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A escarificação química e o desenvolvimento inicial de porta-enxertos cítricos; Chemical scarification and initial development of citric rootstocks

Teixeira, Paulo de Tarso Lima; Schafer, Gilmar; Souza, Paulo Vitor Dutra de; Todeschini, Abel
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a emergência e o desenvolvimento vegetativo de diferentes porta-enxertos cítricos provenientes de sementes escarificadas quimicamente. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (escarificação x porta-enxertos), com três blocos, e cada parcela constituída por 20 tubetes. O tratamento químico realizado nas sementes constituiu-se de uma solução composta por 0,5 L de hipoclorito de sódio (NaClO) a 12%, 3 mL de ácido clorídrico (HCl) e 20 g de hidróxido de sódio comercial (NaOH), dissolvidos em 1L de água. Os porta-enxertos avaliados foram o ‘Trifoliata’ (Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf.), o citrangeiro ‘C37’ [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. x Citrus sinensis (Osbeck.], o citrumeleiro ‘Swingle’ [P. trifoliata x (Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.] e a tangerineira ‘Sunki’ (C. sunki hort. ex Tan.). Os porta-enxertos ‘C37’ e ‘Trifoliata’ beneficiaram-se da escarificação química do tegumento, apresentando maior velocidade e taxa de emergência das plântulas e maior taxa de emergência, aos 45 dias após a semeadura (DAS). Por outro lado, os porta-enxertos ‘Swingle’ e ‘Sunki’ apresentaram uma redução da emergência das plântulas...

Superação de dormência de sementes e crescimento inicial de plântulas de umbuzeiro

Campos de Melo, Aniela Pilar; Seleguini, Alexsander; Castro, Martha Nascimento; Meira, Flavia de Andrade; da Silva Gonzaga, Janete Motta; Haga, Kuniko Iwamoto
Fonte: Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL) Publicador: Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1343-1349
POR
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Pre-germination treatments such as scarification and the use of growth regulators can provide the overcoming of dormancy in seeds and enhance the emergence and development of seedlings. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate treatments to overcoming seed dormancy and enhance the initial growth of seedlings of Spondias tuberosa. We used a randomized design in factorial 2 x 4, with the following factors: seeds scarified or not scarified and then soaked in water or aqueous solutions of gibberellin, cytokinin and ethylene, with 4 replicates and 15 seeds. There was no significant interaction between scarification treatments and use of growth regulators. Mechanical scarification and soaking of seed of umbuzeiro in solutions containing growth regulators does not increase the percentage of seedling emergence, however soaking in a solution of Ethrel at 100 ppm provides higher speed of emergence and root development.

Scarification with sulphuric acid of Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke seeds - FABACEAE

Cruz, Eniel David; Carvalho, José Edmar Urano de; Queiroz, Rafaela Josemara Barbosa
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ) Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 308-313
ENG
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Impermeabilidade do tegumento da semente à água ocorre em muitas espécies, inclusive em Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. Para promover a germinação de sementes com tegumento impermeável um dos métodos recomendados é o uso de ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4). O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar o melhor tempo de escarificação com ácido sulfúrico na superação da dormência em sementes de S. amazonicum, escarificadas durante 20, 40 e 60 minutos. Parte das sementes foi semeada imediatamente após a escarificação e parte após 24 horas de imersão em água, em uma mistura de areia e serragem (1:1), onde foram quantificadas a porcentagem e a velocidade de germinação. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. A análise estatística da germinação foi efetuada aos seis, nove, 12, 15, 18, 21 e 24 dias após a semeadura em esquema fatorial. Para a velocidade de germinação as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Foi observada interação entre tratamentos para superação da dormência e o tempo de imersão em água após a escarificação na maioria das avaliações. A imersão em água acelerou o início da germinação. Os tratamentos para superação da dormência promoveram a germinação das sementes...

Morfologia e germinação de sementes de Syagrus oleracea (Mart.) Becc (Arecaceae)

Batista, Gisele Sales
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: viii, 37 f. : il.
POR
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Agronomia (Produção Vegetal) - FCAV; A palmeira Syagrus oleracea (Mart.) Becc é a única espécie produtora de palmito amargo e desperta grande interesse no paisagismo brasileiro, porém ainda é pouco estudada. A germinação lenta e desuniforme das sementes acarretam problemas na propagação dessa espécie, dificultando principalmente, a produção de mudas em escala comercial. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os aspectos morfológicos dos diásporos e das plântulas, bem como, estudar o efeito do substrato e da escarificação mecânica na germinação de sementes de S. oleracea. Para os estudos da morfologia, efetuou-se a semeadura de 100 diásporos em caixas de plástico (50 x 22 x 16 cm), contendo uma camada de 10 cm do substrato vermiculita média umedecida, sendo retiradas amostras representativas de casa fase do processo germinativo. As amostras, a face externa, interna e o embrião dos diásporos foram documentados com auxílio de câmara clara acoplada ao estereomicroscópio. Para o estudo do efeito do substrato e da escarificação mecânica, o delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 6X2 (seis substratos: vermiculita...

Estudo dos fatores envolvidos na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha

Cardoso, Eliana Duarte
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 120 f. : il., tabs.
POR
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Agronomia - FEIS; O uso de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha tem aumentado, no entanto a qualidade fisiológica das sementes disponibilizadas ao produtor é ainda um fator limitante para um bom desempenho das culturas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar os efeitos do condicionamento fisiológico (CF), escarificação química e diferentes períodos de envelhecimento artificial na qualidade fisiológica, superação de dormência e lixiviação de íons no exsudato do teste de condutividade elétrica, em sementes de B. brizantha cv. MG-5 Vitória. O trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análises de Sementes da Unesp - Campus de Ilha Solteira. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizados e o estudo foi constituído por três experimentos. Experimento 1 – verificou-se o efeito do condicionamento osmótico (CO) com soluções mistas constituídas por Polietileno glicol 8000 + solução com nutriente ou regulador de crescimento ou bioestimulante e associação entres eles. Experimento 2 – verificou-se os efeitos de diferentes períodos de envelhecimento artificial. Experimento 3 – verificou-se os efeitos da escarificação química...

Desempenho fisiológico e superação de dormência em sementes de Brachiaria brizantha submetidas a tratamento químico e envelhecimento artificial

Cardoso, Eliana Duarte; Sa, Marco Eustaquio de; Haga, Kuniko Iwamoto; Silva Binotti, Flavio Ferreira da; Nogueira, Debora Cristiane; Valerio Filho, Walter Veriano
Fonte: Univ Estadual Londrina Publicador: Univ Estadual Londrina
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 21-37
POR
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The use of seeds of B. brizantha has increased, however, the physiological quality of seeds available to the producer is still a limiting factor for a good performance culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by chemical scarification, different periods of aging and priming on physiological quality and overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha cv. MG-5 Victory. The seeds were subjected to chemical scarification-H2SO4 ( presence and absence), artificial aging periods ( zero, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours) at 41 degrees C and priming using the 0,2 KNO3 % ( presence and absence) for two hours at 25 degrees C, creating a completely randomized design in factorial 2x8x2, with four repetitions. The seeds were evaluated by testing germination and vigor. Chemical scarification is an effective method for breaking dormancy, but decreases the physiological seed. Overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha occurs with the use of artificial aging for non-scarified and scarified seeds. Priming generally has no effect on the physiological quality and overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha, however, it provides less loss of cellular constituents.

Superação da dormência de sementes de Tucum (Astrocaryum huaimi Mart.)

Souza, Apolyana Lorrayne; Sales, Juliana de Fatima; Campos, Rafael Candido; Rubio Neto, Aurelio; Silva, Fabiano Guimaraes
Fonte: Univ Estadual Londrina Publicador: Univ Estadual Londrina
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 749-757
POR
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of immersion for varying periods in different concentrations of gibberellic acid and separate methods of scarification on the germination of seeds tucum. In the first trial, testing different soaking periods (24 and 48 hours), different forms of soaking (fast and slow) and different concentrations of gibberellic acid (0, 100 and 200 mg L-(1)) compared to the control (water) under completely randomized design in a factorial 2x2x3. The second experiment evaluated the different scarification treatments being: physical (seed coat removal in the hilar region with the aid of a scalpel), chemical (sulfuric acid 98 PA for 2:04 minutes) and thermal (hot water at approximately 98 degrees C and cold water at about 2 degrees C for 4 minutes). In the first trial were evaluated % of contaminated seeds (seeds infected by microorganisms) and hard seeds (who did not start the germination process, but not soiled), and in the second we assessed germination percentage (%) every two days for three months; germination Speed Index (GSI), time to occurrence of 50 % germination (T50) and Emergency Speed Index (ESI). The use of gibberellic acid was ineffective in promoting germination of Tucum (Astrocaryum Huaimi Mart.). Scarification treatments were effective in promoting germination and emergence of seedlings in the nursery and the most efficient physical removal scarification of the seed coat in the hilar region with the highest percentage of germination.

Alteração de atributos fisicos de um solo, sob pastagem degradada, submetido a escarificação; Physical attributes changes on a soil, under degraded pasture, submitted to scarification

Marcelo Jose Colet
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/02/2006 PT
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O uso intensivo do solo, associado ao emprego de práticas de manejo inadequadas, implica em sua degradação. Este problema é de comum ocorrência em áreas de pastagens, onde usualmente o produtor prioriza investimentos no rebanho, negligenciando o manejo do solo. Nessas áreas, a compactação do solo pode ser considerada uma das principais causas de limitação da capacidade de produção da forrageira. Várias técnicas podem ser utilizadas para romper camadas compactadas do solo, dentre elas a escarificação. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações ocorridas em atributos físicos de um solo sob pastagem mediante sua escarificação, visualizando a recuperação de pastagens degradadas. Para tal, implementou-se um experimento em uma área de Brachiaria decumbens no Instituto de Zootecnia em Nova Odessa (SP), utilizando um protótipo de máquina agrícola desenvolvido na Feagri/Unicamp, que permite a escarificação do solo e distribuição de corretivos simultaneamente. O efeito da escarificação do solo foi avaliado pela resistência do solo à penetração, determinada com um penetrógrafo hidráulico eletrônico, e pelos atributos físicos macroporosidade, microporosidade, porosidade total e densidade do solo...

Sulphuric acid scarification effects on Brachiaria brizantha, B. humidicola and Panicum maximum seed dormancy release

Usberti,Roberto; Martins,Leila
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Tecnologia de Sementes Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Tecnologia de Sementes
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2007 EN
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Most tropical forage grass species have dormant seeds, which reduce percentages in germination tests. The objective of this study was to evaluate H2SO4 scarification effects on seed dormancy releasing, through germination time (T50) and variability among germination test replicates, in 630, 94 and 82 seed samples of B. brizantha, B. humidicola and P. maximum, respectively, tested at the Central Seed Testing Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil, from 1991 to 1999. Germination tests used two 4 x 100 replicates of intact and scarified seeds (15-, 10-, 5-minute treatments, respectively). Mean germination time (T50) and variability among germination replicates were also analysed. Statistical analysis was performed by t-test paired samples for means. Scarification promoted general decreases in T50, while variability among germination test replicates was reduced in B. brizantha. Scarification increase germination in B. brizantha and P. maximum, but is deleterious in B. humidicola.

Scarification with sulphuric acid of Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke seeds - FABACEAE

Cruz,Eniel David; Carvalho,José Edmar Urano de; Queiroz,Rafaela Josemara Barbosa
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2007 EN
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Seed coat impermeability to water occurs in many species, including Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. To promote germination in seeds with coat impermeability the use of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is recommended. The objective of this study was to identify a better time for the scarification with sulphuric acid for S. amazonicum seeds. The effect of scarification with sulphuric acid for 20, 40 and 60 min on germination and speed germination was studied for seeds that were either sowed immediately after scarification or after a 24-hour period of immersion in water. Seeds were sown on a mix of sand and sawdust (1:1). The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 50 seeds. The statistical analysis of germination was carried out at six, nine, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days after sowing, in a factorial scheme. For speed germination the means were compared by the Tukey test. There was an interaction between treatments to overcome dormancy and immersion time after scarification in most evaluations. Immersion in water accelerated the beginning of germination. All treatments to overcome dormancy promoted seed germination. However, scarification for 60 min, showed better germination, 92% when immediately sown and 86.5% when sown after 24 hours. Speed germination index was highest for scarified seeds for 60 min followed by immersion in water. Scarification for 60 min was the most efficient treatment to promote germination in S. amazonicum seeds.

Induction of cellular transcription factors in trigeminal ganglia of mice by corneal scarification, herpes simplex virus type 1 infection, and explantation of trigeminal ganglia.

Valyi-Nagy, T; Deshmane, S; Dillner, A; Fraser, N W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1991 EN
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In a mouse model for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency in which the virus was inoculated via the eye after corneal scarification, HSV-1 replicated in corneal epithelial cells and infected the nerve cell endings. HSV-1 reached the trigeminal ganglia by fast axonal transport between 2 and 10 days postinfection (p.i.) and established a latent infection in neuronal cells or replicated and spread to nonneuronal cells. By using in situ hybridization, we showed that cellular transcription factors are stimulated by HSV-1 infection in trigeminal ganglia. This stimulation is biphasic, peaking at 1 and 3 to 4 days p.i. The first peak involves c-jun and oct-1 expression in neurons, and the second involves c-jun, c-fos, and oct-1 expression in neurons and nonneuronal cells. Corneal scarification, alone or followed by infection with UV-inactivated HSV-1, induced monophasic c-jun and oct-1 expression in some neurons of the trigeminal ganglia, with a peak at 1 day p.i. Corneal infection without prior scarification induced c-jun, c-fos, and oct-1 expression in some neuronal and nonneuronal cells of the trigeminal ganglia 2 to 9 days p.i. Explanation of ganglia from latently infected animals resulted in reactivation of the latent virus. Independently of the presence of latent HSV-1 in explanted ganglia...

Attempt to Immunize Guinea Pigs Against Leukemia by Skin Scarification with Leukemic Cell Suspensions

Gross, Ludwik
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1973 EN
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An attempt was made to immunize “strain 2” guinea pigs by superficial skin scarification with small doses of L2C leukemic cell suspensions. Among 203 scarified guinea pigs, 32 developed progressively growing leukemic tumors at the site of skin scarification. In 35 guinea pigs small intradermal tumors that appeared at the site of scarification regressed spontaneously; however, 15 guinea pigs in which the intradermal tumor regressed later developed generalized leukemia. In addition, 13 other animals developed generalized leukemia, without an apparent local tumor formation at the site of scarification. A total of 60 out of 203 scarified guinea pigs (30%) died from leukemia.

Vaccinia Viruses with Mutations in the E3L Gene as Potential Replication-Competent, Attenuated Vaccines: Scarification Vaccination

Jentarra, Garilyn M.; Heck, Michael C.; Youn, Jin Won; Kibler, Karen; Langland, Jeffrey O.; Baskin, Carole R.; Ananieva, Olga; Chang, Yung; Jacobs, Bertram L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of vaccinia virus (VACV) containing mutations in the E3L virulence gene to protect mice against a lethal poxvirus challenge after vaccination by scarification. VACV strains with mutations in the E3L gene had significantly decreased pathogenicity, even in immune deficient mice, yet retained the ability to produce a potent Th1-dominated immune response in mice after vaccination by scarification, while protecting against challenge with wild type, pathogenic VACV. Initial experiments were done using the mouse-adapted, neurovirulent Western Reserve (WR) strain of vaccinia virus. Testing of the full E3L deletion mutation in the Copenhagen and NYCBH strains of VACV, which are more appropriate for use in humans, produced similar results. These results suggest that highly attenuated strains of VACV containing mutations in E3L have the potential for use as scarification administered vaccines.

Overexpression of IL-1α in skin differentially modulates the immune response to scarification with vaccinia virus

Tian, Tian; Liu, Luzheng; Freyschmidt, Eva-Jasmin; Murphy, George F.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Transepidermal inoculation of vaccinia virus (VV), or scarification, has been used effectively for the induction of specific and long-lasting immunity to smallpox and is superior to other routes of immunization. Scarification of individuals with atopic skin disease or immune deficiency, however, can lead to persistent viral replication and cause significant morbidity and mortality. These effects of scarification presumably reflect the unique immunologic properties of skin and the immune cells resident in, or recruited to, the site of inoculation. To explore these phenomena, we utilized transgenic mice engineered to over-express interleukin-1α, a critical mediator of cutaneous inflammation, in the epidermis. Following scarification with vaccinia virus, both transgenic and wild-type mice develop local pox. At high doses of vaccinia virus, IL-1α transgenic mice recruited immune cells to the inoculation site more rapidly and demonstrated enhanced T-cell and humoral immune responses. At limiting doses, however, IL-1α transgenic mice could effectively control virus replication without formation of pox lesions or activation of a memory response. This study suggests IL-1 may have use as an adjuvant to enhance antiviral immunity and promote safer vaccination strategies; however...

Protective Properties of Vaccinia Virus-Based Vaccines: Skin Scarification Promotes a Nonspecific Immune Response That Protects against Orthopoxvirus Disease

Rice, Amanda D.; Adams, Mathew M.; Lindsey, Scott F.; Swetnam, Daniele M.; Manning, Brandi R.; Smith, Andrew J.; Burrage, Andrew M.; Wallace, Greg; MacNeill, Amy L.; Moyer, Richard W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2014 EN
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The process of vaccination introduced by Jenner generated immunity against smallpox and ultimately led to the eradication of the disease. Procedurally, in modern times, the virus is introduced into patients via a process called scarification, performed with a bifurcated needle containing a small amount of virus. What was unappreciated was the role that scarification itself plays in generating protective immunity. In rabbits, protection from lethal disease is induced by intradermal injection of vaccinia virus, whereas a protective response occurs within the first 2 min after scarification with or without virus, suggesting that the scarification process itself is a major contributor to immunoprotection.

A note on suspect practices during the AIDS epidemic: vaginal drying and scarification in southwest Nigeria

Orubuloye, I. O; Caldwell, Pat; Caldwell, John C
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 19918 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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Vaginal drying and scarification have been reported as possible risk factors. Published research on the former has been confined to East and Middle Africa. This paper reports on research in West Africa employing a survey of 1,976 females in southwest Nigeria, where they reported on their own vaginal drying, the scarification of their sons, and their participation in blood oaths. It was concluded that vaginal drying is not a risk-factor for AIDS in southwest Nigeria, and probably more broadly in West Africa, that scarification may be in the few cases when group scarification is practised, and that the practice of blood oaths probably puts those involved in danger.; no

Tratamentos pré-germinativos e substratos na emergência de sementes e qualidade de mudas de pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas L.)

Moreira, Erica Rodrigues; Boliani, Aparecida Conceicao; Correa, Luiz de Souza; Pagliarini, Maximiliano Kawahata; Aires dos Santos, Danilo Marcelo; Furlani Junior, Enes; Pereira, Gustavo Alves
Fonte: Univ Estadual Londrina Publicador: Univ Estadual Londrina
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 657-668
POR
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The physic nut can be propagated asexually or sexually. Using cuttings have been earlier yield and more fidelity characteristics of the parent plant. However, there is less initial vegetative growth. The seeds from the plants have increased genetic variability, are more vigorous and begin production later. To get quality changes, the substrate is an important factor. With that the objective was to taste pre-germinated treatments and different substrate on seeds emergence and quality physic nut seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial scheme 6 x 3 (pre-germinated treatments x substrate), 18 treatments and 4 repetition, 8 seeds to each repetition. It was evaluated six pre-germination treatments: T1: witness (without treatments); T2: water immersion for 12 hours; T3: water immersion for 24 hours; T4: mechanical scarification; T5: mechanical scarification + water immersion for 12 hours; T6: mechanical scarification + water immersion for 24 hours, using as substrate: commercial, expanded vermiculite and sand washed. The mechanical scarification was realized opposite the micropyle using sandpaper n. 60. After the pre-germination treatments, the seeds were emergence in plastic cups (200mL) with substrates. We evaluated the characteristics: percentage...

Efeitos de práticas de descompactação do solo em área sob sistema plantio direto

Seki, Andre Satoshi; Seki, Fernanda Goncalves; Jasper, Samir Paulo; Arbex Silva, Paulo Roberto; Benez, Sergio Hugo
Fonte: Univ Federal Ceara, Dept Geol Publicador: Univ Federal Ceara, Dept Geol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 460-468
POR
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Soil compaction is one of the limiting factors in areas subjected to direct seeding. The method used to break up the compacted layer should disturb the soil as little as possible, as well as maintain the ground cover. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subsoiling, scarification and use of shaft-type furrowing mechanisms when sowing, on preserving the ground cover, water content and soil density, as well as the effects on maize yield in a dystroferic Red Nitosol, cultivated under a system of direct seeding for ten years. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, with eight soil management treatments: subsoiling to a depth of 0.40 m before sowing the winter crop, subsoiling to 0.40 m before sowing the maize, scarification to 0.30 m before the winter crop, scarification to 0.30 m before the maize, scarification to 0.20 m before the winter crop, scarification to 0.20 m before the maize, direct seeding of the maize with a shaft-type furrowing mechanism and direct seeding of the maize using a double disc furrower. There were four replications. Subsoiling and scarification influenced the preservation of the ground cover, soil density and water content immediately after sowing, but did not interfere in plant development or grain yield in the maize crop. The use of shaft-type furrowing mechanisms in the sowing operation had no effect on any of the parameters under study.; A compactação do solo é o um dos fatores limitante em áreas submetidas ao sistema plantio direto. O manejo utilizado para romper a camada compactada deve mobilizar o mínimo possível o solo...

Escarificação mecânica com areia para superação de dormência em sementes de acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.); Mecanical scarification using sand to breack dormancy in black-wattle seeds (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.)

Alves, Gilberto Demari
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Sementes; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Sementes; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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The black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) is, the third forest specie of larger economical importance, more than 189 thousand ha are cultivated now, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. According its socio-environmental importance it can be considerate the first in importancy in this state regarding the enormous benefits given to the black-wattle grower and to the environment, such as: regenerator of degraded soils specie; short life pioneering specie; quickly covering the soil; not presenting stump sprouting; it doesn't inhibit the local succession and the high deposition of their nitrogen rich leaves, cause the enriching of the soil. Black wattle has also the capacity of making symbiosis with microorganisms fixatives of atmospheric nitrogen. Producing quality wood for energy and cellulose; the tannin extracted from its peel is used for leather curing industry and in wines and beers clarification. More or less 60% of black wattle growers are of small producers, about 40 thousand families live from that activity. One of the limiting factors in the uniformity of the black-wattle's seedlings production is the low of quality of their seeds. The quality of the seedlings and the forest produced by them will depend on the dormancy and on the method used for its break. With the objective of accelerating and standardization of the germination in the process of seedlings production...

Escarificação com ácido sulfúrico de sementes de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke - FABACEAE; Scarification with sulphuric acid of Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke seeds - FABACEAE

Cruz, Eniel David; Carvalho, José Edmar Urano de; Queiroz, Rafaela Josemara Barbosa
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2007 ENG
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Seed coat impermeability to water occurs in many species, including Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. To promote germination in seeds with coat impermeability the use of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is recommended. The objective of this study was to identify a better time for the scarification with sulphuric acid for S. amazonicum seeds. The effect of scarification with sulphuric acid for 20, 40 and 60 min on germination and speed germination was studied for seeds that were either sowed immediately after scarification or after a 24-hour period of immersion in water. Seeds were sown on a mix of sand and sawdust (1:1). The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 50 seeds. The statistical analysis of germination was carried out at six, nine, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days after sowing, in a factorial scheme. For speed germination the means were compared by the Tukey test. There was an interaction between treatments to overcome dormancy and immersion time after scarification in most evaluations. Immersion in water accelerated the beginning of germination. All treatments to overcome dormancy promoted seed germination. However, scarification for 60 min, showed better germination, 92% when immediately sown and 86.5% when sown after 24 hours. Speed germination index was highest for scarified seeds for 60 min followed by immersion in water. Scarification for 60 min was the most efficient treatment to promote germination in S. amazonicum seeds.; Impermeabilidade do tegumento da semente à água ocorre em muitas espécies...