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Caracterização aromática de castas produtoras de vinho Madeira: boal, malvazia, sercial e verdelho

Câmara, José de Sousa
Fonte: Universidade da Madeira Publicador: Universidade da Madeira
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2004 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%

Madeira wines: sensory impact of two production procedures on the “typical character” of malvasia and sercial wines

Machado, B. P.; Pinho, P. Guedes de; Ferreira, A. C. Silva
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%

Evolution of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural (F) in fortified wines submitted to overheating conditions

Pereira, V.; Albuquerque, F.M.; Ferreira, A.C.; Cacho, J.; Marques, J.C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
As furfural (F) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are essentially formed from sugar dehydration, especially in food submitted to heat, they can be found in beverages, as well as fortified sweet wines. In order to assess the impact of temperature on Madeira winemaking, three traditional varieties of Madeira wines (Malvasia, Sercial and Tinta Negra Mole) were studied to evaluate the F and HMF contents. The wines were produced by two vinification processes, following traditional and modern methodologies, heated at standard conditions (30 °C and 45 °C, for 4 months) and compared with the same wines submitted to overheating conditions (55 °C, for 4 months). The RP-HPLC-DAD methodology used for the control of F and HMF during the process showed no significant changes in the wines maintained at 30 °C (canteiro) and a noticeable but controlled increase in the wines heated at 45 °C (estufagem) where values up to about 150 mg/L of HMF could be found in sweet wines. The strong relation of this compound with the sugar content and baking temperature stood out in the wines submitted to overheating conditions where values higher than 1 g/L could be found for sweeter wines, with HMF level being in general higher than F. The results clearly suggest that the amount of HMF in these fortified wines can be easily controlled when submitted to adequate conditions of heating during estufagem and storage. Furthermore...

Phenolic profile of Sercial and Tinta Negra Vitis vinifera L. grape skins by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: Novel phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera L. grape

Perestrelo, Rosa; Lu, Ying; Santos, Sónia A. O.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Neto, Carlos P.; Câmara, José S.; Rocha, Sílvia M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.22%
This study represents the first phytochemical research of phenolic components of Sercial and Tinta Negra Vitis vinifera L. The phenolic profiles of Sercial and Tinta Negra V. vinifera L. grape skins (white and red varieties, respectively) were established using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn), at different ripening stages (veraison and maturity). A total of 40 phenolic compounds were identified, which included 3 hydroxybenzoic acids, 8 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanols, 5 flavanones, 8 flavonols, 4 stilbenes, and 8 anthocyanins. For the white variety, in both ripening stages, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were the main phenolic classes, representing about 80% of the phenolic composition. For red variety, at veraison, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were also the predominant classes (71%), but at maturity, anthocyanins represented 84% of the phenolic composition. As far as we know, 10 compounds were reported for the first time in V. vinifera L. grapes, namely protocatechuic acid-glucoside, p-hydroxybenzoyl glucoside, caftaric acid vanilloyl pentoside, p-coumaric acid-erythroside, naringenin hexose derivate, eriodictyol-glucoside...

Olfactory perception threshold assessment of volatile acidity in Madeira wines

Miranda, Andreia Fátima Santos
Fonte: Universidade da Madeira Publicador: Universidade da Madeira
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /02/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.62%
Madeira wine is a fortified wine with impact in the Madeira Island’s economy. Similarly to other wines, its acidity should be well controlled in order to ensure Madeira wine quality, mostly the volatile acidity. Due to Madeira wine complex flavour, it is crucial to get a better knowledge about the volatile acidity impact in its features, namely determine the perception limit of acetic acid and ethyl acetate, as both are the main contributors for volatile acidity. Firstly, the olfactory perception threshold of volatile acidity was assessed by a trained and an untrained panel, using 5 and 10 years-old Sercial and Malvasia wines. Moreover, the current work also presents the evolution of organic acids, acetic acid and ethyl acetate during 540 days of ageing of Madeira wines (Malvasia, Bual, Verdelho and Sercial), comparing the same wines aged by both traditional ageing processes: canteiro and estufagem. Other wine samples, aged in wood casks (canteiro) for at least 5 years, were also evaluated. HS-SPME followed by GC-MS analysis was used to determine ethyl acetate concentration and IEC-HPLC-DAD was used for the organic acids determination, including acetic acid. The results indicated that acetic acid and ethyl acetate olfactory perception threshold depends essentially on wine’s age. Concerning acetic acid...

Changes in volatile composition of Madeira wines during their oxidative ageing

Câmara, J. S.; Alves, M. A.; Marques, J. C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
The influence of the age in the volatile composition of Madeira wines made with Boal, Malvazia, Sercial and Verdelho varieties and aged in oak barrel during 1, 11 and 25 years old was been studied. For this purpose, the evolution of volatile compounds: higher alcohols, ethyl esters, fatty acids, furan compounds, enolic compounds, γ-lactones, dioxanes and dioxolanes, of the four most utilised varieties were determined using liquid–liquid extraction with dichloromeihane. Octan-3-ol was used as internal standard. The wines made with these varieties showed great differences in sugar content and small variations on pH and alcoholic degree. The results show that during ageing, the concentration of fatty acids ethyl esters, acetates and fatty acids decrease significantly contrarily to the great increase of ethyl esters of diprotic acids. There is a strong correlation between sotolon, 2-furfural, 5-methyl-2-furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural and 5-ethoxymethyl-2-furfural with wine ageing. These findings indicate that these compounds can be used as ageing wine markers. Among the molecules studied, sotolon [3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone] was one of the few molecules present in concentrations above the perception threshold in Madeira wines. 5-Eihoxymethyl-2-furfural formed from 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural and 2-furfural...

Multivariate analysis for the classification and differentiation of Madeira wines according to main grape varieties

Câmara, J. S.; Alves, M. A.; Marques, J. C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.62%
In order to differentiate and characterize Madeira wines according to main grape varieties, the volatile composition (higher alcohols, fatty acids, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds) was determined for 36 monovarietal Madeira wine samples elaborated from Boal, Malvazia, Sercial and Verdelho white grape varieties. The study was carried out by headspace solid-phase microextraction technique (HS-SPME), in dynamic mode, coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Corrected peak area data for 42 analytes from the above mentioned chemical groups was used for statistical purposes. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in order to determine the main sources of variability present in the data sets and to establish the relation between samples (objects) and volatile compounds (variables). The data obtained by GC–MS shows that the most important contributions to the differentiation of Boal wines are benzyl alcohol and (E)-hex-3-en-1-ol. Ethyl octadecanoate, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol and benzoic acid are the major contributions in Malvazia wines and 2-methylpropan-1-ol is associated to Sercial wines. Verdelho wines are most correlated with 5-(ethoxymethyl)-furfural, nonanone and cis-9-ethyldecenoate. A 96.4% of prediction ability was obtained by the application of stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) using the 19 variables that maximise the variance of the initial data set.

Classification of Boal, Malvazia, Sercial and Verdelho wines based on terpenoid patterns

Câmara, José Sousa; Alves, Maria Arminda; Marques, José Carlos
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.62%
Thirty-six Madeira wine samples from Boal, Malvazia, Sercial and Verdelho white grape varieties were analyzed in order to estimate the free fraction of monoterpenols and C13 norisoprenoids (terpenoid compounds) using dynamic headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) technique coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The average values from three vintages (1998–2000) show that these wines have characteristic profiles of terpenoid compounds. Malvazia wines exhibits the highest values of total free monoterpenols, contrary to Verdelho wines which had the lowest levels of terpenoids but produced the highest concentration of farnesol. The use of multivariate analysis techniques allows establishing relations between the compounds and the varieties under investigation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied to the obtained matrix data. A good separation and classification power between the four groups as a function of their varietal origin was observed.

Varietal flavour compounds of four grape varieties producing Madeira wines

Câmara, J. S.; Herbert, Paulo; Marques, J. C.; Alves, M. A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.62%
Boal, Malvasia, Sercial and Verdelho are the main white grape varieties used in Madeira wine production. To estimate the free fraction of varietal aroma compounds of these varieties, 39 samples of musts were analysed to determine their content of monoterpenols and C13 norisoprenoids (terpenoids), using dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The r-values for linearity studies of the analytical method used, varied between 0.977 (nerolidol) and 0.999 (linalool). The repeatability for each compound varied between 2.5% (citronellol) and 11.8% (β-ionone). The mean values from three vintages (1998, 1999 and 2000) confirmed that these musts have differentiated contents of terpenoids. In opposition to Verdelho musts, Malvasia showed the highest free terpenoids content. In order to establish relations between the compounds and the varieties under investigation, principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were applied to the data, revealing a good separation and classification power between the four groups as a function of varietal origin.

3-Hydroxy-4, 5-dimethyl-2 (5 H)-furanone levels in fortified Madeira wines: Relationship to sugar content

Câmara, José Sousa; Marques, José C.; Alves, Maria A.; Ferreira, António C. Silva
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
The maturation of Madeira wines usually involves exposure to relatively high temperatures and humidity levels >70%, which affect the aroma and flavor composition and lead to the formation of the typical and characteristic bouquet of these wines. To estimate the levels of sotolon [3-hydroxy4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H )-furanone] and their behavior over time, 86 aged Madeira wines samples (1-25 years old), with different sugar concentrations, respectively, 90 g L-1 for Boal, 110 g L-1 for Malvazia, 25 g L -1 for Sercial, and 65 g L-1 for Verdelho varieties, were analyzed. Isolation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane followed by chromatographic analysis by GC-MS. The reproducibility of the method was found to be 4.9%. The detection and quantification limits were 1.2 and 2.0 µgL-1, respectively. The levels of sotolon found ranged from not detected to 2000 µgL-1 for wines between 1 and 25 years old. It was observed that during aging, the concentration of sotolon increased with time in a linear fashion ( r ) 0.917). The highest concentration of sotolon was found in wines with the highest residual sugar contents, considering the same time of storage. The results show that there is a strong correlation between sotolon and sugar derivatives: furfural...

Impact of forced-aging process on Madeira Wine flavor

Silva, Hugo Oliveira e; Pinho, Paula Guedes de; Machado, Beatriz P.; Hogg, Tim; Marques, J. C.; Câmara, José S.; Albuquerque, F.; Ferreira, António C. Silva
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
The aim of this study was to determine the optimal temperature and baking time to obtain a Madeira wine considered typical by an expert panel. For this purpose simultaneous descriptive analyses of typical Madeira wines were performed, and seven descriptors were selected: “dried fruit”, “nutty”, “musty”, “baked”, “oak”, “mushroom”, and “brown sugar”. Up to 10 odor-active zones were the most frequently cited by the members of the GC-olfactometry panel as corresponding to the panel’s descriptors. The odor importance of each of the zones reported by the GC-O analysis was ranked by AEDA. Three odor zones were identified as common to both Malvasia and Sercial wines and had retention indices (RI) of 1993 (“brown sugar” and “toasted”), 2151 (“brown sugar”), and 2174 (“nutty”, “driedfruits”);sotolonwasidentifiedasresponsibleforthislastaroma.Severalmoleculeswereselected to be quantified on baked wines on the basis of AEDA results and expected Maillard volatiles, such as sotolon, furfural, 5-methylfurfural, 5-ethoximethylfurfural, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde. It was observed that typicity scores were positively correlated with the concentrations of sotolon and sugar and baking time and negatively with the fermentation length.

Phenolic profile of Sercial and Tinta Negra Vitis vinifera L. grape skins by HPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn: novel phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera L. grape

Perestrelo, Rosa; Lu, Ying; Santos, Sónia A. O.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Neto, Carlos P.; Câmara, José S.; Rocha, Sílvia M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.22%
This study represents the first phytochemical research of phenolic components of Sercial and Tinta Negra Vitis vinifera L. The phenolic profiles of Sercial and Tinta Negra V. vinifera L. grape skins (white and red varieties, respectively) were established using high performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn), at different ripening stages (véraison and maturity). A total of 40 phenolic compounds were identified, which included 3 hydroxybenzoic acids, 8 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanols, 5 flavanones, 8 flavonols, 4 stilbenes, and 8 anthocyanins. For the white variety, in both ripening stages, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were the main phenolic classes, representing about 80% of the phenolic composition. For red variety, at véraison, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were also the predominant classes (71%), but at maturity, anthocyanins represented 84% of the phenolic composition. As far as we know, 10 compounds were reported for the first time in V. vinifera L. grapes, namely protocatechuic acid-glucoside, p-hydroxybenzoyl glucoside, caftaric acid vanilloyl pentoside, p-coumaric acid-erythroside, naringenin hexose derivate, eriodictyol-glucoside...

Solid phase microextraction as a reliable alternative to conventional extraction techniques to evaluate the pattern of hydrolytically released components in Vitis vinifera L. grapes

Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
In present research, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–qMS), was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the commonly used liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) technique for the establishment of the pattern of hydrolytically released components of 7 Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties, commonly used to produce the world-famous Madeira wine. Since there is no data available on their glycosidic fractions, at a first step, two hydrolyse procedures, acid and enzymatic, were carried out using Boal grapes as matrix. Several parameters susceptible of influencing the hydrolytic process were studied. The best results, expressed as GC peak area, number of identified components and reproducibility, were obtained using ProZym M with b-glucosidase activity at 35 °C for 42 h. For the extraction of hydrolytically released components, HS-SPME technique was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the conventional extraction technique, LLE (ethyl acetate). HS-SPME using DVB/CAR/PDMS as coating fiber displayed an extraction capacity two fold higher than LLE (ethyl acetate). The hydrolyzed fraction was mainly characterized by the occurrence of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols...