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Orality disorders in melancholia: acedia as stagnation

Magtaz,Ana Cecília; Berlinck,Manoel Tosta
Fonte: Associação Universitária de Pesquisa em Psicopatologia Fundamental Publicador: Associação Universitária de Pesquisa em Psicopatologia Fundamental
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
In this article valuable contributions by Lasègue, Freud and Abraham are discussed, as they are all indispensible to the understanding of orality disorders in melancholia. Although none of the above authors used the exact term "orality disorders," their understandings of both hysteria and melancholia are important in the debate surrounding the clinical treatment of these difficulties. Sadness is a common denominator for the authors, but contributions on acedia, the "noonday demon" mentioned by Agamben, are also important. Acedia is defined as stagnation, a desperate lack of vigor when faced with a wearying and demanding situation. Those who suffer from chronic acedia feel great inertia and are unable to envision a future. They see their creativity wane away, especially due to the painful isolation caused by what might be called anguished sadness - a denial of sadness through manic action.

The Relation of ANS and HPA Activation to Infant Anger and Sadness Response to Goal Blockage

Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas S.; Sullivan, Margaret W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.28%
This study examined the relation of anger and sadness to heart rate and cortisol in 4-month-old infants’ (N = 56) response to a goal blockage. The blockage occurred during a contingency learning procedure where infants’ response no longer produced a learned interesting event. Anger and sadness were the major emotional expressions to the blockage. The two emotional expressions were differentially related to heart rate and cortisol. Anger was related to increased heart rate, but not cortisol, whereas sadness was related to increased cortisol, but not heart rate. Along with other work, the present results support the view that infant anger in response to goal blockage involves autonomic as opposed to adrenocortical activation as a consequence of an expectation of control over the event. In contrast, sadness in response to goal blockage involves adrenocortical as opposed to autonomic activation stemming from the absence of an expectation of control.

Associations between Sadness and Anger Regulation Coping, Emotional Expression, and Physical and Relational Aggression among Urban Adolescents

Sullivan, Terri N.; Helms, Sarah W.; Kliewer, Wendy; Goodman, Kimberly L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
This study examined associations between self reports of sadness and anger regulation coping, reluctance to express emotion, and physical and relational aggression among two cohorts of predominantly African-American fifth (N = 191; 93 boys and 98 girls) and eighth (N = 167; 73 boys and 94 girls) graders. Multiple regression analyses indicated unique associations between relational aggression and expressive reluctance and sadness regulation coping. In contrast, physical aggression, but not relational aggression, was associated with anger regulation coping. These relations did not differ across gender, but, the strength of the association between anger regulation coping and physical aggression varied by grade. Sadness regulation coping moderated the association between expressive reluctance and relational aggression. Conversely, anger regulation coping moderated the relation between expressive reluctance and physical aggression, however, the strength of this relation differed by gender. These findings have important implications for intervention efforts.

Greater sadness reactivity in late life

Seider, Benjamin H.; Shiota, Michelle N.; Whalen, Patrick; Levenson, Robert W.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.42%
Although previous research suggests that overall emotional reactivity does not change with normal aging, it is possible that different emotions follow different developmental courses. We examined emotional reactivity to films selected to elicit sadness, disgust, and a neutral state in young, middle-aged and older adults (total N = 222). Physiology and expressive behavior were measured continuously and reports of subjective emotional experience were obtained following each film. Results indicated that older adults reported greater sadness in response to all films and greater physiological responses to the sadness film than did the younger age groups. There were no age differences found in self-reported disgust or in behavioral expressions of sadness or disgust in response to any film. The age differences that were found were maintained even after controlling for pre-film self-reported sadness and for personal experiences of loss. These findings support the notion that sadness reactivity is heightened with age.

Sadness as an integral part of depression

Mouchet-Mages, Sabine; Baylé, Franck J.
Fonte: Les Laboratoires Servier Publicador: Les Laboratoires Servier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.36%
Sadness is considered by numerous authors to be a core symptom of depression. Currently, many arguments exist for its particular importance in depressed patients. Sadness makes up part of the various definitions of the depressive syndrome, even if its presence is not required for diagnosis. Furthermore, it is closely linked to the other depressive symptoms, and has prognostic value, in particular for remission. The recognition and measurement of sadness seem important for therapeutic evaluation, in clinical studies, and in depressed patients at an individual level. This paper Sadness is copresents a selective review of some of the various aspects of sadness as an integral part of depression, and an examination of its links with a disease which is a major health concern.

Implications of the DSM’s emphasis on sadness and anhedonia in major depressive disorder

Smith, Julia D.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Schmidt, Norman B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
At least five symptoms must occur for a DSM diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), one of which must be sadness or anhedonia. The present study is the first known investigation of the implications of the presence or absence of these prioritized symptoms on symptom expression and clinical characteristics among 564 young adults with MDD. Differences in symptom expression and clinical characteristics occurred among MDD participants with sadness relative to those without sadness as well as among MDD participants with anhedonia relative to those without anhedonia. Differential symptom expression could have important implications for the etiology, prevention, and treatment of MDD.

Predictors of drinking immediacy following daily sadness: An application of survival analysis to experience sampling data

Hussong, Andrea M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Previous studies of daily assessments show modest mood–drinking covariation as a function of gender and coping motives; however previous analyses also assume a fixed interval across all individuals in the onset of drinking following negative mood. The current study used survival analysis and experience sampling methods to test whether gender and coping motives predicted shorter sadness-to-drinking intervals among those with greater alcohol-related drinking consequences. A sample of 85 college students (46% male; 78% Caucasian) completed daily assessments over 28 days. Survival analyses showed that women drank more on days following elevated sadness when they reported being motivated to drink to cope and having experienced alcohol-related consequences. For men, the two groups showing greater drinking risk following days of elevated sadness did not report alcohol-related consequences, with those reporting the presence of coping motives showing the greatest risk. Implications of these findings for self-medication mechanisms are discussed.

Distinctive neural responses to pain stimuli during induced sadness in patients with somatoform pain disorder: An fMRI study☆

Yoshino, Atsuo; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Toki, Shigeru; Doi, Mitsuru; Machino, Akihiko; Fukumoto, Takuji; Yamashita, Hidehisa; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Pain is a multidimensional phenomenon. Patients with somatoform pain disorder suffer from long-lasting pain, with the pathology being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. Differences between these patients and controls in cerebral responses to pain stimuli have been reported. However, to our knowledge, no studies of somatoform pain disorder have evaluated altered pain-related brain activation as modulated by emotional dysregulation. We examined the distinct neural mechanism that is engaged in response to two different pain intensities in a sad emotional condition, performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a group of 11 somatoform pain patients and an age-matched control group. Our results showed that the ratio for low-pain intensity ratings between the sad and neutral conditions in patients was higher than in controls. They also showed significant increased activation in the anterior/posterior insula in the low pain sadness condition. Furthermore, there was specific functional connectivity between the anterior insula and the parahippocampus in patients during presentation of low-pain stimuli in the sad context. These findings suggest that a negative emotional context such as sadness contributes to dysfunctional pain processing in somatoform pain disorder. Greater sensitivity to low levels of pain in an emotional context of sadness might be an important aspect of the psychopathology of somatoform pain disorder.

Facial emotion expression recognition by children at familial risk for depression: High risk boys are oversensitive to sadness

Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Kuhlman, Kate R.; George, Charles; Kovacs, Maria
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.46%
In the present study we examined perceptual sensitivity to facial expressions of sadness among children at familial-risk for depression (N = 64) and low-risk peers (N = 40) between the ages 7 and 13(Mage = 9.51; SD = 2.27). Participants were presented with pictures of facial expressions that varied in emotional intensity from neutral to full-intensity sadness or anger (i.e., emotion recognition), or pictures of faces morphing from anger to sadness (emotion discrimination). After each picture was presented, children indicated whether the face showed a specific emotion (i.e., sadness, anger) or no emotion at all (neutral). In the emotion recognition task, boys (but not girls) at familial-risk for depression identified sadness at significantly lower levels of emotional intensity than did their low-risk peers. The high and low-risk groups did not differ with regard to identification of anger. In the emotion discrimination task, both groups displayed over-identification of sadness in ambiguous mixed faces but high-risk youth were less likely to show this labeling bias than their peers. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that enhanced perceptual sensitivity to subtle traces of sadness in facial expressions may be a potential mechanism of risk among boys at familial-risk for depression. This enhanced perceptual sensitivity does not appear to be due to biases in the labeling of ambiguous faces.

The Paradox of Music-Evoked Sadness: An Online Survey

Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/10/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.55%
This study explores listeners’ experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no “real-life” implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal...

Sadness is unique: neural processing of emotions in speech prosody in musicians and non-musicians

Park, Mona; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Welker, Lorenz; Carl, Petra; Pöppel, Ernst; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Meindl, Thomas; Blautzik, Janusch; Reiser, Maximilian; Bao, Yan
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Musical training has been shown to have positive effects on several aspects of speech processing, however, the effects of musical training on the neural processing of speech prosody conveying distinct emotions are yet to be better understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the neural responses to speech prosody conveying happiness, sadness, and fear differ between musicians and non-musicians. Differences in processing of emotional speech prosody between the two groups were only observed when sadness was expressed. Musicians showed increased activation in the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex and the retrosplenial cortex. Our results suggest an increased sensitivity of emotional processing in musicians with respect to sadness expressed in speech, possibly reflecting empathic processes.

The Financial Cost of Sadness

Lerner, Jennifer S.; Li, Ye; Weber, Elke
Fonte: Sage Publicador: Sage
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
This paper hypothesizes a phenomenon—myopic misery—in which sadness creates a myopic focus on obtaining money now versus later, increasing intertemporal discount rates and thereby producing substantial financial costs. Experiments 1-3 randomly assigned participants to a sad- or neutral-mood condition, and then offered intertemporal choices. Disgust served as a comparison condition in Experiments 1-2. Results revealed that sadness significantly increased impatience: Relative to median neutral-mood participants, median sad-mood participants accepted 13% to 34% less money today to avoid waiting three months for payment. Impatient thoughts mediated the effects. Disgusted participants were not more impatient than neutral participants, implying that the financial effects do not arise from all negative emotions. The paper concludes that myopic misery is a robust and potentially harmful phenomenon.

Sadness and Consumption

Lerner, Jennifer S.; Garg, Nitika
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.36%
Sadness influences consumption, leading individuals to pay more to acquire new goods and to eat more unhealthy food than they would otherwise. These undesirable consumption effects of sadness can occur without awareness, thus representing more than just conscious attempts at “retail therapy.” In an experiment with real food consumption, the present paper examines the hypothesis that sadness’ impact on consumption could be attenuated if the choice context counteracted appraisals of helplessness and enhanced a sense of individual control. Results revealed that: (1) sadness elevates self‐reports of helplessness in response to the emotion inducing situation, (2) helplessness mediates the sadness‐consumption effect, and (3) inducing a sense of control (via choice) attenuates sadness’ effect.

What’s in a name? Multiple modes of action readiness within the emotion labels anger and sadness

Couchman, Charles E. (1971 - ); Deci, Edward L.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Publicador: University of Rochester.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xiii, 266 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology, 2010.; The present study tested the hypothesis that the labels anger and sadness, as used in lay English, are each associated with multiple, distinct modes of action readiness (MARs), operationalized via distinct patterns of self-reported bodily sensations. As hypothesized, the label anger was associated with a MAR characterized by aggressive and assertive impulses and also with one characterized by the inhibition of active impulses. Also as hypothesized, the label sadness was associated with an active, distressed MAR and also with a MAR characterized by passivity and emotional deadening, although this finding received incomplete support. Hypotheses regarding the relations of each MAR with a selection of additional emotion labels and response characteristics, including behaviors, appraisals, and goals, were tested and largely supported, and the two MARs associated with each label were differentiated by the majority of response characteristics, as hypothesized. Finally, the assessment of MARs via bodily sensations accounted for variance in the majority of response characteristics above and beyond endorsements of the labels anger and sadness.

Exploration qualitative de l’expérience de tristesse pour des patients souffrant d’un trouble de personnalité limite

Briand-Malenfant, Rachel
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.59%
La représentation que se font les patients souffrant d’un trouble de personnalité limite (TPL) de leur expérience de tristesse est un domaine de recherche important tant pour la conceptualisation du trouble que pour son traitement. Ces patients sont connus pour vivre une grande détresse qui se manifeste à travers divers symptômes (Bland, Williams, Scharer, & Manning, 2004). Un nombre élevé de patients présentant un TPL se suicident (Paris, 2002), font au moins une tentative de suicide au cours de leur vie (Oldham, 2006) et s’automutilent (p.ex., Brown, Williams, & Collins, 2007). La recherche sur la souffrance du TPL s’entend sur un paradoxe : ces patients souffrent beaucoup, mais ils vivent peu de tristesse. Leur souffrance prend une forme distincte en qualité, celle-ci demandant à être davantage étudiée empiriquement et théoriquement. L’objectif de cette thèse est d’explorer la représentation de la tristesse de participants souffrant d’un TPL. Alors qu’à notre connaissance aucune étude n’a encore poursuivi cet objectif spécifique, différentes pistes de réflexion ont été soulevées dans la documentation scientifique pour expliquer la nature de la souffrance du TPL en ce qui a trait au tempérament...

The effects of leader negative emotions on evaluations of leadership: The role of anger and sadness

Madera, Juan M.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
While existing literature on leadership articulates the importance of leader emotion, there has been little attention to the potential roles of more specific emotions. The current paper examined the effect of leader emotion on evaluations of leadership in the context of a product recall. In particular, this research examined how the expression of anger and sadness influences how effective a leader is perceived to be in times of crises. This was done by manipulating the emotion of the leader, as well as the response of the leader. The results revealed that a leader expressing either sadness or anger/sadness was evaluated more favorably than a leader expressing anger. Furthermore, a leader accepting responsibility for the crisis was evaluated more favorably than a leader not accepting responsibility.

Discrete Emotion and Motivation: Relative activation in Appetitive and Aversive Motivational System as a Function of Anger, Sadness, Fear, and Joy embedded in the Content of Televised Information Campaigns.

Lee, Seungjo
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, Mass Communications/Telecommunications, 2007; The goal of this study was to examine whether predictable motivational activation in the appetitive and aversive systems underlies the production and experience of discrete emotions (anger, sadness, joy, and fear) experienced while viewing televised PSAs. The current study was conducted from the perspective of LC4MP which theorizes that conscious emotional experience is evoked by the activated motivational systems. This study used self-reports and physiological measures in order to index motivational activation and emotional experience. In joy condition, physiological data provide moderate support for strong appetitive activation and no support for aversive inhibition while self-reported data provided good evidence for both. In fear condition, the self-reported data supported the predictions of strong aversive and inhibited appetitive activation during fear. The physiological data provide strong support for a highly activated aversive system but no support for an inhibited appetitive system. In sadness condition, the self-reported and physiological data support the prediction that sadness is a moderately activated aversive condition and that it may involve some low level appetitive activation. In anger condition...

Influência das emoções tristezas e nojo na tomada de decisão económica com risco : estudo experimental a associações com sintomas psicopatológicos

Ferreira, Maria Luísa Silva
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 08/07/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.28%
Constantemente os indivíduos tomam decisões, sem que, na maioria das vezes tenham intencionalidade no processo de decisão. Para além disso, as tomadas de decisão, muitas vezes sofrem diversos tipos influência, como por exemplo, influência emocional. A literatura sugere que uma simples indução emocional altera o processo de decisão relativo à tarefa. Nas últimas décadas dois saberes distintos têm vindo a confluir e a propor modelos explicativos que correlacionam processos de tomada de decisão económica e influência emocional. A economia contribui com modelos explicativos acerca do processo de tomada de decisão económica sob risco e a psicologia avança com modelos teóricos acerca da influência emocional neste processo. As emoções estudadas no presente estudo foram o nojo e a tristeza. Considera-se o nojo uma das emoções mais influentes nas culturas de consumo, (Health, Bell, & Stenberg, 2001) uma vez que pode provocar tendências de ação que podem influenciar as escolhas económicas (Phelps, 2009). A tristeza, partilhando a mesma valência do nojo, pode associar-se, em muitos casos à presença de psicopatologia. O objetivo geral do estudo é verificar se os estudantes do ensino superior são mais ou menos aversos ao risco após a indução emocional de nojo e tristeza. Neste sentido...

Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone

Umiltà, Maria Allessandra; Wood, Rachel; Loffredo, Francesca; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.42%
Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors) were tested in order to assess participants' ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions...

Exploration des liens entre les attitudes face à la tristesse, la dépression et le bien-être

Dubuc, Catherine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Travail aux cycles supérieurs / Graduate student work
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.53%
Les attitudes envers les émotions ont été liées théoriquement à la psychopathologie (comme la dépression) et au bien-être. Toutefois, peu d’études empiriques approfondissent ces relations. Il est proposé que l’ensemble des attitudes négatives envers la tristesse sera corrélé positivement avec la dépression et négativement avec le bien-être. L’exploration des différentes attitudes spécifiques envers la tristesse est visée, afin de connaître quel type de lien chaque attitude entretient avec les symptômes dépressifs et le bien-être. Cent trois étudiants du baccalauréat ont rempli quatre questionnaires : un questionnaire pour évaluer leurs attitudes envers la tristesse, un pour évaluer la partie hédonique du bien-être, un autre pour évaluer la partie eudémonique du bien-être et un pour mesurer le niveau de symptômes dépressifs. Les résultats démontrent que les attitudes envers la tristesse, prises dans leur ensemble, sont corrélées de manière cohérente avec la dépression et le bien-être, en accord avec l’hypothèse de départ. Les attitudes individuelles, quant à elles, ont des relations hétérogènes avec la dépression et le bien-être. Les résultats principaux indiquent que deux attitudes non soutenantes envers la tristesse sont corrélés négativement avec le bien-être et positivement avec la dépression (perception de la tristesse comme suscitant de la colère contre soi...