Página 1 dos resultados de 12825 itens digitais encontrados em 0.010 segundos

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and disorder in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine or haloperidol

SA, Antonio R.; HOUNIE, Ana G.; SAMPAIO, Aline S.; ARRAIS, Jony; MIGUEL, Euripedes C.; ELKIS, Helio
Fonte: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC Publicador: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine or haloperidol. Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I disorders-patient edition was used to diagnose schizophrenia and OCD. Sixty subjects, 40 of them using clozapine and 20 using haloperidol, completed the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Clinical Global Impression. The prevalence of OCD in patients taking clozapine was 20%, whereas the prevalence of patients taking haloperidol was 10%, although this difference was not statistically significant (P = .540). However, patients using clozapine showed higher severity of OCSs than patients using haloperidol (P = .027) did. When schizophrenia patients were divided according to the presence or absence of OCD or OCSs, patients with schizophrenia and OCD or OCSs showed higher severity of schizophrenia symptoms when compared to those with schizophrenia without OCD and OCSs (P = .002). A PANSS total score higher than 70 and the use of antidepressants were predictors of the presence of OCSs or OCD. Schizophrenia patients taking clozapine had higher severity scores both in obsessive-compulsive and schizophrenia rating scales. These results may support an association between the exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive phenomena and the use of clozapine. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Stereologic investigation of the posterior part of the hippocampus in schizophrenia

SCHMITT, Andrea; STEYSKAL, Corinna; BERNSTEIN, Hans-Gert; SCHNEIDER-AXMANN, Thomas; PARLAPANI, Eleni; SCHAEFFER, Evelin L.; GATTAZ, Wagner F.; BOGERTS, Bernhard; SCHMITZ, Christoph; FALKAI, Peter
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
Structural magnetic resonance imaging and postmortem studies showed volume loss in the hippocampus in schizophrenia. The noted tissue reduction in the posterior section suggests that some cellular subfractions within this structure might be reduced in schizophrenia. To address this, we investigated numbers and densities of neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the posterior hippocampal subregions in postmortem brains from ten patients with schizophrenia and ten matched controls using design-based stereology performed on Nissl-stained sections. Compared to the controls, the patients with schizophrenia showed a significant decrease in the mean number of oligodendrocytes in the left and right CA4. This is the first finding of reduced numbers of oligodendrocytes in CA4 of the posterior part of the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Our results are in line with earlier findings in the literature concerning decreased numbers of oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Our results may indicate disturbed connectivity of the CA4 of the posterior part of the hippocampus in schizophrenia and, thus, contribute to the growing number of studies showing the involvement of posterior hippocampal pathology in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.; European Commission[LSHM-CT-2004-503039]

Schizophrenia, brain disease and meta-analyses: Integrating the pieces and testing Fusar-Poli`s hypothesis

DIAS, Alvaro Machado; QUEIROZ, Artur Trancoso Lopo; MARACAJA-COUTINHO, Vinicius
Fonte: CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE Publicador: CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
This paper aims to discuss and test the hypothesis raised by Fusar-Poli [Fusar-Poli P. Can neuroimaging prove that schizophrenia is a brain disease? A radical hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses in press, corrected proof] that ""on the basis of the available imaging literature there is no consistent evidence to reject the radical and provocative hypothesis that schizophrenia is not a brain disease"". To achieve this goal, all meta-analyses on `fMRI and schizophrenia` published during the current decade and indexed in Pubmed were summarized, as much as some other useful information, e.g., meta-analyses on genetic risk factors. Our main conclusion is that the literature fully supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia is a syndrome (not a disease) associated with brain abnormalities, despite the fact that there is no singular and reductionist pathway from the nosographic entity (schizophrenia) to its causes. This irreducibility is due to the fact that the syndrome has more than one dimension (e.g., cognitive, psychotic and negative) and each of them is related to abnormalities in specific neuronal networks. A psychiatric diagnosis is a statistical procedure; these dimensions are not identically represented in each diagnosticated case and this explains the existence of more than one pattern of brain abnormalities related to schizophrenia. For example...

Estereótipos e crenças relacionadas à esquizofrenia: um levantamento comparativo entre profissionais de saúde mental e a população geral do Brasil; Stereotypes and beliefs related to schizophrenia: A comparative study between mental health professionals and the general population of Brazil

Loch, Alexandre Andrade
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/11/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
O presente estudo avaliou o estigma relacionado à esquizofrenia em duas amostras no Brasil: uma amostra de psiquiatras que estavam frequentando o XXVII Congresso Brasileiro de Psiquiatria, e uma amostra representativa da população geral do Brasil. Os objetivos do estudo foram: (1) avaliar o estigma da esquizofrenia na população geral e nos psiquiatras brasileiros; (2) analisar quais variáveis correlacionam-se com as medidas de estigma da esquizofrenia estudadas; (3) analisar se as amostras se comportam de maneira homogênea ou se há perfis diferentes de crenças estigmatizantes; (4) comparar psiquiatras e população brasileira com relação as suas crenças relacionadas à esquizofrenia. Com relação à amostra de psiquiatras, 1414 psiquiatras foram recrutados durante o XXVII congresso Brasileiro de Psiquiatria, realizado em São Paulo em 2009. Para a amostra de população geral, 2001 indivíduos representativos da população do Brasil foram escolhidos pelos métodos probabilístico e semi-probabilistico. Um instrumento avaliando quatro dimensões de estigma foi aplicado: atribuição de estereótipos, desejo por distância social, restrições a direitos civis e preconceito percebido. Para os psiquiatras, este instrumento foi aplicado face-a-face; antes da aplicação do instrumento foi dito que deviam responder ao mesmo pensando em uma pessoa com esquizofrenia. Para a população geral...

Crianças e adolescentes em risco para esquizofrenia e transtorno afetivo bipolar: um estudo comparativo; Children and adolescents at risk for schizophrenia and Bipolar affective disorder: a comparative study

Gutt, Elisa Kijner
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Introdução: Atualmente, muito tem se estudado a respeito de a esquizofrenia e do transtorno afetivo-bipolar (TAB) pertencerem a um continuum de sinais e sintomas que caracterizam o espectro da psicose, com etiologias que se sobrepõem parcialmente. O estudo comparativo de crianças filhas de pacientes com esquizofrenia e com transtorno bipolar pode ajudar na compreensão do quanto à vulnerabilidade para o desenvolvimento dessas patologias se assemelha e em quais momentos se diferencia. Os objetivos deste estudo foram comparar crianças e adolescentes em risco para esquizofrenia, para transtorno bipolar e um grupo sem risco para estes transtornos em relação a: 1) presença de problemas de saúde mental, diagnóstico psiquiátrico, competência social, quociente intelectual (QI); 2) associação entre presença de diagnóstico ou sintomas psiquiátricos nas crianças e a presença de diagnóstico psiquiátrico materno (esquizofrenia ou transtorno bipolar do humor), gravidade do diagnóstico materno, complicações obstétricas, nível socioeconômico dos pais, escolaridade da mãe. Métodos: Foi realizado estudo transversal comparando filhos de mulheres com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia e transtorno afetivo bipolar, segundo critérios do DSM-IV...

The Portuguese version of the Clinical Global Impression - Schizophrenia Scale: validation study

Lima,Maurício Silva de; Soares,Bernardo Garcia de Oliveira; Paoliello,Gilda; Vieira,Rodrigo Machado; Martins,Cláudio Meneghello; Mota Neto,Joaquim Ignácio da; Ferrão,Ygor; Schirmer,Douglas Allen; Volpe,Fernando Madalena
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
OBJECTIVES: The Clinical Global Impression - Schizophrenia Scale was designed to assess severity and treatment response in subjects with schizophrenia involved in naturalistic studies and daily clinical practice. The objective of this study is to validate the Portuguese version of the Clinical Global Impression - Schizophrenia Scale in Brazil by assessing its psychometric properties. METHOD: Cross-sectional validation study of the Portuguese version of the Clinical Global Impression - Schizophrenia Scale, tested in outpatients and inpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV, ICD-10) from 6 centers in Brazil. Concurrent validity and sensitivity to change were assessed by comparison with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, which is considered the gold standard tool to evaluate patients with schizophrenia. Interrater reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) calculated based on the scoring of two concomitant raters. RESULTS: 70 inpatients and 70 outpatients were evaluated. Total Clinical Global Impression - Schizophrenia Scale and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores were highly correlated (r = 0.79; p < 0.01). Positive (r = 0.86), negative (r = 0.79), depressive (r = 0.66) and cognitive (r = 0.75) symptoms subscale scores were also correlated between both scales (p < 0.01). Sensitivity to change was significantly correlated between the Clinical Global Impression - Schizophrenia Scale and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (r = 0.73; p < 0.01). Interrater reliability was substantial for positive symptoms and total scores of the Clinical Global Impression - Schizophrenia Scale (ICC = 0.81 and 0.73)...

Spatial Working Memory as a Cognitive Endophenotype of Schizophrenia: Assessing Risk for Pathophysiological Dysfunction

Saperstein, Alice M.; Fuller, Rebecca L.; Avila, Matthew T.; Adami, Helene; McMahon, Robert P.; Thaker, Gunvant K.; Gold, James M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
Research suggests that first-degree relatives and individuals with schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders (SSPD) may represent nonpenetrant carriers of the genetic diathesis for schizophrenia. This study examined visuospatial working memory (SWM) as a cognitive endophenotype of schizophrenia by expanding the concept of risk for pathophysiological dysfunction beyond overt psychosis. Risk was thus defined by familial status and the presence or absence of SSPD. SWM was assessed in the following groups, in order of decreasing likelihood of genetic vulnerability: 23 patients with schizophrenia, 17 SSPD relatives of patients with schizophrenia, 23 non-SSPD relatives of patients with schizophrenia, 14 SSPD community members with no family history of psychosis, and 36 non-SSPD community members. SWM performance during a computer task was quantified by A-Prime. Relative risk ratios for SWM deficits were compared among the groups. Compared with community non-SSPD volunteers, relative risk (RR) of SWM deficits was significantly elevated in patients with schizophrenia (RR = 3.76, p = .002) and SSPD family members (RR = 2.97, p = .027), but not in the family non-SSPD (RR = 1.88, p = .241) or community SSPD (RR = 1.03, p = .971) groups. The pattern of SWM performance deficits reflected the proposed model of latent genetic liability...

Limbic Structures and Networks in Children and Adolescents With Schizophrenia

White, Tonya; Cullen, Kathryn; Rohrer, Lisa Michelle; Karatekin, Canan; Luciana, Monica; Schmidt, Marcus; Hongwanishkul, Donaya; Kumra, Sanjiv; Charles Schulz, S.; Lim, Kelvin O.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
Studies of adults with schizophrenia provide converging evidence for abnormalities in the limbic system. Limbic structures that show consistent patient/control differences in both postmortem and neuroimaging studies include the anterior cingulate and hippocampus, although differences in the amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and fornix have also been observed. Studies of white matter in children and adolescents with schizophrenia tend to show findings that are more focal than those seen in adults. Interestingly, these focal abnormalities in early-onset schizophrenia tend to be more localized to limbic regions. While it is unclear if these early limbic abnormalities are primary in the etiology of schizophrenia, there is evidence that supports a developmental progression with early limbic abnormalities evolving over time to match the neuroimaging profiles seen in adults with schizophrenia. Alternatively, the aberrations in limbic structures may be secondary to a more widespread or global pathological processes occurring with the brain that disrupt neural transmission. The goal of this article is to provide a review of the limbic system and limbic network abnormalities reported in children and adolescents with schizophrenia. These findings are compared with the adult literature and placed within a developmental context. These observations from neuroimaging studies enrich our current understanding of the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia and raise further questions about primary vs secondary processes. Additional research within a developmental framework is necessary to determine the putative etiologic roles for limbic and other brain abnormalities in early-onset schizophrenia.

Prenatal Nutritional Deficiency and Risk of Adult Schizophrenia

Brown, Alan S.; Susser, Ezra S.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
Converging evidence suggests that a neurodevelopmental disruption plays a role in the vulnerability to schizophrenia. The authors review evidence supporting in utero exposure to nutritional deficiency as a determinant of schizophrenia. We first describe studies demonstrating that early gestational exposure to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944–1945 and to a severe famine in China are each associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring. The plausibility of several candidate micronutrients as potential risk factors for schizophrenia and the biological mechanisms that may underlie these associations are then reviewed. These nutrients include folate, essential fatty acids, retinoids, vitamin D, and iron. Following this discussion, we describe the methodology and results of an epidemiologic study based on a large birth cohort that has tested the association between prenatal homocysteine, an indicator of serum folate, and schizophrenia risk. The study capitalized on the use of archived prenatal serum specimens that make it possible to obtain direct, prospective biomarkers of prenatal insults, including levels of various nutrients during pregnancy. Finally, we discuss several strategies for subjecting the prenatal nutritional hypothesis of schizophrenia to further testing. These approaches include direct assessment of additional prenatal nutritional biomarkers in relation to schizophrenia in large birth cohorts...

Boosting the Power of Schizophrenia Genetics by Leveraging New Statistical Tools

Andreassen, Ole A.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Dale, Anders M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of gene variants associated with schizophrenia, but these variants explain only a small portion of the heritability. It is becoming increasingly clear that schizophrenia is influenced by many genes, most of which have effects too small to be identified using traditional GWAS statistical methods. By applying recently developed Empirical Bayes statistical approaches, we have demonstrated that functional genic elements show differential contribution to phenotypic variance, with some elements (regulatory regions and exons) showing strong enrichment for association with schizophrenia. Applying related methods, we also showed abundant genetic overlap (pleiotropy) between schizophrenia and other phenotypes, including bipolar disorder, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and multiple sclerosis. We estimated the number of gene variants with effects in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to be approximately 1.2%. By applying our novel statistical framework, we dramatically improved gene discovery and detected a large number of new gene loci associated with schizophrenia that have not yet been identified with standard GWAS methods. Utilizing independent schizophrenia substudies...

Sleep spindle deficits in antipsychotic-naïve early course schizophrenia and in non-psychotic first-degree relatives

Manoach, Dara S.; Demanuele, Charmaine; Wamsley, Erin J.; Vangel, Mark; Montrose, Debra M.; Miewald, Jean; Kupfer, David; Buysse, Daniel; Stickgold, Robert; Keshavan, Matcheri S.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Introduction: Chronic medicated patients with schizophrenia have marked reductions in sleep spindle activity and a correlated deficit in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Using archival data, we investigated whether antipsychotic-naïve early course patients with schizophrenia and young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia also show reduced sleep spindle activity and whether spindle activity correlates with cognitive function and symptoms. Method: Sleep spindles during Stage 2 sleep were compared in antipsychotic-naïve adults newly diagnosed with psychosis, young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and two samples of healthy controls matched to the patients and relatives. The relations of spindle parameters with cognitive measures and symptom ratings were examined. Results: Early course schizophrenia patients showed significantly reduced spindle activity relative to healthy controls and to early course patients with other psychotic disorders. Relatives of schizophrenia patients also showed reduced spindle activity compared with controls. Reduced spindle activity correlated with measures of executive function in early course patients, positive symptoms in schizophrenia and IQ estimates across groups. Conclusions: Like chronic medicated schizophrenia patients...

Caregiving experiences of families living with persons with schizophrenia: a systematic review

Tungpunkom, P.; Napa, W.; Chaniang, S.; Srikhachin, P.
Fonte: University of Adelaide Publicador: University of Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
Background Living with and caring for patient with schizophrenia is difficult, often long-term responsibilities. These caregiving experiences have been studied in a holistic and meaningful manner by using qualitative approaches. Aims, objectives This systematic review aims to determine the meaningfulness of caregiving experiences of families living with person with schizophrenia. Background Schizophrenia is one of the most severe chronic mental illnesses, characterized by a disintegration of the process of thinking and of emotional responsiveness. Families are often required to play the major role of taking responsibility for caring for these patients. Objectives The objective of this review was to synthesize the best available evidence on the meaningfulness of caregiving experiences of families living with and taking care of persons with schizophrenia. Inclusion criteria Types of participants Family members of a person, years and older, who has been diagnosed with schizophrenia for at least six months. Types of intervention, s, phenomena of interest The review considered qualitative studies that explore caregiving experiences of families of persons with schizophrenia that related to their caring for, or living with, their family member with schizophrenia. These experiences included caring tasks...

Inter-cultural schizophrenia; Interkulturelle Schizophrenie

Nkwocha, Hyginus Oguchi
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
This study involves a close view of schizophrenia patients in different cultural environments in Africa (Nigeria) and Europe (Germany). The aims and objectives of this study are to find out differences in symptoms, incidence rate, diagnostic means, treatments and as well as the inter-cultural influences on schizophrenia if any! Research/interviews were carried out at the psychiatric department of teaching hospital Portharcourt (Nigeria) and Psychiatric department of the Tuebingen teaching hospital (Germany). The selection of patients was at random and in line with ICD 10, F20. A sample of 40 schizophrenia patients from these psychiatric hospitals were interviewed. The sample was made to include equal numbers of men and women irrespective of their age or any special quality or qualifications. At the end I came at the following conclusions. Beyond any reasonable doubt, the high rate of religious delusions and the lay belief regarding the cause of mental ill health (schizophrenia) in Africa (Nigeria) is seen as the only major difference in comparing the symptomatic of schizophrenia in Africa with Europe (Germany). At the same time one should not forget that religion is the order of the day in Africa today, hence the high rate of religious delusions should not be allowed to raise much dust when looking at the symptoms of intercultural schizophrenia. The therapy of mental ill health (schizophrenia) provides us with another notable difference! While the treatment of schizophrenia in Europe is purely modern medicine...

Pandemic influenza: risk perception and protective behaviours in people with schizophrenia

Maguire, Paul Anthony
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
Pandemic influenza remains a major public health threat facing the 21st century, heightened by the possible future emergence of a mutant strain of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1). As emphasized by the Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza, two core components of an effective response plan are: (1) communication of the best available health information to the public during the pandemic, and (2) minimization of the transmission of the influenza virus. Despite the increased vulnerability of people with schizophrenia in the event of a pandemic influenza, there is a dearth of research examining: (1) how they obtain information on health matters, (2) how they perceive the risks associated with pandemic influenza, and (3) what they are prepared to do about those risks. The research project, consisting of a cross-sectional survey and a follow-up qualitative study with in-depth interviews, was designed to examine these! issues with the aim of mitigating the negative health impact of pandemic influenza on people with schizophrenia. In the cross-sectional survey, a purposive sample of 309 participants was obtained from health care settings in the Australian Capital Territory. This comprised 71 adults diagnosed with schizophrenia...

RODENT MODELS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA-LIKE SYMPTOMS INCREASE POLYDIPSIA

Hawken, EMILY
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
Primary polydipsia, excessive drinking without known medical cause, continues to occur with a significant prevalence in psychiatric populations. While the etiology of polydipsia remains unknown, the fact that it is significantly associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia has led some to postulate that the two may share common neurological pathophysiologies. Animal models of schizophrenia-like symptoms have focused on modeling the core behavioral and neurochemical features of the illness, like cognitive deficits and enhanced dopamine transmission. Here, we used three well-established models, including repeated amphetamine treatment, subchronic MK-801 (an N-methyl-D-aspartate [NMDA]-receptor antagonist), and post-weaning social isolation. We also examined a “double-hit” model, combining NMDA-receptor antagonism and social isolation. We paired these models to test the hypothesis that drinking will be enhanced in a paradigm of excessive drinking in the rat. In rodents, non-physiologic drinking can be induced by intermittent presentation of food (e.g., one sugar-pellet a minute) in the presence of a drinking spout to a hungry animal, termed schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP). Animals pretreated with pharmacological or non-pharmacological models of schizophrenia-like symptoms showed significantly increased SIP...

An fMRI study of emotional episodic memory in schizophrenia : effects of diagnosis and sex

Lakis, Nadia
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
La schizophrénie est une psychopathologie largement hétérogène caractérisée entre autres par d’importantes défaillances dans le fonctionnement cognitif et émotionnel. En effet, par rapport à la population générale, forte proportion de ces individus présentent une mémoire déficitaire pour les événements émotionnels. À ce jour, le peu d’études qui se sont penchées sur la mémoire émotionnelle épisodique dans la schizophrénie, ont uniquement mis l’emphase sur l'effet de la valence des stimuli (c’est-à-dire le caractère agréable ou désagréable du stimulus). Toutefois, aucune n’a investigué spécifiquement l’intensité de la réaction aux stimuli (c’est-à-dire une faible par rapport à une forte réaction) malgré quantité de preuves faisant montre, dans la population générale, de différents processus de mémoire émotionnelle pour des stimuli suscitant une forte réaction par rapport à ceux évoquant une faible réponse. Ce manque est d’autant plus flagrant étant donné le nombre d’études ayant rapporté un traitement et un encodage atypiques des émotions spécifiquement au niveau de l’intensité de la réponse subjective chez des patients atteints de schizophrénie. Autre fait important...

Validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia)

Araújo,Geovany Eliberto; Resende,Camilo Brandão de; Cardoso,Ana Cecília Alves; Teixeira,Antonio Lúcio; Keefe,Richard S.E.; Salgado,João Vinícius
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia by examining its temporal stability, internal consistency, and discriminant and convergent validity. METHODS: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was administered to 116 stable patients with schizophrenia and 58 matched control subjects. To assess concurrent validity, a subset of patients underwent a traditional neuropsychological assessment. RESULTS: The patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than the controls (p<0.001) on all subtests of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia and on the total score, which attests to the discriminant validity of the test. The global score of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was significantly correlated with all of the subtests and with the global score for the standard battery. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia also had good test-retest reliability (rho>0.8). The internal consistency of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was high (Cronbach's α  ϝ 0.874). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia exhibits good reliability and discriminant and concurrent validity and is a promising tool for easily assessing cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and for comparing the performance of Brazilian patients with that of patients from other countries.

Popular conceptions of schizophrenia in Cape Verde, Africa

Mateus,Mário Dinis; Santos,José Quirino dos; Mari,Jair de Jesus
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
INTRODUCTION: It has been well documented that schizophrenia presents a better clinical course in developing countries. Although there are many epidemiological studies showing this association, little research has been conducted to investigate the local representation systems for schizophrenia in these countries. OBJECTIVES: This study focuses on cultural factors of schizophrenia, namely the local representation systems for the disease, as well as what is locally understood as deviant behavior and its acceptability, and mechanisms of social-cultural insertion or exclusion of patients with schizophrenia in Cape Verde, Africa. METHODS: Randomized open interviews were carried out with the relatives of patients under treatment at the mental health out patient service of the Batista de Sousa Hospital (São Vicente Island) between the years 1994 and 1995. Interviews dealt with patients' life histories and disease related to problems, strategies employed by the family to cope with such problems, and comments on the social and family burden. RESULTS: 20 interviews with close relatives of 10 patients were analyzed. The study focused on three main categories explaining schizophrenia: "tired head" (cabeça cansada), "nervous" (nervoso), and supernatural categories (like "sorcery" or "witchcraft"). The interviewees expressed their opinions...

Interaction between parental psychosis and early motor development and the risk of schizophrenia in a general population cohort

Keskinen, E.; Marttila, A.; Marttila, R.; Jones, P. B.; Murray, G. K.; Moilanen, K.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H.; M?ki, P.; Isohanni, M.; J??skel?inen, E.; Miettunen, J.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.04.006; Background: Delayed motor development in infancy and family history of psychosis are both associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, but their interaction is largely unstudied. Aim: To investigate the association of the age of achieving motor milestones and parental psychosis and their interaction in respect to risk of schizophrenia. Methods: We used data from the general population-based prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10,283). Developmental information of the cohort members was gathered during regular visits to Finnish child welfare clinics. Several registers were used to determine the diagnosis of schizophrenia among the cohort members and psychosis among the parents. Altogether 152 (1.5%) individuals had schizophrenia by the age of 46 years, with 23 (15.1%) of them having a parent with psychosis. Cox regression analysis was used in analyses. Results: Parental psychosis was associated (P < 0.05) with later achievement of holding the head up, grabbing an object, and walking without support. In the parental psychosis group, the risk for schizophrenia was increased if holding the head up (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.46; degrees of freedom [df] = 1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07?5.66) and touching the thumb with the index finger (HR: 1.84; df = 1; 95% CI: 1.11?3.06) was later. In the group without parental psychosis...

Deficit of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the inferior parietal lobule is associated with lack of insight in schizophrenia

Vostrikov,Victor M.; Kolomeets,Natalya S.; Uranova,Natalya A.
Fonte: The European Journal of Psychiatry Publicador: The European Journal of Psychiatry
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
Background and Objectives: Previously we reported a significant reduction in the numerical density of oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte clusters in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in schizophrenia that was associated with lack of insight. We also found a significant decrease in the number of perineuronal oligodendrocytes (PnOl) in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and therefore we hypothesized that there may also be a deficit of PnOl in the IPL in schizophrenia and that it could be associated with poor insight. Methods: We estimated the number of PnOl adjacent to pyramidal neurons in layer 3 of BA39 and BA40 in Nissl stained sections from 24 males with schizophrenia and 24 normal male controls from the Stanley Parietal Collection. The schizophrenia group was divided into three subgroups based on level of insight: poor, fair or good. Results: We found a significant deficit of PnOl in layer 3 of BA39 and BA40 in the schizophrenia group as compared to the control group (p<0.01). In the control group but not in the schizophrenia group in BA39 the number of PnOl was significantly higher in the left hemisphere compared to the right hemisphere. In schizophrenia, in BA39 the number of PnOl was decreased in the subgroup with poor insight vs. controls. In BA40 the subgroups with both poor and fair insight were decreased vs. controls (p<0.01). In BA40 the subjects with fair insight also differed from those with good insight (p<0.01). Conclusions: The reduction of PnOl in the IPL in schizophrenia is associated with impaired insight and lack of hemispheric asymmetry.