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Sheep housing in Trás-os-Montes. Contribution to design buildings and equipment appropriate for local sheep farms

Barbosa, José Carlos
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Sheep farming has a great importance in the region of Trás-os-Montes, one of the most depopulated and least favoured Portuguese areas. We have studied the buildings for sheep housing, in this region, aiming to identify the aspects that may be considered as constraints or problems that can hinder the development of sheep farming in the region. Thus, we selected several villages where we have interviewed sheep raisers, aiming to get to know the sheep farming system and the sheep housing or facilities utilisation; and where we have collected data concerning the buildings for sheep housing. The main problems and deficiencies about the buildings for sheep housing we have found are related to aged and old-fashioned buildings; small dimensions; deficient indoor accessibility, which make some mechanization tasks difficult; deficient indoor ventilation and natural lighting; and reduced, or total absence of, equipments or facilities to make tasks concerning sheep handling easier. In presence of these problems, farm buildings researchers can contribute to improve sheep farming and the regional development by proposing solutions to get better facilities in sheep housing, regarding the specific conditions of the regional sheep

Sheep housing in Trás-os-Montes. Contribution to design buildings and equipment appropriate for local sheep farms

Barbosa, José Carlos
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Sheep farming has a great importance in the region of Trás-os-Montes, one of the most depopulated and least favoured Portuguese areas. We have studied the buildings for sheep housing, in this region, aiming to identify the aspects that may be considered as constraints or problems that can hinder the development of sheep farming in the region. Thus, we selected several villages where we have interviewed sheep raisers, aiming to get to know the sheep farming system and the sheep housing or facilities utilisation; and where we have collected data concerning the buildings for sheep housing. The main problems and deficiencies about the buildings for sheep housing we have found are related to aged and old-fashioned buildings; small dimensions; deficient indoor accessibility, which make some mechanization tasks difficult; deficient indoor ventilation and natural lighting; and reduced, or total absence of, equipments or facilities to make tasks concerning sheep handling easier. In presence of these problems, farm buildings researchers can contribute to improve sheep farming and the regional development by proposing solutions to get better facilities in sheep housing, regarding the specific conditions of the regional sheep.

Isolamento e caracterização biológica e genotipica de Toxoplasma gondii de ovinos e caprinos; Isolation and biological and genotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from sheep and goats

Ragozo, Alessandra Mara Alves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/04/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
O objetivo deste estudo foi o isolamento de Toxoplasma gondii de ovinos e caprinos e posterior caracterização genotípica desses isolados. Amostras de soros ovinos (495) de 36 Municípios do Estado de São Paulo e de caprinos (143) de seis Municípios dos Estados da Bahia (10), Paraíba (12), Rio Grande do Norte (7) e São Paulo (114) foram testadas, através do Teste de Aglutinação Modificado (MAT≥25) à presença de anticorpos anti-T. gondii. Dos animais amostrados, 24,2% e 32,2% dos ovinos e caprinos respectivamente, apresentaram-se positivos com títulos que variaram de 25 a 3200 em ambas espécies. Dentre os ovinos houve associação (p<0,001) entre sexo, idade e sistema de produção com a presença de anticorpos anti-T. gondii. Os caprinos apresentaram associação entre idade, sistema de produção, e raça com a soropositividade. Para o isolamento do agente o bioensaio em camundongos foi realizado utilizando-se pool de tecidos de ovinos (cérebro, coração e diafragma) e caprinos soropositivos (cérebro, coração e diafragma e masseter). Dos 82 bioensaios realizados com amostras de ovinos, 16 isolados (19,5%) foram obtidos. Houve associação entre o título de anticorpos anti-T. gondii e o isolamento do agente (p<0...

Efeito da presença de um coespecifico no alojamento de ovelhas em novo ambiente, após estresse agudo causado pelo transporte; Effect of the presence of a conspecific in the housing of sheep in the new environment, following acute stress caused by transportation

Meyer, Fabiola Schons; Velasque, Andréa Gonçalves; Muccillo, Marcelo de S.; Carissimi, Andre Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Background: Sheep are social and gregarious animals. They feel at ease when free and clustered rather than isolated. In some situations, as in experimental procedures, they need to be separated from the flock and kept without social company. Both instances, separation from the flock and isolation are considered stressful and may impact their well being. As stress can affect the results of the study, special care should be taken when conducting biomedical or veterinary research. The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of cortisol and behavior of ewes housed at a research institution in the presence of a familiar conspecific, an unfamiliar conspecific or in the absence of conspecifics. Materials, Methods & Results: Experimental procedures were approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Eighteen Corriedale ewes were divided into three groups. Group I (n = 6): the experimental sheep was housed with a familiar conspecific, an adult Texel sheep, kept in the same experimental flock of sheep throughout the study. Group II (n = 6): the experimental sheep was housed with a conspecific stranger, also an adult Texel sheep, but from a different flock. Group III (n = 6): the experimental ewe was kept in social isolation...

Comparação morfométrica da orelha interna entre ovinos e humanos através da tomografia computadorizada; CT-Scan sheep and human inner ear morphometric comparison

Seibel, Valter Alberto Ayres; Lavinsky, Luiz; Irion, Klaus Loureiro
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Introdução: trabalhos sobre o uso de ovelhas em cirurgias experimentais e treinamento em cirurgia otológica são raros. Este estudo pretende contribuir para ampliar o conhecimento nessa área. Objetivo: Estudar a orelha interna da ovelha por meio de tomografia computadorizada e cortes sucessivos com o intuito de apresentar dados morfométricos mais precisos relacionados à comparação entre a orelha de ovelhas e a de humanos. Material e Método: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo sem seguimento no qual foram comparadas as estruturas da orelha interna da ovelha com as dos humanos. As medidas foram obtidas através de tomografias computadorizadas e avaliadas por meio de um programa de análise de imagens médicas (Osíris 4.16). Resultados: O estudo morfológico da orelha da ovelha, em média, e da orelha humana, em média, revelaram grande similaridade de anatomia. A maior parte das estruturas (10 de 15) preservou a relação proposta de 2/3 da dimensão humana em relação à dimensão ovina. Conclusão: Os achados contribuem para uso da orelha da ovelha como modelo em cirurgia experimental e treinamento em cirurgia otológica.; Introduction: Studies about the use of sheep in surgical training and experimental otologic surgery are rare. This study intends to contribute to the knowledge on this field. Aim: To study sheep inner ear structures using computerized tomography and serial cross-sections to collect more accurate morphometric data to compare sheep and human ears. Material and methods: This descriptive study compared the inner structures of sheep and human ears. Measurements were made using computerized tomography...

Intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em ovinos no Rio Grande do Sul; Spontaneous poisoning in sheep by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) in southern Brazil

Ilha, Márcia R. S.; Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; Barros, Severo Sales; Barros, Claudio Santos Liborio
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos em um estabelecimento do município de Mata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em meados de janeiro de 1997. De um total de 94 ovinos, 51 (54,25%) animais adoeceram e 50 (53,2%) morreram. Esse rebanho permaneceu durante aproximadamente 7 meses (de junho de 1996 a janeiro de 1997) em piquetes de pastagem nativa onde havia grande quantidade de S. brasiliensis. O quadro clínico manifestado pelos animais afetados consistia em fotossensibilização, emagrecimento progressivo, apatia, fraqueza, perturbações neurológicas como depressão, andar a esmo e desequilibrado, icterícia e hemoglobinúria. Houve melhora das lesões de pele naqueles ovinos que desenvolveram fotossensibilização hepatógena depois que foram retirados do sol. As principais lesões macroscópicas observadas em 9 dos 10 ovinos necropsiados incluíam fígado diminuído de tamanho, firme, difusamente marrom amarelado ou esverdeado, com quantidades variáveis de nódulos de 1-3 mm de diâmetro, bem circunscritos, salientes na cápsula, amarelados, distribu ídos aleatoriamente por todo o parênquima. A vesícula biliar estava repleta e preenchida por bile verde escura e espessa. Havia também derrames cavitários (hidropericárdio e ascite). Crise hemolítica aguda fatal associada à intoxicação crônica hepatógena por cobre foi observada em cinco ovinos. Além das lesões hepáticas macroscópicas já mencionadas...

Host specificity of sheep and cattle nematodes in São Paulo state, Brazil

Amarante, AFT; Bagnola, J.; Amarante, MRV; Barbosa, M. A.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 89-104
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The trial was carried out to investigate parasite host specificity and to analyse the dynamics of infection with nematodes parasitizing sheep and catt:le raised together or separately in São Paulo state, Brazil, and, also to clarify doubts about the systematics of species of the genus Haemonchus on the basis of cytological and morphological studies. Ten steers and 32 ewes were randomly assigned to three paddocks (P), as follows: P1, 5 steers; P2, 5 steers and 16 ewes; and P3, 16 ewes. The animals remained on these paddocks in continuous grazing throughout the trial (1-yr period). Faecal exams and larvae counting on pasture were performed fortnightly. Once a month two tracer lambs were placed in each paddock, while two tracer calves were also placed, but only in the eighth month of the trial. All these animals were slaughtered for worm identification and counting. At the end of the trial, one steer and one ewe from P2, which showed high faecal egg counts, were also slaughtered for the same purpose. Nematodes identified cytogenetically as H. placei presented spicule hooks longer than those identified as H. contortus. The following distribution of parasites in cattle and sheep was observed: Bunostomum phlebotomum, H. similis, Mammomonogamus laryngeus strongly adapted to cattle...

Semen variables of sheep (Ovis aries) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

Lopes, W. D. Z.; Costa, A. J.; Souza, F. A.; Rodrigues, J. D. F.; Costa, G. H. N.; Soares, V. E.; Silva, G. S.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 312-319
ENG
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The influence of Toxoplasma gondii on semen variables and sperm morphology of sheep was evaluated in eight reproductive males distributed into three experimental groups: GI, three sheep inoculated with 2.0 × 105 of P strain oocytes; GII, three sheep infected with 1.0 × 106 of RH strain tachyzoites and; GIII two control sheep. Clinical (rectal temperature, cardiac and respiratory frequencies), parasite and serology exams (IIF) were realized. Sperm variables (volume, motility, vigor and concentration) and semen morphology for each sheep were also evaluated. Thus, semen and blood collections were assessed on post-inoculation days (PIDs)-1,3,5,7,11,14 and weekly thereafter up to PID 70. Clinical alterations were observed (hypothermia and anorexia) in infected sheep from groups GI and GII. Parasitic outbreaks were detected in five sheep. All the infected sheep produced antibodies against T. gondii from PID 5 onwards, reaching a peak of 4096 and 8192 for group GI and GII sheep, respectively. Differences (P < 0.05) were observed regarding the ejaculate volume between the inoculated groups (oocytes and tachyzoites) and control. Even though experimental toxoplasmic infection resulted in clinical symptomology in the inoculated sheep, the minimal alterations in sperm pathologies could not be directly attributed to T. gondii. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Crystal-associated cholangiopathy in sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens containing the saponin protodioscin

Brum,Karine B.; Haraguchi,Mitsue; Lemos,Ricardo A.A.; Riet-Correa,Franklin; Fioravanti,Maria Clorinda S.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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An outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization is reported in a flock of 28 sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central-Western Brazil. Seven lambs and an adult sheep were affected and 6 of them died. Two surviving affected lambs and one lamb without clinical signs had increased serum values of gamma glutamyltransferase, bilirubin, and cholesterol. In two adult unaffected sheep those parameters were within normal values. An adult sheep submitted to necropsy presented moderate body condition, unilateral corneal opacity, drying of the muzzle, moderate jaundice, increased lobular pattern of the liver, and a distended gallbladder. Histological lesions were epithelial degeneration, necrosis, and hyperplasia of small bile ducts. Mild amounts of foamy macrophages were observed, mainly in the centroacinar zone. Diffuse swelling and vacuolation were observed in hepatocytes. Crystal negative images were found within bile ducts, foamy macrophages, and the lumen of some renal tubules. The heart showed multifocal areas of degeneration and necrosis of the muscle fibers. Pasture samples (Brachiaria decumbens) contained 2.36% of protodioscin. No Pithomyces chartarum spores were found in the pasture. Samples from a similar neighboring B. decumbens pasture grazed by cattle without photosensitization contained 1.63% of protodioscin isomers. Outbreaks of photosensitization caused by Brachiaria spp. are common in cattle in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna) with about 51 million hectares of Brachiaria spp pastures. Sheep farming has been recently developed in this region...

Chronic cardiomyopathy and encephalic spongy changes in sheep experimentally fed Ateleia glazioviana

Raffi,Margarida Buss; Rech,Raquel Rubia; Sallis,Elisa Simone Viegas; Rodrigues,Aline; Barros,Claudio Severo Lombardo de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2006 EN
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Fifteen mature crossbred sheep were fed different daily amounts (2.5-35g kg-1 bw) of the fresh green leaves of Ateleia glazioviana for different periods of time (1-24 days). One sheep was not fed the plant and served as a control. All 16 sheep were euthanatized at different stages of the experiment, necropsied, and several organs, including heart and brain were evaluated histologically. Samples of five brain regions from three affected sheep were evaluated by electron microscopy. Clinical signs observed in three sheep included depression, anorexia, general weakness, staggering gait and prolonged recumbency. One sheep had signs of congestive heart failure. Necropsy findings included subcutaneous dependent edema and edema of the body cavities in two sheep and nutmeg liver in one. Histopathological findings included degeneration, necrosis and interstitial fibrosis in the myocardium of four sheep and vacuolation of cerebral white matter (spongy degeneration, status spongiosus) in 10 sheep, although this latter change were marked only in two of those 10. The ultrastructure of the brain lesion was morphologically consistent with that found in diseases grouped as spongiform myelinopathies in which vacuolation of the myelin occurs in the absence of significant myelin breakdown or phagocytosis. The morphology and pathogenesis of the chronic cardiomyopathy and of the cerebral spongy degeneration in affected sheep in this experiment are discussed and compared with other similar conditions in domestic ruminants.

Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders

Udo, Henk Mathijs Johannes; Budisatria, I. Gede Suparta
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers’ conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results...

Intoxica????o por Senecio spp. : padr??es morfol??gicos hep??ti-cos em bovinos e resist??ncia adquirida em ovinos; Intoxication by Senecio spp.: hepatic morphologic patterns in cattle and aquired resistance in sheep

GRECCO, Fabiane Borelli
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Veterin??ria; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Veterin??ria; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Veterin??ria; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Veterin??ria; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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36.83%
This study him to characterize liver morphological patterns of the intoxication by Senecio spp. observed in cattle in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil between 2000-2008 and to text the acquireal resistance in sheep to Senecio brasiliensis poisoning. The patterns observed were correlated with climate changes occurred in the period. Two outbreaks Senecio spp. In sheep were described. It was tested if repeated doses of S. brasiliensis induce resistance to the intoxication in sheep. The macroscopic and histological lesions of cattle dead by Senecio spp. toxicosis submitled to Regional Diagnostic Laboratory of Pelotas University were analyzed. The lesions were classified in seven different patterns. The outbreaks prevalence and climate changes concerning accumulated rain and temperature mean in different seasons of year were analyzed. To determine if repeated doses of S. brasiliensis induce resistance to the intoxication in sheep, doses that cause acute intoxication was determined. The green plant was administered by gavage to 3 sheep in doses of 60, 80, 90 and 100 g/kg of body weight (bw). The doses (100gkg of bw) that caused acute poisoning were divided in 2, 5 and 10 doses and administered daily in 2, 5 and 10 days to observe if chronic lesion would develop. Sheep that received 10g/kg of bw was challenged with 100g/kg of bw after 45 days the last doses of 10g. Doses of 15 g/kg of bw were administered by gavage for 30 days and 10 g/kg of bw for 10 days to three sheep. Two of them were challenged 24 hours after the last doses of 30g/kg of bw. One sheep was challenged 15 days after the last doses of 30g/kg of bw. The results of macroscopic and histological analyze of liver showed that the diffuse liver fibrosis and nodular regeneration were the most common lesions induced by Senecio spp. intoxication in cattle. Although between 2007 and 2008 the pattern with little fibrosis and histological subacute lesion had been observed. In outbreaks of spontaneous Senecio spp. poisoning in sheep jaundice...

The effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 incorporated into a hyaluronic acid-based nasal pack on nasal mucosal healing in a healthy sheep model and a sheep model of chronic sinusitis

Rajapaksa, S.; McIntosh, D.; Cowin, A.; Adams, D.; Wormald, P.J.
Fonte: Ocean Side Publications Inc Publicador: Ocean Side Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is the accepted surgical treatment for chronic refractory rhinosinusitis. Prolonged healing and adhesion formation remain common problems. This study investigates the use of a hyaluronic acid-based pack impregnated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 to facilitate more rapid and effective healing after ESS in a healthy sheep model and a sheep model of chronic sinusitis. METHODS: This study used 12 healthy sheep and 9 sheep with chronic sinusitis. In each sheep one side (computer randomized) was used as a control. Under endoscopic guidance, mucosal injuries and adhesions were created on both sides and were either packed with a hyaluronic acid pack impregnated with IGF-1 or left unpacked as a control. Serial biopsies were performed for 4 months. RESULTS: In the healthy sheep there was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in reepithelialization in IGF-1 packed wounds at day 28 (89% for IGF-1 versus 44% for controls). In both healthy sheep and sheep with sinusitis there was no significant difference in mucosal reepithelialization at any of the other measured time points. In the sinusitis group, there was a significant decrease in ciliary regeneration at day 56 in the Merogel/IGF-1 group compared with the control group: 59.20% versus 77.68% (p < 0.01) and at day 112...

Induced mandibular condylar growth in a sheep model after functional appliance treatment

Ma, B.; Sampson, W.; Fazzalari, N.; Wilson, D.; Wiebkin, O.
Fonte: Australian Society of Orthodontists Publicador: Australian Society of Orthodontists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
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This paper reports on changes in mandibular condylar growth in sheep fitted with experimental functional appliances. The paper also addresses the similarities of mandibular condylar growth in sheep and humans. Experimental functional appliances were developed, constructed and applied to four, four-month old, male sheep. Another four sheep served as matched controls. All animals received fluorochrome bone labels during the study and their weight gain also was recorded. Fifteen weeks later, all animals were sacrificed and each temporo-mandibular joint and left metacarpus were removed. Undecalcified mid-sagittal sections of the joint and metacarpus were prepared for fluorescence microscopy. The mandibular condylar growth vector in sheep was found to be in a postero-superior direction. Condylar growth in the control sheep during the experimental period varied from 8.8 to 11.9 mm, with the mean being 10.6 mm, which is quantitatively similar to two years of condylar growth in human adolescents. In the experimental sheep, the condylar growth varied from 8.5 to 13.3 mm, with the mean being 11.4 mm. When metacarpal growth and weight gain were taken into consideration using multivariant analysis, the coefficients for growth in the postero-superior and posterior direction were found to be high...

Organ weights and blood flows of sheep and pig for physiological pharmacokinetic modelling

Upton, R.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Inc Publicador: Elsevier Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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INTRODUCTION: Physiological approaches to pharmacokinetic analysis require data on organ sizes and organ blood flows for a given species. An internally consistent compilation of these data for sheep and pigs is needed. Furthermore, it is desirable to be able to appropriately scale these data for individuals of different sizes to simulate hypothetical populations of sheep or pigs for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling. METHOD: The literature was reviewed and tables of organ size (as a ratio of body weight) and organ perfusion (flow in ml/min per 100 g of tissue) were compiled for sheep and pigs of a standard size. Equivalent data for man were compiled using the P(3)M program for comparison. The standard size for sheep, pig and man were 45, 25 and 69 kg, respectively. Allometric scaling was used to modify the standard size data for body size, and the equations for doing so were coded in a small computer program. This program was tested by comparison with published sheep data (body weights 5-55.5 kg). RESULTS: The three species differed mostly in the percentage of cardiac output going to the liver (47% for the sheep, 31% for the pig, 23% for man). The distribution of body weight in sheep could be simulated by assuming a log-normal distribution (mean 45 kg...

Day-night changes in plasma melatonin levels, synaptophysin expression and ultrastructural properties of pinealocytes in developing female sheep under natural long and short photoperiods

Redondo, E.; Regodón, S.; Franco, A.; Masot, A.J.; Gázquez, A.; Cardinali, D.P.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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36.78%
The aim of the present study was to analyze the 24-h rhythm in plasma melatonin concentration and the day-night differences in synaptophysin expresion and ultrastructural characteristics of the pinealocytes in developing female sheep. Ewes of three different ages were examined: infantile (1-6 months old), pubertal and early fertile age (9-24 months old) and adult (36-60 months old). Experiments were conducted under natural non-stimulatory (long) and stimulatory (short) photoperiods. The obtained results were similar for both analyzed photoperiods. Plasma melatonin concentration, measured in samples obtained every 4 h, showed a similar pattern in the three age groups, with peak values at 02:00 h and troughs at 14:00 h. Mean value of plasma melatonin levels in 9-24 month-old sheep was significantly greater than that in younger or older sheep. The weight of pineal glands obtained at night (02:00 h) was significantly higher than in daylight (14:00 h). Pubertal and early fertile sheep had the largest pineal glands. The pineal volume, and the total number of pinealocytes per gland of 9-24 months-old sheep differed significantly from that of younger or older sheep. The pineal volume, and the mean volume of pinealocytes was significantly greater in animals killed at night. Number of pinealocytes did not vary between animals killed during daylight or at night. The mean volumen of pinealocytes did not show statistical differences between the age groups. In quantitative ultrastructural analysis of pinealocyte cells...

Farm buildings and working conditions in sheep farms: actual situation in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal

Barbosa, José Carlos; Fitas da Cruz, Vasco
Fonte: Universitá degli Studi Mediterranea Publicador: Universitá degli Studi Mediterranea
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
In the region of Trás-os-Montes, in the Northeast of Portugal, the breeding of sheep is quite relevant, not only because of meat and milk production, but also because breeders are dealing with mountainous areas or regions where agriculture is the main activity and alternative economic activities are very scarce. Sheep are raised in extensive systems according to traditional farming systems and flocks are small. In this region, sheep farms don't use animal housing intensively. Generally, buildings for sheep are simple, supplying shelter and the basic requirements to animals. Also, the utilization of equipment or machines to perform labor required by sheep production is scarce. Frequently, the farm buildings used to handle the flock present some constraints that make the utilization of machines or equipment difficult. During last decade, some changes occurred in sheep farms, in the region, mainly related with handling techniques, feeding and milking. This evolution increased the importance and utilization of buildings for animal housing. Besides, the constraints and deficiencies in sheep housing interfere with labor and the working conditions in sheep farms. We carried out a study, in this region, to identify the constraints and deficiencies in sheep buildings and the work and tasks performed by sheep breeders inside these buildings. We chose four variables: building plan; inside arrangement; width of the entrance; and the height of the walls...

Serum total and bone alkaline phosphatase levels and their correlation with serum minerals over the lifespan of sheep

Sousa, Cristina P.; Azevedo, Jorge T.; Silva, Amélia M.; Viegas, Carlos A.; Reis, R. L.; Gomes, Manuela E.; Dias, Isabel R.
Fonte: Akadémiai Kiadó Publicador: Akadémiai Kiadó
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study aimed to assess serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and its bone isoform (BALP) levels during the ageing and in different physiologic states of sheep, in order to expand the knowledge about the variation of these biomarkers over the sheep lifespan. Ninety female sheep were divided into nine groups of various ages and physiological states (dry, lactation and pregnancy). Serum ALP, BALP and mineral levels were determined by commercial immunoassay, molecular absorbance spectrophotometry and chemical luminescence for BALP determination. Serum ALP and BALP decreased as sheep aged, and no statistically significant differences were obtained between ewes in different physiologic states. The continuous decline of serum BALP concentration along the sheep lifespan, namely in mature and old sheep, is a sign of decreasing bone turnover associated with ageing. Serum calcium concentrations increased slightly until 2 years of age and then showed a tenuous but statistically significant decrease in mature sheep, while serum phosphorus maintained an uninterrupted decrease as sheep matured. The knowledge of serum values of bone biomarkers throughout the sheep lifespan may be useful in preclinical orthopaedic research studies and for animal science studies using sheep.

Feeding quebracho tannins to sheep enhances rumen fermentative activity to degrade browse shrubs

Ammar, H.; López, Secundino; Kammoun, M.; Bodas, Raúl; Giráldez, Francisco Javier; González, Jesús Salvador
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 94510 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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15 pages, 4 tables.-- Available online May 23, 2008.; Twenty-four samples of leaves, flowers and fruits of five browse plant species (i.e., Erica australis; Cistus laurifolius; Quercus pyrenaica; Cytisus scoparius and Rosa canina) collected from spring to autumn at uplands in the province of León (NW Spain) were used to explore medium-term effects of intake of quebracho condensed tannins on fermentative activity in the rumen of sheep. The objective was to determine if adaptation to tannins at the rumen level may develop in response to regular consumption of tannins, resulting in an enhanced ability to digest browse forages. Eight rumen cannulated Merino sheep fed chopped alfalfa hay were used. Four sheep were fed alfalfa hay supplemented with 50 g quebracho/kg dry matter (DM) for 60 days and used as the treated group (QT sheep), whereas the other sheep were always fed untreated alfalfa hay and used as the control group. Differences in the fermentative activity were examined in vitro (DM digestibility (IVD) and gas production kinetics) in batch cultures inoculated with rumen fluid obtained on day 60 from both groups of sheep. With most browse samples, incubation in rumen fluid from QT sheep resulted in higher IVD, gas production at 24 h...

Distribution of Methylene Blue after Injection into the Epidural Space of Anaesthetized Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Sheep

Moll Sánchez, Xavier; García Arnas, Félix; Ferrer, Rosa Isabel; Santos Benito, Laura; Aguilar Catalán, Adrià
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
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The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of different volumes of methylene blue solution injected into the epidural space in anaesthetized pregnant and non-pregnant sheep, to evaluate its cranial distribution and to compare between them. Fifteen pregnant and fifteen non-pregnant sheep were included in the study. Sheep were anaesthetized and received 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mL/kg of a lumbosacral epidural solution containing 0.12% methylene blue in 0.9% saline. Thirty minutes after the epidural injection, the ewes were euthanized. The extension of the dye within the epidural space was measured, and the correlation between the volume of the dye injected and the number of stained vertebrae was evaluated. The cranial migration of the dye between pregnant and non-pregnant sheep was also compared. The results show that the volume of methylene blue injected epidurally into pregnant and non-pregnant sheep correlated directly with its cephalic distribution into the epidural space; and a volume of 0.1 mL/kg or 0.2 mL/kg stained up to the first lumbar segment in pregnant and non-pregnant sheep, respectively. Also, the results suggest that the volume of drugs administered into the epidural space of pregnant sheep should be half the volume that would be used in non-pregnant sheep.