Over the past century, the cingulate cortex has been catching the interest of both basic science and clinical research in various fields of investigation due to its involvement in several physiological functions. This brain region can in fact modulate affection and behavior, motor responses and autonomic functions, and it has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and epilepsy.
The relevance of considering seizures arising from the cingulate gyrus as a distinct neurological entity has been considered in light of the capability of this brain region to directly affect the functional balance of a more extensive system, involving frontal and temporal areas. The term “cingulate epilepsy” identifies a chronic neurological syndrome, which can be distinguished from other epileptic conditions by its peculiar clinical manifestations.
The anterior cingulate cortex presents with a high density of opioid receptors, which account for the involvement of this cortical area in pain perception. Nonetheless, opioid receptors may be relevant to epilepsy as well, providing their contribution as modulators of cortical activity. However, whether opioid receptors exert a pro- or an anti-convulsant effect is still matter of debate. In light of the high expression of opioid receptors...
New treatments for neuropathic pain
Stefano Cobianchi, Institute of Neuroscience, CNR, Rome (Italy).
Experiment 1: Botulinum neurotoxins.
Aim. Botulinum neurotoxins have been successfully used in clinical practice for the treatment of dystonias and a number of syndromes associated to hyperfunctioning of cholinergic terminals. Recent data support the use of Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) as new therapeutic agents in pain relief. It has been demonstrated that the Botulinum neurotoxin serotype-A is able to induce analgesia in inflammatory pain conditions (1). In this study we investigated the effects of two different serotypes, A and B (BoNT/A and BoNT/B), in the development and recovering from neuropathic pain in mice subjected to the sciatic nerve ligation (Chronic Constriction Injury, Bennett and Xie model) (2, 3).
Methods. Mice were subcutaneously injected into the plantar surface of both hindpaws either with BoNT/A (two doses: 7.5 or 15 pg/paw), BoNT/B (3.75 pg/paw) or saline, on different days before and after CCI. The temporal trend of neuropathy over a long time interval (80 days) was analyzed measuring the mechanical allodynic response to the Dynamic Aesthesiometer Test. Functional recovery of the injured paw was followed examining the mice walking pattern...
Information relevant for our social life are immediately processed by our brain. When
we walk in the street we easily and quite automatically adjust our path to avoid colliding
other people. Several social activities like working in a group, playing a sport, talking
with people and many others, all require the ability to carefully read others movements.
Thus, kinematics and postural information of others‟ body are a fundamental medium
for good survival in our social environment.
Along the reading of this manuscript a series of extensive and novel studies will
describe the role of sensorimotor cortices and their differential contribution in specific
action observation tasks. By means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) we
tested in healthy subjects both low and high cognitive level processes that may require
areas of the action observation network.
Lack of balance is common in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and is among the most disabling symptoms, since it reduces mobility and independence, leads to falls and injuries, and impacts upon overall quality of life. In this research we aimed to report the efforts made to: (i) establish an objective and reliable method to measure imbalance in MS by means of static posturography; (ii) estimate the role of this method in predicting patients at risk of falls; (iii) investigate the neuropathological features leading to imbalance in MS by combining static posturography and conventional / non-coventional magnetic resonance imaging; (iv) verify the effectiveness of visuo-proprioceptive rehabilitation in reducing balance deficit and risk of falls in these patients.; Clinical research on patients with multiple sclerosis; This research was partially funded by Associazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla (FISM grant 26/R/2010)
La mia ricerca si basa su un’indagine semiotico-critica
dell’ architettura intesa come catalizzatore emozionale e veicolo
di trasmissione ideale di contenuti socialmente condivisi.
Il tema dell’ Empatia, ampiamente indagato dal punto
di vista dello scenario filosofico e neuroscientifico, non
è stato ancora affrontato dal punto di vista spaziale e
progettuale, e risulta quindi di grande interesse.
Partendo dall’ampia trattazione scientifica in estetica e
neuroscienza, ho studiato il fenomeno dell’Empatia in
architettura, legandolo alle nuove frontiere neuro-estetiche e
tralasciando, se non per accenni, la parte più nota
del filone, relativa sicuramente all’ Art-Nouveau.
Questa scelta è stata fatta per volontà di rendere la trattazione
agevole, possedendo già un apparato introduttivo
multidisciplinare corposo, ma imprescindibile. Inoltre, poiché l’empatia è rintracciabile in tutta la storia dell’architettura, e questo testo non vuole ricadere in ambito enciclopedico, non avendone né l’interesse né la pretesa, ho piuttosto lavorato con l’ambizione
di fornire un nuovo punto di vista, per quanto modesto, sia
sull’empatia in architettura, sia sull’interpretazione di alcuni
fenomeni architettonici contemporanei...
A partire dal 2006 in Italia i rappresentanti delle maggiori società scientifiche ed associazioni che si occupano di disturbi di apprendimento, attraverso varie Consensus Conference, sono pervenuti all’elaborazione di raccomandazioni cliniche e linee guida per la diagnosi dei Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento. Nel dicembre 2010 è stata promossa un’ulteriore Consensus Conference dall’Istituto Superiore di Sanità per il Sistema Nazionale Linee Guida (SNLG-ISS, 2011) dove vengono fornite anche indicazioni per la ricerca futura. Inoltre, nel 2010 viene approvata la Legge 170 che riconosce il Disturbo Specifico dell’Apprendimento a pieno titolo. Sono stati effettuati 4 studi (longitudinali e trasversali) nei quali abbiamo scelto come parametro di riferimento l’età intesa sia come momento della valutazione che come momento della diagnosi/fase evolutiva attraversata, per indagare il peso di tale variabile sull’assetto sintomatologico con cui si manifestano dislessia e disortografia.
Il campione preso in esame è tratto da una popolazione clinica afferita al “Dipartimento di Pediatria e Neuropsichiatria Infantile” e segnalato al Servizio di terzo livello di Neuropsicologia. I soggetti sono stati scelti in base ai criteri di inclusione ed esclusione definiti dall’ICD-10 (WHO...
The Author aims to show how mathematics can be useful in supporting key activities
in a hospital, including: noninvasive measurement of a patient’s status (see chapter 1),
evaluation of quality of services (see chapter 2), business and clinical administration
(see chapter 3), and diagnosis and prognosis (see chapter 4). Such applications suggest
the development of innovative projects to improve health care processes, services and
systems. In this way, mathematics can be a very important tool for technological and
societal development.; This thesis is a collection of health care applications of mathematical methods and
models from various disciplines of mathematics. In this way, the Author intends to
show the necessity and benefits of multidisciplinary knowledge as well as the importance
of an attitude to drive innovation by means of mathematical tools, using
probability calculus, numerical analysis, operations research, and other methods.
The integration of mathematics and real-life problems can be very effective. Advanced
mathematics tools allow problems to be solved in innovative ways. From a
theoretical point of view, each application may suggest if and how (in what direction)
the theory on which it is based can be extended. This effort can result not only in
the publication of scientific papers but also in the awarding of grants to continue such
research activities. This thesis is a proof of these claims. It is structured as stand-alone chapters that share a common structure: