong; Tandon, Prateek
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This book investigates trends in skills demand and supply over the past two decades for insights into ways to build (and use) the critical skills needed to sustain competitiveness of the Philippine economy. Part one of the book investigates trends in demand for skills in the country overall and by sectors, explores its possible determinants, and attempts to identify emerging skills gaps. Part two turns to the analysis of the supply of skills in the country with a focus on the ability of education and training to provide highly skilled labor, keeping workers' skills updated, and providing skills development opportunities for the unskilled. It explores employers' perceptions on the quality of institutions and provides detailed analysis of the main characteristics, outcomes, and challenges in four key (or growing) subsectors of the provision of skills in the country: higher education, postsecondary technical-vocational education, non-formal secondary education, and postemployment training. It concludes with a summary of policy recommendations.

Developing Skills for Innovative Growth in the Russian Federation

World Bank; National Research University – Higher School of Economics
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
EN_US
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Over the past decade Russia has experienced stable economic growth with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growing by 7 percent per year from 1998 to 2007. While the nation still enjoys a relatively healthy growth rate, analysis shows that the sources for the future growth are limited and to boost growth Russia should rely on increasing labor productivity. Improving productivity will impose new demands on Russia's workforce requiring better skills to satisfy the needs of economy growth. The international business environment survey reports that Russia's private sector considers the lack of skills and education of workers to be the most severe constraint on its expansion and growth. Despite the very high level of formal education attained by Russian workers the problem behind this may be explained by the current quality and content of education, which does not develop the necessary skills and competences demanded by the labor market. This report examines the reasons and the consequences of this skills deficit, which constrain productivity and limits innovation ultimately stifling accelerated economic growth in Russia. The objectives of the report are: 1) to deepen the understanding of the structure and composition of this skills deficit by analyzing in detail the demand for and supply of particular cognitive and non-cognitive skills; 2) to review the capacity and problems of the current systems for skills provision in Russia both through the public and private provision thereby identifying some of the underlying reasons for this skills gap; and 3) to support the development of evidence-based policy making in professional education and training...

The Right Skills for the Job? Rethinking Training Policies for Workers

Almeida, Rita; Behrman, Jere; Robalino, David
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This book addresses the question of how to build and upgrade job relevant skills. Specifically, the authors focus on three types of training programs relevant for individuals who are leaving formal general schooling or are already in the labor market: pre-employment technical and vocational education and training (TVET); on-the-job training (OJT); and training-related active labor market programs (ALMPs). ALMPs are usually of shorter duration and target individuals who are seeking a second chance and who do not have access to TVET or OJT; these are often low-skilled unemployed or informal workers. Contrary to training-related ALMPs, pre-employment TVET is usually offered within the formal schooling track and tends to be administered by the ministries of education. The book discusses the main justifications for these programs and how they relate to market failures that can lead to underinvestment in training and misalignment between supply and demand for skills. Unfortunately, governments are also prone to failure and many of the programs that countries have adopted today are part of the problem and not the solution. This book proposes options to improve the design and implementation of current skills development systems. Clearly, the authors cannot cover all issues in detail. Training methods among TVET...

Skills for Quality Jobs and Development in Lao PDR : A Technical Assessment of the Current Context

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Lao has embarked on an ambitious plan to transform its economy, reduce poverty, and graduate from least developed country status by 2020. The objectives of this report are 1) to provide critical information to the Government of Lao PDR (GoL) about existing skills gaps in Lao; 2) to provide the GoL and the steering committee that will revise the Human Resource Development Strategy 2000-2020 (and link it to the 8th NSEDP) with evidence of the current skills situation in the country, to better inform decisions and human resource planning for the future; and 3) to provide the GoL, the World Bank, and other development partners a baseline of skills indicators against which to measure progress going forward. Lao's economic growth has led to increased demand for workers at all skill levels, but employers have a difficult time finding workers to meet that demand. The lack of skills among the workforce is the most commonly cited constraint. The first priority will be to increase the limited flow of students progressing to higher education levels...

An Assessment of Skills in the Formal Sector Labor Market in Bangladesh : A Technical Report on the Enterprise-Based Skills Survey 2012

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Education and skill development have played a crucial role in economic growth, poverty reduction and social transformation in Bangladesh, particularly the inclusion of women in the labor force in the last decade. Bangladesh has made impressive gains in improving access to education, reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of gender parity at the primary and secondary levels. Increased access to secondary education among girls over the past twenty years appears to have produced a powerful agent of social mobility as it is likely that many of the young girls who benefitted from the female stipends in the early 90s have now entered the labor market and may be enjoying higher earnings than older female cohorts. The widespread entry of women into the labor market has been a leading factor in the rapid expansion of the garment industry. With around USD 15 billion in export value in 2010, the readymade garment industry is currently Bangladesh's most important industry sector (McKinsey and Company 2011). In this context...

Approaches to skills mismatch in the labour market : a literature review

Sala, Guillem
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 ENG
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Skills mismatch in the labour market describes the fact that levels or types of skills of individuals are inadequate in view of particular job requirements. There exists no accepted unified theory of skills mismatch. The overeducation literature, inspired by several classical theoretical frameworks (human capital theory, job competition, and assignment models), attempts to define and measure the incidence of the phenomenon, but often understates the heterogeneity of both jobs and manpower. Some authors have tried to make up for this deficit by focusing on specific groups or individual abilities. By contrast, a competence approach places the observed no-causality relationship between training and occupation at the centre of its analysis, rather than considering it as a market imperfection. By doing so, it provides an alternative way of conceptualising skills mismatch, and promisingly challenges the normative assumptions and current applications of the classical frameworks.; El desajuste de competencias en el mercado de trabajo describe el hecho de que el nivel y/o el tipo de formación de los individuos no se adecuan a aquellos que requieren sus puestos de trabajo. A pesar de que la literatura de la sobreeducación, inspirada en los marcos teóricos clásicos (básicamente la teoría del capital humano)...

Revitalization of clinical skills training at the University of the Western Cape

Jeggels,JD; Traut,A; Kwast,M
Fonte: Curationis Publicador: Curationis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
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Most educational institutions that offer health related qualifications make use of clinical skills laboratories. These spaces are generally used for the demonstration and assessment of clinical skills. The purpose of this paper is to share our experiences related to the revitalization of skills training by introducing the skills lab method at the School of Nursing (SoN), University of the Western Cape (UWC). To accommodate the contextual changes as a result of the restructuring of the higher education landscape in 2003, the clinical skills training programme at UWC had to be reviewed. With a dramatic increase in the student numbers and a reduction in hospital beds, the skills lab method provided students with an opportunity to develop clinical skills prior to their placement in real service settings. The design phase centred on adopting a skills training methodology that articulates with the case-based approach used by the SoN. Kolb's, experiential learning cycle provided the theoretical underpinning for the methodology. The planning phase was spent on the development of resources. Eight staff members were trained by our international higher education collaborators who also facilitated the training of clinical supervisors and simulated patients. The physical space had to be redesigned to accommodate audio visual and information technology to support the phases of the skills lab method. The implementation of the skills lab method was phased in from the first-year level. An interactive seminar held after the first year of implementation provided feedback from all the role players and was mostly positive. The results of introducing the skills lab method include: a move by students towards self-directed clinical skills development...