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Prenatal Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Affects Maternal Behavior and Male Offspring Sexual Behavior in Adulthood

BERNARDI, Maria M.; KIRSTEN, Thiago B.; MATSUOKA, Suzana M.; TEODOROV, Elizabeth; HABR, Soraya F.; PENTEADO, Sandra H. W. N.; PALERMO-NETO, Joao
Fonte: KARGER Publicador: KARGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Objective: This study investigates the effects of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on the maternal behavior of pregnant rats and the physical development and sexual behavior of their male offspring in adulthood. Methods: For two experiments, pregnant rats were injected with LPS (250 mu g/kg, i.p.) on gestation day (GD) 21. In the first experiment, the maternal behavior (postnatal day, PND, 6) and the dam`s open-field general activity (PND7) were evaluated. In the second experiment, the maternal pre- and postnatal parameters, the pup`s development, the offspring`s sexual behavior in adulthood, and the pup`s organ weights were assessed. Results: Compared to the control group, the LPS-treated dams presented reduced maternal behavior, decreased general activity, a smaller body weight difference between GD21 and PND1, a greater number of perinatal deaths, and smaller litters. For the male pups, LPS treatment resulted in a decreased body weight on PND2, whereas the anogenital distance and the day of testis descent were not modified. The male sexual behavior was impaired by prenatal LPS. Particularly the number of ejaculating animals was reduced. The testis weight was also lower in the prenatally LPS-treated rats than in the control rats. Conclusion: We propose that prenatal LPS exposure on GD21 acts as an imprinting factor that interferes with the programming of brain sexual determination in offspring. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG...

Ivermectin impairs sexual behavior in sexually naive, but not sexually experienced male rats

BERNARDI, M. M.; KIRSTEN, T. B.; SPINOSA, H. S.; MANZANO, H.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
Ivermectin (IVM) is an antiparasitic drug, widely used in domestic animals. In mammals, IVM act as a GABA agonist. This neurotransmitter has an important role in the regulation of sexual behavior. Thus, this study sought to investigate the effects of various medically relevant doses IVM on the sexual behavior of male rats. In particular, we also wished to examine if previous sexual experience modulated responses to IVM. In the first experiment, the sexual behavior of inexperienced male rats was analyzed after they received 0.2, 0.6, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg IVM, 15 mm prior to behavioral testing. In the second experiment, the effects of four previous sexual experiences on IVM treated rats (1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg, 15 min prior to the 5th session) were assessed. The standard therapeutic dose (0.2 mg/kg) did not impair the sexual behavior of inexperienced male rats. At a more concentrated dose (0.6 mg/kg), which is still within the therapeutic range, the appetitive phase of sexual behavior of inexperienced male rats was impaired. Likewise, 1.0 mg/kg impaired the appetitive phase. Previous sexual experience blocked almost entirely this sexual impairment, suggesting that previous sexual experience exerts a positive effect in attenuating the sexual impairment produced by IVM treatment. Therefore...

Moxidectin interference on sexual behavior, penile erection and hypothalamic GABA levels of male rats

RODRIGUES-ALVES, Patricia S. B.; LEBRUN, Ivo; FLORIO, Jorge Camilo; BERNARDI, Maria M.; SPINOSA, Helenice de S.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
The moxidectin (MXD) is an antiparasitic drug used in domestic animals. The mechanism of action, in mammals, involves GABA, a neurotransmitter with an important role in the sexual behavior control. Presently, the effects of 0.2 mg/kg therapeutic dose were studied on sexual behavior, sexual motivation, penile erection and central GABA levels. Sexual behavior results showed increased latencies to the first mount and intromission as well as in inter-intromission interval; a reduction in total mounts was detected on the drug post-treatment. No difference was observed between sexual motivation of control and experimental animals. MXD treatment reduced penile erection and hypothalamic GABA levels. The results suggest that MXD reduced sexual behavior and penile erection by an action on the hypothalamic GABA system. Probably, the lack of effects in the motivational test and the increased mount and intromission latencies as well as decreased total mounts could be explained as a consequence of reduced male rat erection process. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Post-partum testosterone administration partially reverses the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on sexual behavior in rats

Couto-Moraes, Renato; Felício, Luciano Freitas; Oliveira, Claudio Alvarenga de; Bernardi, Maria Martha
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de JaneiroUniversidade de BrasíliaUniversidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de JaneiroUniversidade de BrasíliaUniversidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
This study investigated the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on sexual behavior, organ weight, and testosterone levels in adult rats. We examined whether immediate postpartum testosterone administration is able to reverse the toxic effects of the metal. Forty pregnant Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) 10 mg kg-1 cadmium chloride per day, and 3) 20 mg kg-1 cadmium chloride per day. These dams were treated on gestational days 18 and 21 and from lactation 1 to 7. Immediately after birth, half of the offspring from the experimental and control groups received 50 μl (i.p.) of 0.2% testosterone. Male sexual behavior, histological analysis and weight of organs as well as serum testosterone levels were assessed. Results showed that both cadmium doses disrupted sexual behavior in male rats, and postnatal treatment with testosterone reversed the toxic effects of 10 mg kg-1 cadmium and attenuated the effects of 20 mg kg-1 cadmium. Body weight and absolute testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle weight were decreased by the higher cadmium dose, and testosterone supplementation did not reverse these effects. Serum testosterone levels were unaffected by both cadmium doses. No histological changes were detected in all organs analyzed. Maternal cadmium exposure effects in sexual parameters of male rat offspring were explained by the altered masculinization of the hypothalamus. We suggest that cadmium damaged cerebral sexual differentiation by its actions as an endocrine disruptor and supported by the changes discretely observed from early life during sexual development to adult life...

Comportamento sexual de mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos; Sexual behavior of women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Paixão, Jucilene Sales da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
A sexualidade envolve processo complexo com determinantes biológicos, psicológicos e interpessoais. Comprometimento em qualquer uma destas dimensões pode interferir na sexualidade, causando impacto na qualidade de vida. Foram estudadas prospectivamente 48 mulheres portadoras de síndrome dos ovários policísticos matriculadas no Ambulatório de Ginecologia Endócrina e Climatério da Clínica Ginecológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Os objetivos do estudo foram: avaliar a auto-estima e auto-imagem corporal; o comportamento sexual; a relação entre parâmetros clínicos da síndrome (obesidade, hirsutismo, irregularidade menstrual) com o comportamento sexual; e, a influência da terapêutica hormonal no ciclo da resposta sexual. O instrumento de avaliação utilizado foi o Questionário Sexual HC - extenso questionário que avaliou, no tempo 0, dados demográficos; antecedentes pessoais; antecedentes gineco-obstétricos; hábitos e estilo de vida; imagem corporal; autoestima; antecedentes sexuais e atividade sexual atual com ênfase na satisfação sexual, existência ou não de parceiro, fases do ciclo da resposta sexual (desejo, excitação, orgasmo e resolução), freqüência sexual...

Influência da pressão atmosférica no comportamento sexual dos insetos; Influence of atmospheric pressure on the sexual behavior of insects

Pellegrino, Ana Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/11/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Tempestades acompanhadas por diferentes combinações de ventos, chuvas, variações bruscas de temperatura e de radiação solar são manifestações climáticas frequentemente associadas com queda na pressão atmosférica. Para os insetos, especialmente os pequenos insetos, estas condições de mau tempo são desfavoráveis e podem acarretar alta mortalidade na sua população. Neste trabalho foi demonstrado que as mudanças na pressão atmosférica influenciaram várias atividades do comportamento sexual nos insetos em ao menos três ordens, representados por Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) e Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Os parâmetros comportamentais observados foram: (i) Resposta de atração do macho ao feromônio sexual (para D. speciosa); (ii) comportamento de chamamento das fêmeas (para P. unipuncta e M. euphorbiae); e (iii) comportamento de cópula (para D. speciosa, P. unipuncta e M. euphorbiae). Estes parâmetros, por sua vez, foram analisados sob diferentes condições de pressão atmosférica no Brasil (Bra) e Canadá (Can). Levando-se em conta dados históricos nestes locais, foi definido como condições estáveis de pressão atmosférica variações de ±1...

Efeitos da administração perinatal do Citrato de Clomifeno na função reprodutiva de ratos Wistar: comportamento sexual, avaliação hormonal e plasmática; Effects of perinatal administration of Clomiphene Citrate on the reproductive function of Wistar rats: sexual behavior, plasma and hormonal evaluation

Oliani, Andrea Lucia Natali
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/11/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
A diferenciação sexual cerebral é um fenômeno importante que ocorre no período perinatal essencial para definir alguns padrões comportamentais na orientação sexual na fase adulta. Este evento ocorre após uma descarga abrupta da testosterona testicular no recém-nascido que é convertido em estrógeno E2 pela aromatase no hipotálamo do neonato e, juntamente com aquela de origem materna promove as alterações no cérebro que determinam a orientação sexual masculina do neonato. Em fêmeas, o E organiza o cérebro feminino e a orientação sexual. Assim, investigou-se o efeito do Citrato de Clomifeno, um inibidor da aromatase em ratos machos e fêmeas tratados perinatalmente. Os resultados mostraram alterações comportamentais e bioquímicas compatíveis com a desmasculinização, alteração do comportamento sexual de ambos os sexos, comportamento homossexual, ciclo estral, alteração dos níveis de testosterona, estrógeno, FSH e LH e do peso dos órgãos na fase adulta. Os resultados são explicados pelo bloqueio da aromatase, no período da diferenciação sexual cerebral.; Sexual differentiation of the brain is an important phenomenon that occurs perinatally essential to define some behavioral patterns of sexual orientation in adulthood. This event occurs after an abrupt discharge of testicular testosterone in newborns that E2 is converted into estrogen by aromatase in the hypothalamus of the newborn and...

Impulso sexual excessivo e comportamento barebacking em homens que fazem sexo com homens; Compulsive sexual behavior and barebacking in men who have sex with men

Do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'Ana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/04/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
O comportamento "barebacking" é definido como o intercurso sexual anal entre homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH) que decidem intencionalmente não usar preservativos, no contexto de risco do HIV. O comportamento sexual compulsivo (CSC) pode agir na motivação do comportamento "barebacking", aumentando o risco de transmissão do HIV, sendo que no Brasil a prevalência do HIV entre HSH é de 10,5%. Objetivos: estimar a frequência do comportamento "barebacking" nos HSH compulsivos sexuais, e investigar a associação do comportamento "barebacking" com: infecção pelo HIV; comportamento sexual de risco; severidade do CSC; transtorno associado ao uso de álcool e drogas; grau de otimismo em relação ao tratamento do HIV; capacidade de vinculação afetiva tipo segura; consolidação da identidade; e as seguintes dimensões de personalidade: busca de novidades, esquiva ao dano, dependência de gratificação e autodirecionamento. Métodos: estudo transversal realizado em amostra de HSH que buscaram tratamento para o CSC. Participaram 55 homens compulsivos sexuais, sendo que 21 apresentavam o comportamento "barebacking" e 34 não. Foram avaliados em entrevista psiquiátrica para verificação dos critérios de elegibilidade (critérios de dependência de sexo e de Impulso Sexual Excessivo...

Comportamento sexual de sujeitos com aids referida: um estudo baseado numa amostra da população brasileira; Sexual behavior of subjects who reported AIDS: a study based in a Brazilian population sample

Scanavino, Marco de Tubino
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/03/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos sobre comportamento sexual e aids investigam usualmente aspectos da sexualidade de risco. Nessa pesquisa inauguramos uma investigação da associação entre risco de aids (auto-referida) e os diversos comportamentos afetivo-sexuais dos sujeitos pesquisados no Estudo da Vida Sexual do Brasileiro (EVSB). MÉTODOS: O EVSB foi realizado por meio da aplicação de um questionário anônimo e autoresponsivo composto por 87 questões. A aplicação contemplou transeuntes de praças, parques e praias de 18 cidades brasileiras (seleção por conveniência). Foi feita análise das respostas dos sujeitos que referiram aids (n=75), comparadas com as dos que não referiram (n=5.444). RESULTADOS: 1. Em ambos os gêneros, mantiveram associação à aids referida, no modelo de regressão logística, as seguintes variáveis: DST referida (O.R.=19,61, IC95%=10,15 - 37,90, p<0,001), sexo por dinheiro (O.R.=2,71, IC95%=1,29 - 5,69, p=0,008), antecedentes de nove ou mais comportamentos indicativos de impulsividade sexual (O.R.=2,57, IC95%=1,27 - 5,21, p=0,008), antecedentes de vitimização por violência sexual (O.R.=2,50, IC95%=1,08 - 5,77, p=0,031) e favorecimento do ambiente à realização do ato sexual (O.R.=0,50, IC95%=0,29 - 0...

Adult partner preference and sexual behavior of male rats exposed prenatally to betamethasone

Piffer, Renata C.; Garcia, Patricia C.; Pereira, Oduvaldo C. M.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 163-167
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 06/57038-6; The aim of this Study was to investigate long-term effects of prenatal betamethasone exposure oil sexual partner preference, testosterone level, and sexual behavior. Pregnant rats received 0.1 mg/kg of betamethasone or saline on the 12th, 13th, 18th, and 19th days of pregnancy. Parameters in male offspring were evaluated at 90 days of age. Male rats from the betamethasone group did not show any difference in sexual partner preference as expressed by the total number of visits to the female or male zone. However, these males spent significantly less total time and shorter duration per visit in the female zone than their controls. Therefore, prenatal exposure to betamethasone led to a significantly lower sexual female partner preference score compared to the control group. These animals also presented diminished testosterone levels in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to betamethasone induced a delay in the latency to first ejaculation. as well as a decrease in the numbers of postejaculatory intromissions, total intromissions and total ejaculations. Although 80% of the betamethasone-treated animals exhibited male Sexual behavior...

Doramectin reduces sexual behavior and penile erection in male rats

Ferri, R.; Todon e Silva, A. F. S.; Cabral, D.; Moreira, N.; Spinosa, H. S.; Bernardi, M. M.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 63-68
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Doramectin (DOR) is an antiparasitic drug that is widely used in domestic animals. In mammals, DOR acts as a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor agonist This neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of sexual behavior. The present study investigated the effects of two medically relevant doses of DOR on sexual behavior in male rats. We also examined whether previous sexual experience modulates responses to DOR. General activity was first observed in an open field 24, 48, and 72 h after administration of 0.1 and 03 mg/kg DOR to determine the dose and time effects of the drug. Apomorphine-induced penile erection and sexual behavior in inexperienced male rats were then analyzed. The effects of previous sexual experience on subsequent sexual behavior in DOR-treated rats (0.3 mg/kg, 24 h prior to the test) were also assessed. The standard therapeutic dose (0.2 mg/kg) did not modify general activity or penile erection. A slightly concentrated dose of 0.3 mg/kg, which is still within the therapeutic range, decreased apomorphine-induced penile erection, whereas 02 mg/kg did not modify this behavior. Compared with controls...

Programming effects of antenatal corticosteroids exposure in male sexual behavior

Oliveira, Mário; Leão, Pedro; Rodrigues, Ana João; Pêgo, José M.; Cerqueira, João; Sousa, Nuno
Fonte: International Society for Sexual Medicine Publicador: International Society for Sexual Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.27%
The authors would like to thank the Clinical Laboratory of Hospital de Braga for technical support.; Introduction: Brain regions implicated in sexual behavior begin to differentiate in the last trimester of gestation. Antenatal therapy with corticosteroids is often used in clinical practice during this period to accelerate lung maturation in pre-term risk pregnancies. Clinical and animal studies highlighted major behavioral impairments induced later in life by these treatments, especially when synthetic corticosteroids are used. Aim: To evaluate the implications of acute prenatal treatment with natural versus synthetic corticosteroids on adult male rat sexual behavior and its neurochemical correlates. Methods: Twelve pregnant Wistar rats were injected with dexamethasone (DEX-1mg/kg), corticosterone (CORT-25mg/kg) or saline on late gestation (pregnancy days 18 and 19). Following this brief exposure to corticosteroids, we assessed the sexual behavior of the adult male progeny and subsequently correlated these behaviors with the levels of cathecolamines and mRNA of dopamine and androgen receptors (AR) in brain regions relevant for sexual behavior. Main Outcome Measures: Sexual behavior of adult male offspring was assessed by exposure to receptive females. This was correlated with serum testosterone levels and levels of cathecolamines (determined by HPLC) and dopamine and androgen receptors mRNA expression (real-time PCR) in brain regions implicated in sexual behavior. Results: Prenatal DEX exposure resulted in a decreased number and increased latency time to mounts and intromissions in adulthood. These findings correlated with decreased levels of serum testosterone and increased hypothalamic expression of AR mRNA. DEX animals also displayed lower dopamine levels and higher dopamine receptor mRNA expression both in hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The milder phenotype of CORT animals was correlated only with decreased dopamine levels in NAcc. Conclusion: Antenatal corticotherapy programs adult male sexual behavior through changes in specific neuronal and endocrine mediators. Importantly...

Post-partum testosterone administration partially reverses the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on sexual behavior in rats

Couto-Moraes,Renato; Felício,Luciano Freitas; Oliveira,Claudio Alvarenga de; Bernardi,Maria Martha
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
This study investigated the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on sexual behavior, organ weight, and testosterone levels in adult rats. We examined whether immediate postpartum testosterone administration is able to reverse the toxic effects of the metal. Forty pregnant Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) 10 mg kg-1 cadmium chloride per day, and 3) 20 mg kg-1 cadmium chloride per day. These dams were treated on gestational days 18 and 21 and from lactation 1 to 7. Immediately after birth, half of the offspring from the experimental and control groups received 50 μl (i.p.) of 0.2% testosterone. Male sexual behavior, histological analysis and weight of organs as well as serum testosterone levels were assessed. Results showed that both cadmium doses disrupted sexual behavior in male rats, and postnatal treatment with testosterone reversed the toxic effects of 10 mg kg-1 cadmium and attenuated the effects of 20 mg kg-1 cadmium. Body weight and absolute testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle weight were decreased by the higher cadmium dose, and testosterone supplementation did not reverse these effects. Serum testosterone levels were unaffected by both cadmium doses. No histological changes were detected in all organs analyzed. Maternal cadmium exposure effects in sexual parameters of male rat offspring were explained by the altered masculinization of the hypothalamus. We suggest that cadmium damaged cerebral sexual differentiation by its actions as an endocrine disruptor and supported by the changes discretely observed from early life during sexual development to adult life...

Alcohol use and HIV serostatus of partner predict high-risk sexual behavior among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in South Western Uganda

Bajunirwe, Francis; Bangsberg, David Roy; Sethi, Ajay K
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
Background: Antiretroviral treatment restores the physical and immunological function for patients with HIV/AIDS and the return of sexual desire. The frequency and correlates of sexual activity among patients receiving ART have not been widely studied. There is concern that widespread availability of ART may result in sexual disinhibition including practice of high-risk sexual behavior. We determined the correlates of sexual activity and high-risk sexual behavior in an ART-treated population in rural and urban Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 329 ART-treated adult patients at two hospitals, one located in rural and another in urban western Uganda. We collected data on sexual activity, frequency of condom use, pregnancy, viral load (VL) and CD4. Patients were considered sexually active if they had had sexual intercourse in the last 6 months. Any unprotected sex was considered high-risk sex. A two-stage logistic regression was performed to determine factors associated with sexual activity and high-risk sex among those sexually active. Results: Overall, 222 (67%) patients were women, 138 (41.2%) had been on ART for at least one year, and 168 (51.4%) were sexually active of whom 127 (75.6%) used condoms at the last intercourse. Younger age (<=30 years) (Odds ratio; OR=2.3...

Sexual Behavior Change Intentions and Actions in the Context of a Randomized Trial of a Conditional Cash Transfer for HIV Prevention in Tanzania

Packel, Laura; Dow, William H.; de Walque, Damien; Isdahl, Zachary; Majura, Albert
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Information, education, communication and interventions based on behavioral-change communication have had success in increasing the awareness of HIV. But these strategies alone have been less successful in changing risky sexual behavior. This paper addresses this issue by exploring the link between action and the intention to change behaviors. In Africa, uncertainty in the lives of those at risk for HIV may affect how intentions are formed. Characterize this uncertainty by understanding the reasons for discrepancies between intentions and actions may help improve the design of HIV-prevention interventions. Based on an incentives-based HIV prevention trial in Tanzania, the longitudinal dataset in this paper allows the exploration of intended strategies for changing sexual behaviors and their results. The authors find that gender, intervention groups and new positive diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections can significantly predict the link between intent and action. The paper examines potential mediators of these relationships.

The Short-Term Impacts of a Schooling Conditional Cash Transfer Program on the Sexual Behavior of Young Women

Baird, Sarah; Chirwa, Ephraim; McIntosh, Craig; Ozler, Berk
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrollment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized, ongoing conditional cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. An average offer of US$10/month conditional on satisfactory school attendance plus direct payment of secondary school fees led to significant declines in early marriage, teenage pregnancy, and self-reported sexual activity among program beneficiaries after just one year of program implementation. For program beneficiaries who were out of school at baseline, the probability of getting married and becoming pregnant declined by more than 40 percent and 30 percent...

Efeitos da moxidectina no comportamento sexual de ratos machos; Effects of moxidectin on male rats' sexual behavior

Rodrigues Alves, Patricia de Sá e Benevides
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/03/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
A moxidectina é uma droga antiparasitária, do grupo das milbemicinas, utilizada em animais domésticos. Em mamíferos seu mecanismo de ação envolve o GABA, neurotansmissor que tem um papel relevante na regulação do comportamento sexual. Assim, o presente trabalho estudou os efeitos da moxidectina no comportamento sexual de ratos machos. Uma vez que alterações na função motora podem interferir na manifestação deste comportamento, avaliou-se, inicialmente, a atividade geral no campo aberto e a coordenação motora na trave elevada, e posteriormente, o comportamento sexual de ratos inexperientes e experientes. A avaliação da atividade geral dos ratos observados no campo aberto mostrou que, mesmo em altas doses (2,0 e 20,0mg/kg), a moxidectina não altera o comportamento de ratos no campo aberto. Esta droga, porém, prejudicou a coordenação motora dos animais avaliados na trave elevada, sendo este efeito atribuído, ao menos em parte, à ação da moxidectina em receptores GABAérgicos. Os resultados obtidos na avaliação do comportamento sexual de ratos inexperientes mostraram redução da motivação sexual dos animais que receberam 0,2mg/kg de moxidectina e foram observados 24 ou 72horas depois. Nenhuma alteração significante foi observada nos diferentes parâmetros do comportamento sexual dos ratos experientes...

Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012)

Oliveira-Campos,Maryane; Nunes,Marília Lavocart; Madeira,Fátima de Carvalho; Santos,Maria Goreth; Bregmann,Silvia Reise; Malta,Deborah Carvalho; Giatti,Luana; Barreto,Sandhi Maria
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012 and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior. METHODOLOGY: The response variable was the sexual behavior described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected sexual intercourse, had unprotected sexual intercourse). The explanatory variables were grouped into socio- demographic characteristics, substance use and information on sexual and reproductive health in school. Variables associated with the conduct and unprotected sex were identified through multinomial logistic regression, using "never had sexual intercourse" as a reference. RESULTS: Over nearly a quarter of the adolescents have had sexual intercourse in life, being more frequent among boys. About 25% did not use a condom in the last intercourse. Low maternal education and work increased the chance of risky sexual behavior. Any chance of protected and unprotected sex increased with the number of psychoactive substances used. Among those who don't receive guidance on the prevention of pregnancy in school...

Comportamento e práticas sexuais de homens e mulheres, Brasil 1998 e 2005; Sexual behavior and practices among men and women, Brazil 1998 and 2005

Barbosa, Regina Maria; Koyama, Mitti Ayako Hara
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2008 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
OBJETIVO: Comparar achados básicos de duas pesquisas sobre comportamento e práticas sexuais de mulheres e homens e suas associações com características sociodemográficas da população. MÉTODOS: Os dados analisados foram obtidos por meio de questionário aplicado a uma amostra probabilística de 3.423 pessoas em 1998, e 5.040 em 2005, com idades entre 16 e 65 anos, moradores em regiões urbanas do Brasil. Análises comparativas foram realizadas por sexo e ano de realização da pesquisa, e segundo variáveis sociodemográficas, utilizando o teste qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O número de parcerias sexuais no ano que antecedeu a entrevista diminuiu entre os homens, de 29,5% para 23,1%. Constatou-se ainda variabilidade de comportamentos e práticas sexuais em função da idade, escolaridade, situação conjugal, religião e região geográfica de residência, além de características específicas segundo sexo. Verificou-se aumento da proporção de mulheres que iniciaram a vida sexual no grupo daquelas com 16 a 19 anos e ensino até fundamental, ou residentes na região Sul do País; e aumento de relato de atividade sexual no último ano entre as mulheres e redução desse relato entre os homens com mais de 55 anos, protestantes/pentecostais...

Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012)

Oliveira-Campos,Maryane; Nunes,Marília Lavocart; Madeira,Fátima de Carvalho; Santos,Maria Goreth; Bregmann,Silvia Reise; Malta,Deborah Carvalho; Giatti,Luana; Barreto,Sandhi Maria
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012 and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior. METHODOLOGY: The response variable was the sexual behavior described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected sexual intercourse, had unprotected sexual intercourse). The explanatory variables were grouped into socio- demographic characteristics, substance use and information on sexual and reproductive health in school. Variables associated with the conduct and unprotected sex were identified through multinomial logistic regression, using "never had sexual intercourse" as a reference. RESULTS: Over nearly a quarter of the adolescents have had sexual intercourse in life, being more frequent among boys. About 25% did not use a condom in the last intercourse. Low maternal education and work increased the chance of risky sexual behavior. Any chance of protected and unprotected sex increased with the number of psychoactive substances used. Among those who don't receive guidance on the prevention of pregnancy in school...