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Bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia

Doha,Said Abdallah; Samy,Abdallah M
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2010 EN
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The bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied for two successive years (January 1996-December 1997) at 12 collecting stations representing six sectors of the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia. The predominant species was Phlebotomus bergeroti (41.7%), followed by lesser numbers of Phlebotomus sergenti (11%), Phlebotomus arabicus (10.6%), Sergentomyia tiberiadis (10.5%), Phlebotomus papatasi (10.2%), Sergentomyia antennata (9.6%), Phlebotomus alexandri (3%), Phlebotomus orientalis (2.3%) and Sergentomyia clydei (1.1%). The distribution of the collected species including species that are elsewhere known to act as vectors of human cutaneous leishmaniasis were distributed across different altitudes in Al-Baha. P. bergeroti, P. papatasi and P. arabicus were more abundant indoors; however, P. sergenti was more abundant outdoors. Sand fly populations exhibited three patterns of seasonal abundance in terms of their monthly activity. P. bergeroti, P. sergenti and P. arabicus were found to be naturally infected with Leishmania-like flagellates at an infection rate of 0.2%.

Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt

Shady,Hala M. Abou; Bakr,Alaa Eldin A.; Hashad,Mahmoud E.; Alzohairy,Mohammad A.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
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Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL+ isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt...

Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997

Al-Sadoon,M. K.; Jarrar,B. M.
Fonte: Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP Publicador: Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 EN
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This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%), the lowest in February (2.52%). Most patients were male (61.8%); the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%). Nocturnal envenomation (47.74%) was more common than diurnal (43.91%); most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%), mainly in the lower limbs (63%). Most envenomings were mild (74.48%) and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828), Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807), and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807) were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

New additions to the scorpion fauna of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia

Al-Asmari,AK; Al-Saief,AA; Abdo,NM; Al-Moutaery,KR
Fonte: Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP Publicador: Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
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In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh) of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected animals was based on identification keys. There were two species (one with a subspecies) that belonged to the family Scorpionidae, namely Scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02%) and Hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%). The latter, currently, is part of the Hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. Eight more species from the Buthidae family were found: Leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%), Androctonus crassicauda (17.24%), Androctonus bicolor (64.60%), Compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%), Compsobuthus werneri (0.94%), Buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%), Buthacusleptochelys (3.24%) and Orthochirus innesi (0.55%). The major locations of collection were the outskirts of Riyadh city and the airport vicinity. The specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.

Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia

Khalil,Mokhtar Ibrahim; El-Shahawy,Ismail Saad; Abdelkader,Hussein Saad
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
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The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish) were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio) in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp.) in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%), while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%). Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore...

Inflammatory bowel disease register: Steps towards Crohn’s & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia (CCFSA)

Masoodi, Ibrahim; Alsayari, Khalid; Albishri, Jamal
Fonte: Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Publicador: Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 EN
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are among the leading cause of financial burden, morbidity and employee absenteeism in developed countries because of their chronic remitting and relapsing courses. IBD is estimated to affect the Canadian economy to the tune of 100 million dollars per year. The data regarding exact prevalence in Asian countries, including Saudi Arabia, is still incomplete as there is underreporting and lack of proper registry of the diagnosed cases. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease) has increased over the last decade in Saudi Arabia due to increased IBD awareness among population, as more patients seek medical help and also due to unknown reasons. There is a need of proper registration of IBD patients and establishment of Crohn’s & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia (CCFSA) as in other parts of the world. The Crohn’s & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia will be a forum which will co ordinate IBD treatment and research in the country in addition to health education among IBD population.

The Emergent Concern of Hepatitis B globally with special attention to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Aljarbou, Ahmad N.
Fonte: Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Publicador: Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2013 EN
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Chronic viral hepatitis is highly prevalent and creates a substantial burden to healthcare systems globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 350 and 250 million people worldwide are chronic carrier of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection respectively. These two diseases are the cause of significant global mortality and morbidity with approximately 1 million deaths each year attributable to them and their sequelae, liver disease and primary liver cancer. Although the efforts have been met with the long-lasting level of success and holds the promise for large reductions in disease burden in spite of the huge numbers of HBV infected population. The viral hepatitis has also been emerged as a leading public health concern and continues to be major disease burden in the Eastern Mediterranean. The WHO, estimates that approximately 4.3 million persons are infected with HBV in the Region each year. Saudi Arabia has been classified as a country with an intermediate prevalence of HBV showed up to 7% in Saudi children in late 1980s but declined to as low as 0.3% in 1997 since the introduction of universal vaccination of all Saudi children in 1989. In spite of this remarkable decline, the burden of decompensated liver disease secondary to hepatitis B is estimated to increase drastically in the next 40 years as the previously infected children start aging.

CREATING: a sustainable plan for biomedical higher education in Saudi Arabia. Phase I

Cirillo, Nicola; AlShwaimi, Emad; Prime, Stephen S.; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem
Fonte: Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Publicador: Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2015 EN
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Biomedical higher education has been acquiring increasing importance worldwide, including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and effective strategies to improve outcomes and competitiveness are key for academic success. The plan presented here is divided into two major phases. Phase 1 (Communication, Research governance, Education planning, Accreditation) deals mainly with adopting a systematic approach to academic activities according to the current international standards. In other words, the aim is to re-organise what is already in place, taking into account current guidelines and strategies that help improve quality of education and research. It is suggested that this is not necessarily to be achieved by major investments but, rather, by a more imaginative and structured work plan. In Phase 2 (Translational practice, Implementation, Networking, Growth), higher education institutions are expected to invest in new strategic resources, to establish strong reciprocal links with international academic partners and industry, and to shift their attention to the hot topics and current academic challenges, leading the way in translational education models and pioneering cutting-edge research.

The political, socio-economic and sociocultural impacts of the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP) on Saudi Arabia

Hilal, K.T.; Scott, S.R.; Maadad, N.
Fonte: Sciedu Press Publicador: Sciedu Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
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Since 2006, Saudi Arabian politicians, economists and sociologists have had to consider the implications of their country’s King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP). Because Saudi Arabia has certain religious traditions and economic practices that are sensitive, international scholars are examining from different perspectives the outcomes and potential impacts of KASP. While Saudi Arabia has all the necessary tools to compete with the developed nations (such as natural resources and manpower), it is caught between the need to globalise its economy but retain its strict, conservative traditions. Following a brief definition of KASP, this paper highlights some of the external and internal contemporary political, economic and socio-cultural challenges that it sets for Saudi Arabia. Finally, the anticipated impacts of KASP according to scholarship recipients are reviewed using survey data from around 688 overseas Saudi students. This paper is based on the primary researcher’s PhD thesis.; Kholoud T. Hilal, Safiyyah R. Scott, Nina Maadad

The legal framework of the sponsorship systems of Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait : a comparative examination

ZAHRA, Maysa
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The sponsorship system of the Arab Gulf countries comprises rules and regulations that tie the residence of a migrant worker to his/her sponsor in the country. This paper offers an in-depth examination of the legal framework of the sponsorship system of three countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) - Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. The paper looks at different aspects of the system starting with the requirement for sponsorship and ending with the rules on absconding and repatriation.; Migration Policy Centre; GLMM - Gulf Labour Markets and Migration; The GLMM programme is conducted by the Gulf Research Centre (GRC) and the Migration Policy Centre (MPC) and financed by the Open Society Foundations (OSF).

Recent amnesty programmes for irregular migrants in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia : some successes and failures

SHAH, Nasra M.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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Hardly any research is available on the patterns of irregular migration in the Gulf countries, home to about 23 million migrant workers and their families. The objective of this paper is to briefly document the volume and types of irregular migration in the region and to evaluate the response of irregular migrants to recent amnesty programmes in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia for regularising their stay or facilitating their departure. Irregular migrants in Kuwait were defined as those overstaying their residence, visit, or other visa. In Saudi Arabia, they were defined as those overstaying their visa, working for someone other than their sponsor, or in an occupation that did not match their work permit. Of the 124,000 irregular migrants in Kuwait in 2011, only 37 percent departed or regularised their stay while the rest remained in the country illegally. Bangladeshis were the largest group among irregular migrants, followed by Egyptians and Indians. In Saudi Arabia in 2013, about one million irregular migrants availed the amnesty to depart while more than 4 million regularised their stay. The scale of regularisation was very large and is likely to have exerted major impact on the structure and functioning of the Saudi labour market. Some reasons for the low compliance with amnesty...

The socio-political background and stakes of ‘Saudizing’ the workforce in Saudi Arabia : the Nitaqat policy

DE BEL AIR, Françoise
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The paper addresses the historical and institutional background of labour management policies in Saudi Arabia. It envisages it as a long-term, structural impediment to the successful and rapid implementation of Saudization (localisation) of the labour force in the Kingdom. The paper thus emphasises the socio-political stakes and challenges to localisation of the labour force and, more generally, economic and labour reform in the Gulf States. Since the onset of the Arab uprisings, however, unemployment among Saudis, and especially women, has become a burning political issue. Governmental actors had no choice but to attempt to regain control over the economy and the management of the labour market. In September 2011, in spite of a spurt in foreign labour recruitment since the mid-2000s, a voluntary policy called “Nitaqat” aiming to “Saudize” the Kingdom’s workforce was enacted. This paper reviews its characteristics and points to its all-encompassing design as it addresses the socio-political context of Saudization and therefore is more likely to have a lasting effect than previous workforce localisation initiatives.; GLMM - Gulf Labour Markets and Migration; The GLMM programme is conducted by the Gulf Research Centre (GRC) and the Migration Policy Centre (MPC) and financed by the Open Society Foundations (OSF).

Developing a project management maturity model to initiate sustainable project performance and modernisation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Alzahrani, Sami Salem
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015
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This research thesis involves the analysis of sustainable development activities in project management and project management maturity, taking organisational culture as a contributing factor to success in project-driven organisations (PDO) in Saudi Arabia. It was felt that the best way to do this was to introduce a model that would provide insight and increase our understanding of current performance levels of projects in Saudi Arabia’s organisations, with a view to integrating concepts of sustainability into project management in the country. Saudi Arabia’s need to diversify its economic productivity and be less reliant on oil reserves in the long run and by implementing projects like those currently undertaken in infrastructure and construction gaining long-term value through sustainable project management will serve to maximise investment. A key element in the process is to better appreciate the importance of achieving a suitable organisational culture in project driven organisations. This is regarded as an important condition for improving professional capability in project managers. This research extends previous research by creating a model for evaluating and assessing the maturity of the sustainable dimension into project management practice. Assessing the project management maturity will help organisations integrate the ideas of sustainable development and modernisation through projects and project management by highlighting the areas in which an organisation should focus in order to reach project management best practice. The commitment of project stakeholders...

Demography, migration and labour market in Saudi Arabia

DE BEL-AIR, Françoise
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
EN
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66.93%
GLMM - Gulf Labour Markets and Migration; Saudi Arabia is a prime destination and source of remittances from workers for many countries in Asia and the Arab world. As of mid-2013, expatriates made up 32 percent of the Kingdom's population, most of them coming from South Asia. They accounted for 56.5 percent of the employed population and 89 percent of the private sector workforce. Since September 2011, and in spite of a spurt in foreign labour recruitment starting in the mid-2000s, a voluntary policy called Nitaqat aims at 'Saudising' the Kingdom's workforce. The most recent data also show the scale of the irregular migration phenomenon in Saudi Arabia: the amnesty campaign which started in April 2013 allowed 4.7 million foreign workers to regularise their status, while an ongoing crackdown on illegals forced one million to leave the Kingdom in 2013 alone, of which (as of November 30, 2013) 547,000 were deported.; The GLMM programme is conducted by the Gulf Research Centre (GRC) and the Migration Policy Centre (MPC) and financed by the Open Society Foundations (OSF).

Teaching and Moral Tradition in Saudi Arabia: A Paradigm of Struggle or Pathway Towards Globalization?

Elyas, T.; Picard, M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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66.86%
Identity involves the individual's image of self and its translation into action (Sachs, 2001). Developing a professional identity is problematic when it involves a paradigm struggle, since the actions that the professional needs to take become unclear. This paper describes how English teachers in Saudi Arabia experience a complex conflict between Western and Eastern identities. They are required as English teachers to project a positive view of English, which is regarded by many in the region as a vessel for Western or foreign ideologies (Reddy, 1979). They have been educated in a conservative moral tradition based on a clearly-defined role as Islamic educators and purveyors of Saudi nationalism. Yet as English teachers educated at Western universities, they have been exposed to a variety of western ideologies. This paper explores their relationship to institution, traditional identity and their classroom choices, providing suggestions on how to reconcile 'globalised' and Islamic moral identities.; Tariq Elyas, Michelle Yvette Picard

Architectural Academic Tourism: Saudi Chronicles or Social Mobility for Women through Architectural Design and Education in Saudi Arabia

Jann, Marga
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Article; accepted version
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Working Paper; This paper is a sequel to a monograph about teaching architecture and design in four ?divided nations? (Cyprus, Korea, Uganda, Sri Lanka) and elaborates on a subsequent teaching stint in Saudi Arabia, with a focus on using design for social change--particularly with regard to social mobility for women.; Lucy Cavendish College, University of Cambridge

Reforming higher education in Saudi Arabia: The use of telecommunications technology

Altowjry, Abdullah
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 31490 bytes; 533700 bytes; 61056 bytes; 1 bytes; 2061 bytes; 698 bytes; 5468 bytes; 49 bytes; 31490 bytes; 533700 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf; text/plain; text/plain; text/plain; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/
EN_US
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Internet technology has become a powerful tool since its advent. Online learning is a byproduct of Internet usage and is instrumental in higher education. In the United States, the use of online learning, also known as distance learning, is widespread. It is used in almost all educational institutions. Even third world countries, which are traditionally lagging behind in any educational or sociological enterprise, are now attempting to catch up with distance learning education. Some educational institutions in the Middle East, for example, have been using distance learning in place of traditional classroom instruction. In Saudi Arabia, there is a great need for taking advantage of the whole gamut of telecommunications technologies. The exploration of this need gives this research its foundation.

Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Oil: Risk Factors

Saikal, Amin
Fonte: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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66.98%
As two oil-rich states and significant members of OPEC, Iraq is in the grip of a devastating conflict and Saudi Arabia is confronted with a serious legitimacy crisis. They both face much uncertainty over the next few years, although from different sources and in different degrees. The world has been able to cope with Iraq being an erratic oil producer since 1991, with its production at times falling to negligible amounts. Saudi Arabia, however, has been towards the other end of the spectrum during the same period. It has been OPEC's largest and most stable pro-Western producer with a capacity to increase production whenever necessitated either to meet demand for more oil or to moderate oil prices to the extent required to maintain stability in the world market and economy. This can no longer be taken for granted. While international demand and oil prices have risen amid uncertainties about Iraq, sustained threat from international terrorism, technical problems such as the limited availability of shipping and accidental supply disruptions, soaring demand for energy in East Asia, and the incapacity of Russia to increase production, the Saudi political and security environment has correspondingly become a major source of growing concern. If this concern is not alleviated...

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Al-Aqeel,Sinaa AbdulMohsen; Al-Sabhan,Jawza Fahad; Sultan,Noha Yahia
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2013 ENG
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Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO) ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51%) were for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and 71 (38%) were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8%) advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7%) of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions...

The life cycle of extreme rainfall events over western Saudi Arabia simulated by a regional climate model: Case study of November 1996

Almazroui,M.
Fonte: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM Publicador: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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A Regional Climate Model (RCM) is employed to simulate and understand the life cycle of the two systems that produced heavy rainfall spells over western Saudi Arabia in November 1996. The first spell of heavy rain occurred from 13 to 20 November, whereas the second occurred from 25 to 27 November 1996. Their spatial patterns are compared with rain-gauge data and also with the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) gridded observations. A series of 144 experiments are conducted for different domain sizes and resolution as well as different boundary forcings and convective parameterization schemes to investigate the optimum combination for the simulation of the two spells. The RCM simulates well the development, the propagation and the life cycle of the first spell (8-day long) as well as the second spell (3-day long) during November 1996. In particular, the simulation demonstrates how the two systems developed, merged with new cells, reached to maturity, and then decayed, as they moved eastward across the Red Sea, producing rain in the study region. A focus over Jeddah station reveals that the RCM simulated well the peak and amount of rainfall for both spells. However...