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The Self-Employment Choice in Portugal: How Different are Women from Men

Galego, Aurora
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
Female self-employment has been increasing steadily over the last years in many countries. However, not much is know about women’s decision to become self-employed, especially in Europe. Some few studies typically conclude that most women choose self-employment because it offers more flexibility to combine work and family responsibilities or because of discrimination. Portugal displays one of the highest rates of self-employment in Europe and is one of the countries where the number of self-employed women has increased more. This paper studies gender differences in the determinants of self-employment in Portugal. Unlike other countries, there is no evidence that women choose self-employment because of family reasons. However, there are some suggestions that the choice of self-employment is driven by economic necessity, particularly in the case of women.

Individual determinants of self-employment entry: what do we really know?

Simões, Nádia; Moreira, Sandrina Berthault; Crespo, Nuno
Fonte: Munich Personal RePEc Archive Publicador: Munich Personal RePEc Archive
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/07/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
The analysis of the decision to enter into self-employment is a hot topic in economic literature. Among the elements that most directly influence this decision, individual factors are central. This study produces a comprehensive survey of the impact of these factors, covering both the theoretical arguments and the main conclusions emerging from the empirical studies. We analyze twelve critical determinant factors of the entry into self-employment grouped into seven categories: (i) basic individual characteristics (gender, age, and marital status and children); (ii) family background (parents and spouse); (iii) personality characteristics (risk attitude and other psychological traits); (iv) human capital (education and experience); (v) health condition; (vi) nationality and ethnicity; and (vii) access to financial resources. While for some of the factors solid conclusions can be found, for others additional research is still needed in order to shed further light on their influence.

Self-directedness, personality type and success in self- employment

Okanik, Barbara.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
The new economy has spirited a transformation ofwork organizations from big business structures into smaller, more flexible enterprises, many of which are launched as self-employment initiatives. The growing trend towards increasing selfemployment in Canada demands aeritical review of how educational programs support and encourage entrepreneurship and self-employment opportunities for students ofpost-secondary and adult training programs. The focus ofthis study was threefold. First, the study examined whether a relationship exists between self-directedness and success in self-employment. Secondly, the purpose of this research was to determine whether a relationship exists between psychological type as defined by Jung and success in selfemployment. Finally, this research effort attempted to develop a model for identifying individual potential for self-employment based on combined factors of self-directedness and psychological type. Success was measured in three stages: 1) Did the subject start a selfemployment initiative? 2) Did the business survive six months? 3) Did the business survive one year? The research went beyond classroom training activities to determine whether individuals actually started a business enterprise while participating ina self-employment program designed for individuals who were unemployed. Given that many people initiate a self-employment venture.without actually operating the business beyond the initial start-up...

An Attempt to Measure the Trends in Shadow Employment in Poland : The Transition Probabilities out and into Shadow Employment Using the LFS Data Augmented by the Results of a Dedicated Survey Performed by CASE in 2007

Walewski, Mateusz
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
This paper presents the results of an attempt to use the combined results of the dedicated survey performed by CASE in 2007 and Polish LFS data in order to: (a) analyze the development of the shadow employment in Poland in years 2003-2008 and, (b) analyze the transition probabilities in and out of shadow employment. The estimated share of shadow workers in total employment in Poland in years 2003-2008 was increasing until 2006 and then started to decrease in the years 2007 and 2008. Other results are in line with one of the main conclusions of the CASE study from 2007 suggesting that shadow employment is more a way of coping with lack of other employment opportunities than an equivalent or even superior alternative to any legal employment contracts. On the other hand those who enter shadow employment are more active part of the group having problems with finding full time/open term employment. They are much more inclined to cope with their situation by entering some form of self-employment than to stay passive and depend on social assistance.

Poverty Decline, Agricultural Wages, and Non-Farm Employment in Rural India 1983–2004

Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
The authors analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/8, 1993/4, 1999/0, and 2004/5 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India declined at a modest rate during this period. The authors provide region-level estimates that illustrate considerable geographic heterogeneity in this progress. Poverty estimates correlate well with region-level data on changes in agricultural wage rates. Agricultural labor remains the preserve of the uneducated and also to a large extent of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Although agricultural labor grew as a share of total economic activity over the first four rounds, it had fallen back to the levels observed at the beginning of the survey period by 2004. This all-India trajectory masks widely varying trends across states. During this period, the rural non-farm sector grew modestly, mainly between the last two survey rounds. Regular non-farm employment remains largely associated with education levels and social status that are rare among the poor. However...

Informal Self-Employment and Macroeconomic Fluctuations

Fiess, Norbert M.; Fugazza, Marco; Maloney, William F.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
Informal self-employment is a major source of employment in developing countries. Its cyclical behavior is important to our understanding of the functioning of LDC labor markets, but turns out to be surprisingly complex. We develop a flexible model with two sectors: a formal salaried (tradable) sector that may be affected by wage rigidities, and an informal (non tradable) self-employment sector faced with liquidity constraints to entry. This labor market is then embedded in a standard small economy macro model. We show that different types of shocks interact with different institutional contexts to produce distinct patterns of comovement between key variables of the model: relative salaried/self-employed incomes, relative salaried/self-employed sector sizes and the real exchange rate. Model predictions are then tested empirically for Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. We confirm episodes where the expansion of informal self-employment is consistent with the traditional segmentation views of informality. However, we also identify episodes where informal self-employment behaves "pro-cyclically"; here, informality is driven by relative demand or productivity shocks to the non tradable sector.

Jump-Starting Self-Employment? Evidence Among Welfare Participants in Argentina

Almeida, Rita; Galasso, Emanuela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
One important concern of governments in developing countries is how to phase out large safety net programs. The authors evaluate the short-run effects of one possible exit strategy-programs that promote self-employment-in Argentina. They provide evidence that a small fraction of beneficiaries were attracted by this program. Overall, potential participants to self-employment are more likely to be female household heads and more educated beneficiaries relative to the average Jefes beneficiaries. Using nonexperimental methods, the authors show that participation in the program does affect the labor supply of participants, by reducing the probability of having an outside job, especially for males, and increasing the total number of hours worked. But the intervention fails to produce on average income gains to participating individuals and households in the short run. The fact that a small subset of former welfare beneficiaries are attracted to the program, coupled with the fact that only a subset of participants (younger and more educated beneficiaries...

Self-Employment in the Developing World

Gindling, T. H.; Newhouse, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
This paper analyzes heterogeneity among the self-employed in 74 developing countries, representing two-thirds of the population of the developing world. After profiling how worker characteristics vary by employment status, it classifies self-employed workers outside agriculture as "successful" or "unsuccessful" entrepreneurs, based on two measures of success: whether the worker is an employer, and whether the worker resides in a non-poor household. Four main findings emerge. First, jobs exhibit a clear pecking order, with household welfare and worker education highest for employers, followed by wage and salaried employees, non-agricultural own-account workers, non-agricultural unpaid family workers, and finally agricultural workers. Second, a substantial minority of own-account workers reside in non-poor households, suggesting that their profits are often a secondary source of household income. Third, as per capita income increases, the structure of employment shifts rapidly, first out of agriculture into unsuccessful non-agricultural self-employment...

Entrepreneurship Training and Self-Employment among University Graduates : Evidence from a Randomized Trial In Tunisia

Premand, Patrick; Brodmann, Stefanie; Almeida, Rita; Grun, Rebekka; Barouni, Mahdi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
In economies characterized by low labor demand and high rates of youth unemployment, entrepreneurship training has the potential to enable youth to gain skills and create their own jobs. This paper presents experimental evidence on a new entrepreneurship track that provides business training and personalized coaching to university students in Tunisia. Undergraduates in the final year of licence appliquee were given the opportunity to graduate with a business plan instead of following the standard curriculum. This paper relies on randomized assignment of the entrepreneurship track to identify impacts on labor market outcomes one year after graduation. The analysis finds that the entrepreneurship track was effective in increasing self-employment among applicants, but that the effects are small in absolute terms. In addition, the employment rate among participants remains unchanged, pointing to a partial substitution from wage employment to self-employment. The evidence shows that the program fostered business skills...

Self-Employment in the Developing World

Gindling, T. H.; Newhouse, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
This paper analyzes heterogeneity among the self-employed in 74 developing countries, representing two thirds of the population of the developing world. After profiling how worker characteristics vary by employment status, we classify self-employed workers outside of agriculture as “successful” or “unsuccessful” entrepreneurs, based on two measures of success: Whether the worker is an employer, and whether they reside in a non-poor household. Four main findings emerge. First, jobs exhibit a clear pecking order, with household welfare and worker education highest for employers, followed by wage and salaried employees, non-agricultural own-account workers, non-agricultural unpaid family workers, and finally agricultural workers. Second, a substantial minority of own-account workers reside in non-poor households, suggesting that their profits are often a secondary source of household income. Third, as per capita income increases, the structure of employment shifts rapidly, first out of agriculture into unsuccessful non-agricultural self-employment, and then mainly into non-agricultural wage employment. Finally, roughly one third of the unsuccessful entrepreneurs share similar characteristics with their successful counterparts...

Three Essays on Self-Employment Transitions, Organizational Capital, and Firm Formation

Deli, Fatma
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
This dissertation explores how economic, organizational, and personal factors affect self-employment transitions, occupational decisions, and firm formation activities of individuals at different positions in the skill distribution. The first essay of my dissertation studies how local unemployment rates differentially affect entry into self-employment by individuals at different places in the skill distribution. The empirical results show a positive correlation between local unemployment rates and entry into self-employment for low-ability workers, but not for high-ability workers. Including employer size to eliminate possible distortions showed that the positive association between unemployment and self-employment among low-ability workers is in fact driven by the small firm effect. Controlling for firm size yields a negative association between unemployment and self-employment among high-ability workers. Effects of organizational capital, human capital and physical capital, on the firm formation activities of people at distinct skill levels depend on the type of the industry which is chosen for the new firm. Two types of industries, capital-intensive and ability-intensive, are utilized to explore this hypothesis in the second essay. A capital-intensive industry requires more physical investment...

From complements to substitutes : structural breaks in the elasticity of substitution between paidemployment and self-employment in the US

Congregado, Emilio; Esteve, Vicente; Golpe, Antonio A.
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Este trabajo proporciona estimaciones de la elasticidad de sustitución entre el factor empresarial y el factor trabajo en la economía norteamericana para el period 1969-2011. Estimando la relación a largo plazo entre la ratio asalariados/autoempleados y la ratio entre las rentas salariales y empresariales y contrastando la posible existencia de cambio estructural en la relación, nuestros resultados apuntan hacia la existencia de tres regímenes caracterizados por diferentes estimaciones de la elasticidad. Nuestros resultados ayudan a entender e interpretar uno de los aspectos más intrigantes de la evolución de las tasas de autoempleo en los países desarrollados; This paper provides estimates of the elasticity of substitution between operational and managerial jobs in the US economy during the years 1969-2011. Estimating the long-term relationship between the aggregate employment/self-employment ratio and the returns from paid-employment relative to self-employment and testing for structural breaks, we report different estimates of the elasticity of substitution in each of the three regimes identified. Our results help to understand and interpret one of the most intriguing aspects in the evolution of self-employment rates in developed countries

Heterogeneous self-employment and subjective well-being: evidence from Latin America

Cort??s Aguilar, Alexandra; Garc??a-Mu??oz, Teresa; Moro-Egido, Ana
Fonte: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica Publicador: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica
Tipo: Relatório
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This paper analyzes the relationship between labor status and individual satisfaction in Latin America. Existing evidence for developed countries shows that the self-employed report higher job satisfaction than the employed. The evidence, however, is less conclusive in terms of lifesatisfaction. Moreover, for Latin American countries, the evidence shows that self-employed individuals report lower life-satisfaction than employed individuals do. To clarify the effect of selfemployment on satisfaction, we use the Latinobar??metro survey 2007 for eighteen Latin American and Caribbean countries, considering the category self-employment as a heterogeneous category. Additionally, we control for the distinction between necessity and opportunity self-employed. Contrary to existing evidence, we find that not all self-employed individuals are more satisfied than employed individuals. Specifically, we find evidence revealing that, compared to workers in paid employment (i) precarious self-employed workers are as satisfied as the employed with their life but less with job and household income; (ii) self-employed professionals are more satisfied than the employed only with their incomes; (iii) business owners are more satisfied with their lives...

Self-employment and labour market transitions: a multiple state model

Martínez-Granado, Maite
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/1998 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
In this paper we estimate a multiple state transition model for the UK describing transitions in and out three possible labour market states: self-employment, paid employment and unemployment. This enables us to assess the effect of demographic characteristics as well as time changing economics conditions on the probabilities of exiting and entering each different state. A reduced form model is estimated allowing for unobservable individual heterogeneity. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of a deterioration of the labour market conditions generating an increase in the self-employment rates in adverse economic conditions. However unemployment duration generates a loss on human capital that reduce the probabilities of switching to self-employment. It appears also that -family background and education play and important role in determining the transition probabilities. Medium level educated individuals are the most likely to become self-employed.

Self-employment in Denmark and Spain: institution, economic conditions and gender differences

Carrasco, Raquel; Ejrnaes, Mette
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: text/plain; application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2003 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
Among the OECD countries, Spain faces one of the highest rates of self-employment and Denmark one of the lowest, being the difference specially relevant among women. These two countries present important differences in their institutional environment and labour market conditions: the level of labour market flexibility and the importance of parttime employment, the generosity of the unemployment benefit systems, and the role of the child care policies, among others. In this paper we compare the Danish and Spanish labour markets and analyze to what extent the different evolution of female and male self-employment rates are influenced by country-specific employment conditions. This study is carried out for men and women separately using a strictly comparable panel data set for the two countries. The results indicate that in Spain self-employment seems to offer individuals who normally are considered as marginalized in the labour market a beneficial alternative to wage employment, while this pattern is not so clear in Denmark. Our analysis suggests that an important factor in explaining the difference in Danish and Spanish self-employment rates is the different employment environment that both countries face.

Self-employment in the midst of unemployment : the cases of Spain and the United States

Alba, Alfonso
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/1991 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
This article examines the relationship between unemployment and selfemployment. The empirical work is framed by a job search model with learning, where self-employment is an alternative for jobless workers. Consistent with the model's prediction, we find that for both spain and the United States, duration of unemployment significantly increases the probability of becoming self-employed. Further analysis showed that part-time work and the absence of Social Security coverage are more likely to be aseociated with self-employed workers. We also find that, in Spain, those self-employed who do not hire any persone earn eignificantly less than other comparable workers

Patterns of Self-Employment: An Empirical Comparison of Young People's Entrepreneurial Pursuits in Poland and Ireland

KRZYZANOWSKA, Olga
Fonte: Polskie Towarzystwo Socjologiczne-Polish Sociological Assoc Publicador: Polskie Towarzystwo Socjologiczne-Polish Sociological Assoc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
This article analyses the phenomenon of self-employment and entrepreneurship among the 20-35-year-olds in the two country contexts; Poland and Ireland, and the capital cities of Warsaw and Dublin, respectively, in 2005. It seeks to compare motivations driving the choice of an autonomous Style of work; role of social capital both for decisions to start up as well as for subsequent economic performance; the value of an institutional environment for entrepreneurial efforts. It examines such aspects through the prism of the economic and socio-cultural characteristics of the countries in question. By this, the article draws a broad picture of findings that may inform individual its well its macro-related characteristics of entrepreneurship.

Self-employment in Chile, long run trends and education and age structures changes; Empleo por cuenta propia en Chile, tendencias de largo plazo y cambios en la estructura educacional y etaria

Contreras Guajardo, Dante; Sanhueza, Claudia; Puentes Encina, Esteban
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Departamento de Economía Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Departamento de Economía
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
Artículo de publicación ISI; This paper studies long-term trends of self-employment in Chile. Self-employment is associated with poor job conditions, vulnerability, and instability or informal labor market. Contrary to what is expected, self- employment level does not respond to macroeconomic variables. Using forty-one cross sections of the longest Employment Survey available, we show that there is little correlation of the economic cycle with variations in self-employment. Cohort effects are also unimportant. In fact, age is the most important predictor of self- employment; older people are more likely to be self-employed. In addition, we performed a decomposition of changes in self-employment on changes in coefficients, which are a measure of the returns to individual characteristics, and on changes in characteristics. The results indicate that self-employment should have decreased given the changes in individual characteristics, but was prevented by changes in coefficients. We also find indirect evidence that these changes in parameters are not correlated with macroeconomic variables. Finally, the changes in individual characteristics, such as education and age, and changes in their coefficients account for most of the changes in self-employment.

Autoempleo de alta cualificación en la España rural; High qualificated self-employment in rural Spain

Paniagua Mazorra, Ángel
Fonte: Universidad de Barcelona Publicador: Universidad de Barcelona
Tipo: Comunicación de congreso Formato: 267733 bytes; application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
[ES] El incremento del autoempleo ha sido considerado como una respuesta al proceso de terciarización de nuestra sociedad, a la vez que una solución a las elevadas tasas de desempleo y dificultades de inserción profesional de ciertos sectores sociales. En el presente trabajo se analiza la relevancia y las características cuantitativas y cualitativas del autoempleo de alta cualificación en las áreas rurales. El estudio, dentro del proyecto PB98-644 financiado por el MCYT, se fundamenta, por una parte, en el análisis de fuentes cuantitativas fiscales (Impuesto de Actividades Económicas) y, por otra, desarrolla un estudio cualitativo mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas a profesionales de alta cualificación que residen áreas rurales de tres provincias seleccionadas: Ciudad Real, Girona y Guadalajara.; [EN] Traditionally the development of self-employment as a consequence of the terciarization processs in western societies, and a solution to high rates of unemployment and the dificulties of profesional insertion of key social sectors The present paper analyses the relevance and the quantitative and qualitative characteristicas of the high qualificated selef employment in rural areas. This study, as a part of the research project PB98-644 sponsored by the MCYT...

Social interactions and information dynamics in self-employment in Mexico City

Valdivia López,Marcos
Fonte: UNAM, Facultad de Economía Publicador: UNAM, Facultad de Economía
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
This paper postulates that self-employment activities in Mexico City are subject to network contagion. This implies that entry-exit in self-employment is affected by other agents' decisions because individuals obtain increasing returns from conformity. In particular, it is claimed that physical proximity is an important component of how social interactions influence self-employment activities in Mexico City.