Reliable design of industrial components against high cycle multiaxial fatigue requires a model capable of predicting both stress gradient and load type effects. Indeed, taking into account gradient effects is of prior importance for the applicability of fatigue models to real structures. In this paper, a fatigue life
assessment method is proposed for proportional and non-proportional multiaxial variable amplitude loadings in the range 104 –107 cycles. This method derives from the fatigue criterion initially proposed by Palin-Luc and Lasserre (1998)  and revisited by Banvillet et al. (2003)  for multiaxial constant amplitude loading. The new proposal consists of a complete reformulation and extension of the previ-
ously cited energy based fatigue strength criteria. It includes two major improvements of the existing criteria. The first one consists in a fatigue criterion for multiaxial variable amplitude loadings while only constant amplitude loadings were considered in the above cited works. The second one is an extension to an incremental fatigue life assessment method for proportional and non-proportional multiaxial variable amplitude loadings. No cycle counting technique is needed whatever the variable amplitude load-
ings type considered (uniaxial or multiaxial). The predictions of the method for constant and variable amplitude multiaxial loadings are compared with experimental results on specimens from literature and from new experiments on a ferrito-perlitic steel. The above mentioned method has been implemented as a post-processor of a finite element software. An application to a railway wheel is finally presented.; Thèse CIFRE avec la SNCF...
Recent studies have suggested that in some cases transition can be triggered by some purely nonlinear
mechanisms. Here we aim at verifying such an hypothesis, looking for a localized perturbation able to lead a
boundary-layer flow to a chaotic state, following a nonlinear route. Nonlinear optimal localized perturbations
have been computed by means of an energy optimization which includes the nonlinear terms of the Navier-
Stokes equations. Such perturbations lie on the turbulent side of the laminar-turbulent boundary, whereas, for
the same value of the initial energy, their linear counterparts do not. The evolution of these perturbations
toward a turbulent flow involves the presence of streamwise-inclined vortices at short times and of hairpin
structures prior to breakdown.
Publisher version : http://iopscience.iop.org/1873-7005/44/3/031404; The understanding of transition in shear flows has recently progressed
along new paradigms based on the central role of coherent flow structures
and their nonlinear interactions. We follow such paradigms to identify, by
means of a nonlinear optimization of the energy growth at short time, the
initial perturbation which most easily induces transition in a boundary layer.
Moreover, a bisection procedure has been used to identify localized flow
structures living on the edge of chaos, found to be populated by hairpin vortices and streaks. Such an edge structure appears to act as a relative attractor for the trajectory of the laminar base state perturbed by the initial finite-amplitude disturbances, mediating the route to turbulence of the flow, via the triggering of a regeneration cycle of Lambda and hairpin structures at different space and time scales. These findings introduce a new, purely nonlinear scenario of transition in a boundary-layer flow.
Publisher version : http://pof.aip.org/resource/1/phfle6/v23/i5/p051705_s1?isAuthorized=no; The understanding of laminar-turbulent transition in shear flows has recently progressed along new paradigms based on the central role of nonlinear exact coherent states. We follow such paradigms to identify, for the first time in a spatially developing flow, localized flow structures living on the edge of chaos, which are the precursors of turbulence. These coherent structures are constituted by hairpin vortices and streamwise streaks. The results reported here extend the dynamical systems description of transition to spatially developing flows.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00419-012-0620-x; This paper proposes an extension of the SHB8PS solid–shell finite element to large strain anisotropic elasto-plasticity, with application to several non-linear benchmark tests including sheet metal forming simulations. This hexahedral linear element has an arbitrary number of integration points distributed along a single line, defining the "thickness" direction; and to control the hourglass modes inherent to this reduced integration, a physical stabilization technique is used. In addition, the assumed strain method is adopted for the elimination of locking. The implementation of the element in Abaqus/Standard via the UEL user subroutine has been assessed through a variety of benchmark problems involving geometric non-linearities, anisotropic plasticity, large deformation and contact. Initially designed for the efficient simulation of elastic–plastic thin structures, the SHB8PS exhibits interesting potentialities for sheet metal forming applications – both in terms of efficiency and accuracy. The element shows good performance on the selected tests, including springback and earing predictions for Numisheet benchmark problems.
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Stochastic Estimation are combined to shed some light on the link between organized flow structures and noise generation by turbulent flows. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is firstly used to extract selected flow events. Based on the knowledge of these structures, the Quadratic Stochastic Estimation of the acoustic pressure field is secondly performed. Both procedures are successively applied to two- and three-dimensional numerical databases of a flow over a cavity. It is demonstrated that POD can extract selected aerodynamic events which can be associated with selected frequencies in the acoustic spectra. Reconstructed acoustic fields also indicate the aerodynamic events which are responsible of the main energy of the noise emission. Such mathematical tools offer new perspectives in analysing flow structures involved in sound generation by turbulent flows and in the experimental design of a flow control strategy.
• Dynamic fluid structure interaction of a sail plan is modeled in harmonic pitching
• Aerodynamic forces oscillations show hysteresis phenomena
• Neglecting the structural deformation underestimates the forces oscillations
• Both aerodynamic and structure inertia affect loads in the rig.; A numerical investigation of the dynamic Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) of a yacht sail plan submitted to harmonic pitching is presented to address both issues of aerodynamic unsteadiness and structural deformation. The FSI model | Vortex Lattice Method uid model and Finite Element structure model | has been validated with full-scale measurements. It is shown that the dynamic behaviour of a sail plan subject to yacht motion clearly deviates from the quasi-steady theory. The aerodynamic forces presented as a function of the instantaneous apparent wind angle show hysteresis
loops, suggesting that some energy is exchanged by the system. The area
included in the hysteresis loop increases with the motion reduced frequency
and amplitude. Comparison of rigid versus soft structures shows that FSI
increases the energy exchanged by the system and that the oscillations of
aerodynamic forces are underestimated when the structure deformation is
not considered. Dynamic loads in the fore and aft rigging wires are dominated
by structural and inertial effects. This FSI model and the obtained results may be useful firstly for yacht design...
The aim of our study is to investigate numerically the interaction between a dispersed phase composed of microbubbles and a turbulent Taylor-Couette flow (flow within the gap between two cylinders). We use the Euler-Lagrange approach based on Direct Numerical Simulation of the continuous phase flow equations and a Lagrangian tracking for the dispersed phase. Each bubble trajectory is calculated by integrating the force balance equation accounting for buoyancy, drag, added-mass, pressure gradient, and the lift forces. The numerical method has been adapted in order to take into account the feed-back effect of the dispersed bubbles on the carrying flow. Our approach is based on local volume average of the two-phase Navier-Stokes equations. Local and temporal variations of the bubble concentration and momentum source terms are accounted for in mass and momentum balance equations. A number of reference cases have been tested to validate the modelling approach and its numerical implementation. Then, our previous study of bubble dispersion has been extended to two-way coupling simulations of turbulent Taylor-Couette flows (only inner cylinder is rotating). Modulation of the drag will be discussed for different geometries, Reynolds numbers and bubble sizes. The results show that near-wall turbulent structures are modified by the presence of bubbles.
The present study focusses on analysing and modelling the influence on fatigue behaviour of the surface of a hot-forged C70 connecting rod which undergoes a shot-blasting treatment. The shot-blasting heavily affects the surface and thus the fatigue properties. In addition, the forging process introduces large defects which also have an effect on the fatigue strength. So as to be able to determine which aspects of the surface integrity are the most influential in fatigue, various surface states were thoroughly characterised and then tested in high cycle fatigue in bending. The various aspects studied are the surface roughness and large defects, residual stresses, microstructure and hardness.
Une méthodologie est proposée dans cet article dans le but de faciliter l’évaluation de la stabilité d’une opération de fraisage, pour une broche, un outil et une position connue de la broche dans son espace de travail.
L’approche se base sur une procédure d’indentification du comportement dynamique de la broche qui se suit par un couplage des FRF du système (broche et attachement) avec le tronçon avant de l’outil d’usinage pour prédire la FRF en sa pointe. Celle-ci permet à l’aide d’une résolution analytique de l’équation caractéristique de la dynamique de fraisage dans le domaine fréquentiel de prédire la limite de stabilité critique. Dans le but d’étudier la variabilité du comportement dynamique du système usinant dans son espace de travail, la même démarche est appliquée dans différentes positions. Les profondeurs de passe critiques obtenu pas simulations sont comparées à celles qui sont obtenues par fraisage.; The aim of this work is to provide a methodology helping on the evaluation of the milling process stability for a given spindle, tool and work space position of the spindle.
The proposed approach is based on the spindle dynamic behavior identification. Then, a FRF coupling is made between the identified system and the tool model in order to obtain the FRF at the tool tip. Therefore...
The dynamic Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) of yacht sails submitted to a harmonic pitching motion is numerically investigated to address both issues of aerodynamic unsteadiness and structural deformation. The model consists in an implicit
dynamic coupling algorithm between a Vortex Lattice Method model for the aerodynamics and a Finite Element Method model for the structure dynamics. It is shown that the dynamic behaviour of a sail plan subject to yacht motion clearly deviates from the quasi-steady theory. The aerodynamic forces oscillation shows hysteresis phenomena and equivalent damping and stiffening effects of the unsteady beahvior.
The area of the hysteresis loop increases with the motion reduced frequency and amplitude.
In the case of a rigid structure, the aerodynamic forces oscillations and the exchanged energy are lower than for a flexible structure.; The authors are grateful to Prof. Fossati of Politecnico di Milano for valuable discussions and to the K-Epsilon company for continuous collaboration. This work was supported by the French Naval Academy.
The paper addresses a theoretical study of the added mass effect in cavitating flow.The cavitation is considered to induce a strong time–space variation of the fluid density at the interface between an inviscid fluid and a three-degree-of-freedom rigid section. The coupled problem is then simplified to a Laplace equation written for the pressure with a
boundary condition at the fluid–structure interface depending on the acceleration, the velocity of the structure and on the rate of change of flow density. It is shown that contrary to the homogeneous flow, the added mass operator is not symmetrical and depends on the flow through fluid density variation. The added mass coefficients decrease as the cavitation increases which should induce an increase of the natural structural frequencies. The model shows also an added damping operator related to the rate of change of flow density. Added damping coefficients are found to be positive or
negative according to the rate of change of the fluid density, indicating the possibility of instability development between flexible structures and unsteady cavitating flows.
Adhesive bondin,g bas a great poœnlial far future ligbtweight bigb-loaded structures in the a.eronautic industiy. A preœquisite for sucb an application is dtat the bond quality of the adhesive joint can be assessed in a non-destructive way. However, the use of da.ssicaJ Non•DesiiUctive Techniques (NDT) does not aUow the evaluation of the adhesion stren,gt:h of an adhesive bond yet This paper pn!sents an investigation made on weak composite bonds in on!er to develop a laser shock wave adhesion test First, the procedure to produce controlled weak bonds is desaibed. CFRP bonded samples are pn!pared in a spedfic way and characterized by ultrasonic techniques to assess the absence of any detectable defect. 1ben, for sorne of the .samples, their bond streDgth is evaluated by mechanical destructive œsts and ether .samples are loaded by v.arious intensity lasers shocks. The obtained results help to understand the behavior of the composite bonds under Jaser shock loading:. thanks to two post-mortem techrùques. 1becorrelation between the laser parameterS and the induced damage is demon.strated, The potential of the laser shock. technique to dl.saiminate different bond quallties is shawn, and the need for the œst optinùzationlsdÛ(U
Handling of large industrial mechanical assemblies implies structure interactions
commonly modeled with contact formulations. In cases where component interfaces are discretized using non conforming meshes, classical contact solutions have difﬁculties producing correct contact pressure ﬁelds. The method presented in this paper gives a relevant measure of interface compatibility and shows how it can be exploited to obtain regular contact pressures or limit over-integration in the contact formulation.
The present work provides an optimal control strategy, based on the nonlinear
Navier–Stokes equations, aimed at hampering the rapid growth of unsteady finite-amplitude perturbations in a Blasius boundary-layer flow. A variational procedure is used to find the blowing and suction control law at the wall providing the maximum damping of the energy of a given perturbation at a given target time, with the final aim of leading the flow back to the laminar state. Two optimally growing finite-amplitude initial perturbations capable of leading very rapidly to transition have been used to initialize the flow. The nonlinear control procedure has been found able to drive such perturbations back to the laminar state, provided that the target time of the minimization and the region in which the blowing and suction is applied have been suitably chosen. On the other hand, an equivalent control procedure based on the linearized Navier–Stokes equations has been found much less effective, being not able to lead the flow to the laminar state when finite-amplitude disturbances are considered. Regions of strong sensitivity to blowing and suction have been also identified for the given initial perturbations: when the control is actuated in such regions...
This paper provides an investigation of the structure of the stable manifold of the lower branch steady state for the plane Couette flow. Minimal energy perturbations to the laminar state are computed, which approach within a prescribed tolerance the lower branch steady state in a finite time. For small times, such minimal-energy perturbations maintain at least one of the symmetries characterizing the lower branch state. For a sufficiently large time horizon, such symmetries are broken and the minimal-energy perturbations on the stable manifold are formed by localized asymmetrical vortical structures. These minimal-energy perturbations could be employed to develop a control procedure aiming at stabilizing the low-dissipation lower branch state.
We use direct numerical simulations in the presence of free-stream turbulence having different values of intensity, T u, and integral length scale, L, in order to determine which kind of structures are involved in the path to transition of a boundary-layer flow. The main aim is to determine under which conditions the path to transition involves structures similar to the linear or non-linear optimal perturbations. For high values of T u and L, we observe a large-amplitude path to transition characterized by localized vortical structures and patches of high- and low-momentum fluctuations. Such a scenario is found to correlate well with the L and hairpin structures resulting from the time evolution of non-linear optimal perturbations, whereas, for lower T u and L, a larger correlation is found with respect to linear optimal disturbances. This indicates that a large-amplitude path to transition exists, different from the one characterized by elongated streaks undergoing secondary instability. To distinguish between the two transition scenarios, a simple parameter linked to the streamwise localisation of high- and low-momentum zones is introduced. Finally, an accurate law to predict the transition location is provided, taking into account both T u and L...
The paper presents the results of numerical analysis on the local and global internal flow behaviour at the inlet of the vaned diffuser of a radial flow pump model, taking into account the effect of fluid leakages for various flow rates and a given rotation of speed.
For each flow rate, numerical calculations were performed both with two different boundary conditions:
- Without any leakage effects.
- With calculated leakage effects
The numerical simulations were realized with the two commercial codes: i-Star CCM+ 8.02.011 (at LML), ii-CFX 10.0 (at University of Padova). RANS unsteady calculations, with a k- RNG model were performed with Star CCM+. Fully unsteady calculations of the whole pump were done with CFX with DES turbulentmethod (Cavazzini ).
For each flow rate, different angular positions of the impeller are considered.
First part of the paper shows global comparisons between numerical and experimental results already presented in ref [2-3], for which the effects of fluid leakage due to the gap between the rotating and fixed part of the pump model were found to be interesting to be analysed.
Second part is devoted to the local comparisons of flow structures at the inlet section of the diffuser, without and with leakages only with Star CCM+.
tThe direct metal deposition (DMD) laser technique is a free-form metal deposition process, which allowsgenerating a prototype or small series of near net-shape structures. Despite numerous advantages, oneof the most critical issues of the technique is that produced pieces have a deleterious surface finish whichrequires post machining steps. Following recent investigations where the use of laser pulses instead of acontinuous regime was successful to obtain smoother DMD structures, this paper relates investigationson the influence of a pulsed laser regime on the surface finish induced by DMD on a widely used titaniumalloy (Ti64). Findings confirm that using high mean powers improves surface finish but also indicate aspecific effect of the laser operating mode: using a quasi-continuous pulsed mode instead of fully-cw laserheating is an efficient way for surface finish improvement. For similar average powers, the use of a pulsedmode with large duty cycles is clearly shown to provide smoothening effects. The formation of larger andstable melt pools having less pronounced lateral curvatures, and the reduction of thermal gradients andMarangoni flow in the external side of the fusion zone were assumed to be the main reasons for surfacefinish improvement. Additional results indicate that combining the benefits from a pulsed regime and auniform laser irradiation does not provide further reduction of surface roughness.
Impressive enhancements of the storage modulus have been documented when low volume fractions of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are added to a Newtonian solvent for obtaining dilute suspensions. The intrinsic bending dynamics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been proposed to explain such elasticity. CNTs contain topological defects inducing naturally bent structures in absence of external forces and, hence, a semiflexible filament with a bent configuration at minimal internal-bending-energy is used for mimicking the structure of SWNTs in suspension. Previous continuous model is discretized as a non-freely jointed bead-rod chain with a naturally bent configuration for simulating the rheological behaviour after a shear-strain step in linear regime of SWNT dilute suspension by using a Brownian dynamics (BD) approach. In general, bead-rod chains exhibit an instantaneous relaxation after a high shear-strain step. Bending rigidity and number of constitutive rods are found to be determinant parameters in the internal-energy relaxation behaviour of non-freely jointed bead-rod chains in dilute solution. Proper comparisons between the BD simulation results and the experimental data for treated SWNT dilute suspensions confirm the consistency of the physical model mimicking the structure of a SWNT.