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Human Polycomb 2 Protein Is a SUMO E3 Ligase and Alleviates Substrate-Induced Inhibition of Cystathionine β-Synthase Sumoylation

Agrawal, Nitish; Banerjee, Ruma
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/12/2008 EN
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27.47%
Human cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) catalyzes the first irreversible step in the transsulfuration pathway and commits homocysteine to the synthesis of cysteine. Mutations in CBS are the most common cause of severe hereditary hyperhomocysteinemia. A yeast two-hybrid approach to screen for proteins that interact with CBS had previously identified several components of the sumoylation pathway and resulted in the demonstration that CBS is a substrate for sumoylation. In this study, we demonstrate that sumoylation of CBS is enhanced in the presence of human polycomb group protein 2 (hPc2), an interacting partner that was identified in the initial yeast two-hybrid screen. When the substrates for CBS, homocysteine and serine for cystathionine generation and homocysteine and cysteine for H2S generation, are added to the sumoylation mixture, they inhibit the sumoylation reaction, but only in the absence of hPc2. Similarly, the product of the CBS reaction, cystathionine, inhibits sumoylation in the absence of hPc2. Sumoylation in turn decreases CBS activity by ∼28% in the absence of hPc2 and by 70% in its presence. Based on these results...

Association of MEK5 with ERK5, but not ERK5 kinase activation, inhibits small ubiquitin-related modification of ERK5 kinase (ERK5-SUMOylation), and prevents diabetes-mediated exacerbation of left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction

Shishido, Tetsuro; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Ding, Bo; McClain, Carolyn; Molina, Carlos A.; Yan, Chen; Yang, Jay; Abe, Jun-ichi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Diabetes (DM) contributes to the exacerbation of left ventricle (LV) dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). Activation of ERK5, an atypical mitogen activated protein kinase with transcriptional activity, inhibits apoptosis and LV dysfunction after doxorubicin treatment. SUMOylation has been proposed as a negative regulator of various transcription factors. In the current study, we investigated the role of ERK5-SUMOylation in ERK5 transcriptional activity as well as on DM-mediated exacerbation of LV dysfunction and apoptosis after MI. ERK5 wild type transcriptional activity was inhibited by Ubc9 (SUMO E2 conjugase) or PIAS1 (E3 ligase), but not in the ERK5-SUMOylation-site defective mutant (K6R/K22R). H2O2 and high glucose, two well-known mediators of diabetes, induced ERK5-SUMOylation, and the K6R/K22R mutant, dominant negative form of Ubc9, and siRNA-PIAS1 reversed H2O2-mediated reduction of ERK5 transcriptional activity in cardiomyocytes, indicating the presence of SUMOylation-dependent ERK5 transcriptional repression. Constitutively active form of MEK5α (CA-MEK5α) inhibited ERK5-SUMOylation independent of kinase activity, but dependent on MEK5-ERK5 association. To investigate the pathological role of ERK5-SUMOylation in DM mice after MI...

Mutually exclusive STAT1 modifications identified by Ubc9/substrate dimerization-dependent SUMOylation

Zimnik, Susan; Gaestel, Matthias; Niedenthal, Rainer
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Post-translational modifications control the physiological activity of the signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT1. While phosphorylation at tyrosine Y701 is a prerequisite for STAT1 dimerization, its SUMOylation represses the transcriptional activity. Recently, we have demonstrated that SUMOylation at lysine K703 inhibits the phosphorylation of nearby localized Y701 of STAT1. Here, we analysed the influence of phosphorylation of Y701 on SUMOylation of K703 in vivo. For that reason, an Ubc9/substrate dimerization-dependent SUMOylation (USDDS) system was developed, which consists of fusions of the SUMOylation substrate and of the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 to the chemically activatable heterodimerization domains FKBP and FRB, respectively. When FKBP fusion proteins of STAT1, p53, CRSP9, FOS, CSNK2B, HES1, TCF21 and MYF6 are coexpressed with Ubc9-FRB, treatment of HEK293 cells with the rapamycin-related dimerizer compound AP21967 induces SUMOylation of these proteins in vivo. For STAT1-FKBP and p53-FKBP we show that this SUMOylation takes place at their specific SUMOylation sites in vivo. Using USDDS, we then demonstrate that STAT1 phosphorylation at Y701 induced by interferon-β treatment inhibits SUMOylation of K703 in vivo. Thus...

In Vivo Identification of Sumoylation Sites by a Signature Tag and Cysteine-targeted Affinity Purification*

Blomster, Henri A.; Imanishi(今西, Susumu Y., 進); Siimes, Jenny; Kastu, Juha; Morrice, Nick A.; Eriksson, John E.; Sistonen, Lea
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is conjugated to its substrates via an enzymatic cascade consisting of three enzymes, E1, E2, and E3. The active site of the E2 enzyme, Ubc9, recognizes the substrate through binding to a consensus tetrapeptide ΨKXE. However, recent proteomics studies suggested that a considerable part of sumoylation occurs on non-consensus sites. Current unbiased sumoylation site identification techniques typically require high stoichiometry in vitro sumoylation, mass spectrometry, and complex data analysis. To facilitate in vivo analysis, we have designed a mass spectrometric method based on an engineered human SUMO-1 construct that creates a signature tag on SUMO substrates. This construct enables affinity purification by covalent binding to cysteine residues in LysC/trypsin-cleaved peptides and site identification by diglycyl lysine tagging of sumoylation sites. As a proof of concept, site-specific and substrate-unbiased in vivo sumoylation analysis of HeLa cells was performed. We identified 14 sumoylation sites, including well known sites, such as Lys524 of RanGAP1, and novel non-consensus sites. Only 3 of the 14 sites matched consensus sites, supporting the emerging view that non-consensus sumoylation is a common event in live cells. Six of the non-consensus sites had a nearby SUMO interaction motif (SIM)...

Phosphorylation of Ubc9 by Cdk1 Enhances SUMOylation Activity

Su, Yee-Fun; Yang, Tsunghan; Huang, Hoting; Liu, Leroy F.; Hwang, Jaulang
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2012 EN
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Increasing evidence has pointed to an important role of SUMOylation in cell cycle regulation, especially for M phase. In the current studies, we have obtained evidence through in vitro studies that the master M phase regulator CDK1/cyclin B kinase phosphorylates the SUMOylation machinery component Ubc9, leading to its enhanced SUMOylation activity. First, we show that CDK1/cyclin B, but not many other cell cycle kinases such as CDK2/cyclin E, ERK1, ERK2, PKA and JNK2/SAPK1, specifically enhances SUMOylation activity. Second, CDK1/cyclin B phosphorylates the SUMOylation machinery component Ubc9, but not SAE1/SAE2 or SUMO1. Third, CDK1/cyclin B-phosphorylated Ubc9 exhibits increased SUMOylation activity and elevated accumulation of the Ubc9-SUMO1 thioester conjugate. Fourth, CDK1/cyclin B enhances SUMOylation activity through phosphorylation of Ubc9 at serine 71. These studies demonstrate for the first time that the cell cycle-specific kinase CDK1/cyclin B phosphorylates a SUMOylation machinery component to increase its overall SUMOylation activity, suggesting that SUMOylation is part of the cell cycle program orchestrated by CDK1 through Ubc9.

Host Cell Sumoylation Level Influences Papillomavirus E2 Protein Stability

Wu, Yu-Chieh; Bian, Xue-Lin; Heaton, Phillip R.; Wilson, Van G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The stability of papillomavirus E2 proteins is regulated by proteasomal degradation, and regulation of degradation could contribute to the higher expression levels E2 proteins observed in suprabasal layers of differentiated skin. We have recently shown that the E2 proteins are modified by sumoylation [Wu Y-C, Roark AA, Bian X-L, Wilson, VG (2008) Virol 378:329–338], and that sumoylation levels are up-regulated during keratinocyte differentiation [Deyrieux AF, Rosas-Acosta G, Ozbun MA, Wilson VG (2007) J Cell Sci 120:125–136]. These observations, coupled with the known ability of sumoylation to prevent proteasomal degradation of certain proteins, suggested that this modification might contribute to stabilizing E2 proteins in suprabasal keratinocytes. Conditions that increased overall sumoylation were found to increase the intracellular amounts of the HPV11, 16, and 18 E2 proteins. No effect of sumoylation was seen on E2 transcripts, and the increased levels of E2 proteins resulted from a greatly increased half-life for the E2 proteins. In vitro studies confirmed that sumoylation could block the proteasomal degradation of the 16E2 protein. Interestingly, this stabilization effect was indirect as it did not require sumoylation of 16 E2 itself and must be acting through sumoylation of a cellular target(s). This sumoylation-dependent...

RSUME Enhances Glucocorticoid Receptor SUMOylation and Transcriptional Activity

Druker, Jimena; Liberman, Ana C.; Antunica-Noguerol, María; Gerez, Juan; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Rein, Theo; Iñiguez-Lluhí, Jorge A.; Holsboer, Florian; Arzt, Eduardo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 EN
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Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity is modulated by posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation. The GR has three SUMOylation sites: lysine 297 (K297) and K313 in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and K721 within the ligand-binding domain. SUMOylation of the NTD sites mediates the negative effect of the synergy control motifs of GR on promoters with closely spaced GR binding sites. There is scarce evidence on the role of SUMO conjugation to K721 and its impact on GR transcriptional activity. We have previously shown that RSUME (RWD-containing SUMOylation enhancer) increases protein SUMOylation. We now demonstrate that RSUME interacts with the GR and increases its SUMOylation. RSUME regulates GR transcriptional activity and the expression of its endogenous target genes, FKBP51 and S100P. RSUME uncovers a positive role for the third SUMOylation site, K721, on GR-mediated transcription, demonstrating that GR SUMOylation acts positively in the presence of a SUMOylation enhancer. Both mutation of K721 and small interfering RNA-mediated RSUME knockdown diminish GRIP1 coactivator activity. RSUME, whose expression is induced under stress conditions, is a key factor in heat shock-induced GR SUMOylation. These results show that inhibitory and stimulatory SUMO sites are present in the GR and at higher SUMOylation levels the stimulatory one becomes dominant.

Analysis of Human Cytomegalovirus-Encoded SUMO Targets and Temporal Regulation of SUMOylation of the Immediate-Early Proteins IE1 and IE2 during Infection

Kim, Eui Tae; Kim, Young-Eui; Kim, Ye Ji; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Hayward, Gary S.; Ahn, Jin-Hyun
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/07/2014 EN
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Post-translational modification of proteins by members of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is involved in diverse cellular functions. Many viral proteins are SUMO targets and also interact with the cellular SUMOylation system. During human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, the immediate-early (IE) proteins IE1 and IE2 are covalently modified by SUMO. IE2 SUMOylation promotes its transactivation activity, whereas the role of IE1 SUMOylation is not clear. We performed in silico, genome-wide analysis to identify possible SUMOylation sites in HCMV-encoded proteins and evaluated their modification using the E. coli SUMOylation system and in vitro assays. We found that only IE1 and IE2 are substantially modified by SUMO in E. coli, although US34A was also identified as a possible SUMO target in vitro. We also found that SUMOylation of IE1 and IE2 is temporally regulated during viral infection. Levels of SUMO-modified form of IE1 were increased during the early phase of infection, but decreased in the late phase when IE2 and its SUMO-modified forms were expressed at high levels. IE2 expression inhibited IE1 SUMOylation in cotransfection assays. As in IE2 SUMOylation, PIAS1, a SUMO E3 ligase, interacted with IE1 and enhanced IE1 SUMOylation. In in vitro assays...

Ebp1 Sumoylation, Regulated by TLS/FUS E3 Ligase, Is Required for Its Anti-Proliferative Activity

Oh, S.-M.; Liu, Z.; Okada, M.; Jang, S.-W.; Liu, X.; Chan, C.-B.; Luo, Hongbo; Ye, K.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Ebp1, an ErbB3 receptor-binding protein, inhibits cell proliferation and acts as a putative tumor suppressor. Ebp1 translocates into the nucleus and functions as a transcription co-repressor for E2F-1. Here, we show that Ebp1 p42 isoform can be sumoylated on both K93 and K298 residues, which mediate its nuclear translocation and are required for its anti-proliferative activity. We find that translocation in liposarcoma (TLS)/FUS, an RNA-binding nuclear protein that is involved in pre-mRNA processing and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, has Sumo1 E3 ligase activity for Ebp1 p42. Ebp1 directly binds TLS/FUS, which is regulated by genotoxic stress-triggered phosphorylation on Ebp1. Ebp1 sumoylation facilitates its nucleolar distribution and protein stability. Overexpression of TLS enhances Ebp1 sumoylation, whereas depletion of TLS abolishes Ebp1 sumoylation. Moreover, unsumoylated Ebp1 mutants fail to suppress E2F-1-regulated transcription, resulting in loss of its anti-proliferation activity. Hence, TLS-mediated sumoylation is required for Ebp1 transcriptional repressive activity.

A Study of sumoylation as a novel mechanism that regulates Kar9p function and spindle positioning in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Meednu, Nida (1977 - ); Miller, Rita K.
Fonte: Universidade de Rochester Publicador: Universidade de Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xiv, 290 leaves
ENG
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Biology, 2008.; Spindle positioning is an essential process during cell division. To ensure that the chromosomes segregate properly, the spindle needs to be oriented along the long axis of cell division. In asymmetrically dividing cells, positioning and orientation of the spindle are coordinated with the plane of cytokinesis to produce two cells with different properties. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae divides asymmetrically. In this organism, the mitotic spindles are positioned and oriented along the long axis of cell division which is determined by the site of bud emergence. This process is accomplished by the functions of various proteins to bring about the communication between cell polarity signals and cytoplasmic microtubules. In yeast, spindle positioning is mediated by two pathways, the KAR9 pathway and the dynein pathway. The KAR9 pathway is responsible for orienting the cytoplasmic microtubules and positioning the spindle prior to the onset of anaphase. The dynein pathway generates forces to pull the spindle across the plane of cytokinesis. Proteins functioning in these pathways include those associated with microtubules and actin. The interactions between these proteins are essential for regulating the process of spindle positioning. In this report...

Interactions protéiques et relation dynamique entre phosphorylation / sumoylation / ubiquitination des protéines TIF1α, β et PML: détection in vivo par BRET

Desprez, Delphine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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37.65%
Trois protéines de la famille TRIM (Motif TRIpartite), TIF1α, β (Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1) et PML (ProMyelocytic Leukaemia¬), font l’objet de cette étude. TIF1α est connu comme un coactivateur des récepteurs nucléaires et TIF1β comme le corépresseur universel des protéines KRAB-multidoigt de zinc dont le prototype étudié ici est ZNF74. PML possède divers rôles dont le plus caractérisé est celui d’être l’organisateur principal et essentiel des PML-NBs (PML-Nuclear Bodies), des macrostructures nucléaires très dynamiques regroupant et coordonnant plus de 40 protéines. Il est à noter que la fonction de TIF1α, β et PML est régulée par une modification post-traductionnelle, la sumoylation, qui implique le couplage covalent de la petite protéine SUMO (Small Ubiquitin like MOdifier) à des lysines de ces trois protéines cibles. Cette thèse propose de développer des méthodes utilisant le BRET (Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfert) afin de détecter dans des cellules vivantes et en temps réel des interactions non-covalentes de protéines nucléaires mais aussi leur couplage covalent à SUMO. En effet, le BRET n’a jamais été exploré jusqu’alors pour étudier les interactions non-covalentes et covalentes de protéines nucléaires. L’étude de l’interaction de protéines transcriptionnellement actives est parfois difficile par des méthodes classiques du fait de leur grande propension à agréger (famille TRIM) ou de leur association à la matrice nucléaire (ZNF74). L’homo et l’hétérodimérisation de TIF1α...

Large scale identification of protein SUMOylation by mass spectrometry in HEK293 cells

Mahrouche, Louiza
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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Une large gamme d’événements cellulaires est régulée par la SUMOylation des protéines. Cette modification post-traductionnelle est impliquée dans le cancer notamment dans la leucémie promyélocytaire aigue. À ce jour, peu d’études à grande échelle ont porté sur l’identification des sites de modification. Ce mémoire présente une approche protéomique quantitative unique qui combine une double purification par affinité au niveau des protéines cibles ainsi que des peptides modifiés. L’approche la plus répandue de purification des protéines SUMOylés implique l’utilisation d’une forme de SUMO modifié avec une étiquette (His6-SUMO). A ce jour, les approches permettant l’enrichissement au niveau peptidique nécessite une forme mutante de SUMO. Notre analyse consiste à premièrement enrichir en protéines SUMOylés dans les cellules humaines vierges ou sur exprimant His6-SUMO-1/3 en présence ou pas de trioxyde de diarsenic, un traitement de leucémie promyélocytaire aigue. Par la suite, les échantillons sont digérés et les peptides obtenus des protéines SUMOylés conservent un branchement caractéristique. Les peptides sont soit immunoprécipités avec un anticorps spécifique au branchement SUMO ou directement analysés par nano LC/LC-MS/MS par un spectromètre de masse LTQ-Orbitrap. Une analyse manuelle des données révèle des fragments caractéristiques correspondant à la chaîne latérale de SUMO. L’originalité de l’approche réside dans l’identification quantitative et sans ambigüité des sites de SUMOylation. Cette approche a permis l’identification de 17 et 3 sites de SUMO-3 et SUMO-1 respectivement dans les cellules HEK293. Finalement...

Régulation dynamique de l’activité du récepteur des estrogènes beta (ERβ) par la phosphorylation,l’ubiquitination et la sumoylation

Picard, Nathalie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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37.5%
Les estrogènes jouent un rôle primordial dans le développement et le fonctionnement des tissus reproducteurs par leurs interactions avec les récepteurs des estrogènes ERα et ERβ. Ces récepteurs nucléaires agissent comme facteurs de transcription et contrôlent l’expression des gènes de façon hormono-dépendante et indépendante grâce à leurs deux domaines d’activation (AF-1 et AF-2). Une dérégulation de leur activité transcriptionnelle est souvent à l’origine de pathologies telles que le cancer du sein, de l’endomètre et des ovaires. Alors que ERα est utilisé comme facteur pronostic pour l’utilisation d’agents thérapeutiques, l’importance de la valeur clinique de ERβ est encore controversée. Toutefois, des évidences récentes lui associent un pouvoir anti-tumorigénique en démontrant que sa présence favorise l’inhibition de la progression de ces cancers ainsi que l’efficacité des traitements. En combinaisons avec d’autres études, ces observations démontrent que bien que les deux isoformes partagent une certaine similitude d’action, les ERs sont en mesure d’exercer des fonctions distinctes. Ces différences sont fortement attribuables au faible degré d’homologie observé entre certains domaines structuraux des ERs...

MxA interacts with and is modified by the SUMOylation machinery

Brantis-de-Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo; Maarifi, Ghizlane; Gonçalves Boldrin, Paulo Eduardo; Zanelli, Cleslei Fernando; Nisole, Sebastien; Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K.; Valentini, Sandro Roberto
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 151-163
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Processo FAPESP: 2003/09497-3; Processo FAPESP: 2010/50044-6; Mx proteins are evolutionarily conserved dynamin-like large GTPases involved in viral resistance triggered by types I and III interferons. The human MxA is a cytoplasmic protein that confers resistance to a large number of viruses. The MxA protein is also known to self-assembly into high molecular weight homo-oligomers. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified 27 MxA binding partners, some of which are related to the SUMOylation machinery. The interaction of MxA with Small-Ubiquitin MOdifier 1 (SUMO1) and Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 9 (Ubc9) was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization by confocal microscopy. We identified one SUMO conjugation site at lysine 48 and two putative SUMO interacting motifs (SIMa and SIMb). We showed that MxA interacts with the EIL loop of SUMO1 in a SIM-independent manner via its CID-GED domain. The yeast two-hybrid mapping also revealed that Ubc9 binds to the MxA GTPase domain. Mutation in the putative SIMa and SIMb, which are located in the GTPase binding domain, reduced MxA antiviral activity. In addition...

Rôle de la Prohibitine et de la sumoylation dans la pathogenèse de l’ostéoarthrose

Doucet, Roxanne
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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L'ostéoarthrose (OA) est la forme la plus commune d’arthrite et son étiologie demeure encore méconnue. Les travaux du Dr Moreau et son équipe ont permis de mettre en évidence une quasi perte d’expression du facteur de transcription Pitx1 dans les chondrocytes OA et la protéine PHB-1 a été identifiée comme étant membre d’un complexe répresseur pouvant lier le promoteur de Pitx1. Le but de la présente étude était de confirmer l’accumulation anormale de PHB-1 dans le noyau des chondrocytes OA, tel que suggéré par des données préliminaires, et d’identifier les mécanismes impliqués dans son import ou rétention au noyau. Pour ce faire, un volet mécanistique utilisant les lignées C28/I2 et U2OS fut combiné à l’étude clinique des chondrocytes articulaires de patients OA et de sujets sains. Les résultats de cette étude démontrent que chez 55 pourcent des patients OA, la Prohibitine s’accumule dans le noyau des chondrocytes articulaires et que cette accumulation corrèle avec une augmentation de la sumoylation totale dans le noyau des cellules OA. Le présent projet de recherche propose pour la première fois qu’une sumoylation accrue au sein des cellules OA pourrait être responsable de l’accumulation nucléaire de PHB-1...

Etudes structurales et fonctionnelles des interactions de SUMO avec des proteines d'echafaudage modeles: TIF1beta, PIAS1 et PML

Mascle, Xavier H.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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L’adaptation des cellules à leur environnement externe repose sur la transduction adéquate de signaux régulés par une pléthore d'événements moléculaires. Parmi ces événements moléculaires, les modifications post-traductionnelles (MPT) de protéines aident à intégrer, à traduire et à organiser de façon spatiotemporelle ces signaux pour que les cellules puissent réagir aux stimuli externes. Parmi les modifications post-traductionnelles, les petites protéines de la famille de l’Ubiquitine (Ublps, Ubiquitin-like proteins) jouent un rôle majeur dans presque toutes les voies de signalisation. Cette thèse rapporte des études fonctionnelles et structurales des interactions covalentes et non covalentes entre SUMO (Small Ubiquitin related MOdifier), un membre de la famille des Ublps, et trois protéines d'échafaudage, TIF1beta, le corépresseur universel des protéines KRAB-multidoigt de zinc, PIAS1, une ligase E3 pour SUMO et PML, un suppresseur de tumeur. La première étude rapporte l'identification et la caractérisation biochimique des sites de SUMOylation de TIF1beta. Nous avons déterminé que la modification covalente de six résidus lysine par SUMO est essentielle à l’activité de répression de la transcription induit par TIF1beta. En outre...

Mécanismes d'action des antioestrogènes totaux

Hilmi, Khalid
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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27.6%
Le cancer du sein est le cancer qui a la plus forte fréquence au Canada. En 2012, on estime que 23 200 nouveaux cas de cancer du sein seront diagnostiqués. Deux tiers des tumeurs mammaires expriment ou surexpriment le récepteur des oestrogènes α (ERα). De même, les oestrogènes sont importants pour la croissance de ces tumeurs. La présence des récepteurs hormonaux est un critère qui détermine le choix de la thérapie; à cet égard, le ciblage des récepteurs des oestrogènes par les antioestrogènes a pour but d’inactiver ces récepteurs et diminuer leur contribution à la croissance tumorale. Les antioestrogènes sont des inhibiteurs compétitifs de ERα. Tamoxifene est le médicament le plus utilisé pour traiter les tumeurs mammaires ER+ de tous les stades, avant ou après la ménopause. Tamoxifene est antioestrogène partiel ou SERM qui a un profile mixte d’activités agonistes et antagonistes. Fulvestrant ou ICI 182, 780 est un antioestrogène de type total ou SERD dépourvu de toute activité agoniste. Ce composé est utilisé en clinique chez les femmes après la ménopause ayant des tumeurs mammaires avancées. Fulvestrant constitue, donc, une deuxième ligne thérapeutique en cas de rechute après à un traitement par Tamoxifene. Afin de comprendre le potentiel thérapeutique de Fulvestrant...

The PI3K/Akt signal hyperactivates Eya1 via the SUMOylation pathway

Sun, Ye; Kaneko, Satoshi; Li, Xiaokun; Li, Xue
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Eya1 is a conserved critical regulator of organ-specific stem cells. Ectopic Eya1 activities, however, promote transformation of mammary epithelial cells. Signals that instigate Eya1 oncogenic activities remain to be determined. Here, we show that Akt1 kinase physically interacts with Eya1 and phosphorylates a conserved consensus site of the Akt kinase. PI3K/Akt signaling enhances Eya1 transcription activity, which largely attributes to the phosphorylation-induced reduction of Eya1 SUMOylation. Indeed, SUMOylation inhibits Eya1 transcription activity; and pharmacologic and genetic activation of PI3K/Akt robustly reduces Eya1 SUMOylation. Wild type but not Akt phosphorylation site mutant Eya1 variant rescues the cell migratory phenotype of EYA1-silenced breast cancer cells, highlighting the importance of Eya1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, knockdown EYA1 sensitizes breast cancer cells to the PI3K/Akt1 inhibitor and irradiation treatments. Thus, the PI3K/Akt signal pathway activates Eya1. These findings further suggest that regulation of SUMOylation by PI3K/Akt signaling is likely an important aspect of tumorigenesis.

Nucleoporins Prevent DNA Damage Accumulation by Modulating Ulp1-dependent Sumoylation Processes

Palancade, Benoit; Xianpeng, Liu; García-Rubio, María L.; Aguilera, Andrés; Xiaolan, Zhao; Doye, Valérie
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 1832837 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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37.13%
12 páginas, 6 figuras, 1 tabla.; Increasing evidences suggest that nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) control different aspects of nuclear metabolism, including transcription, nuclear organization, and DNA repair. We previously established that the Nup84 complex, a major NPC building block, is part of a genetic network involved in DNA repair. Here, we show that double-strand break (DSB) appearance is linked to a shared function of the Nup84 and the Nup60/Mlp1–2 complexes. Mutants within these complexes exhibit similar genetic interactions and alteration in DNA repair processes as mutants of the SUMO-protease Ulp1. Consistently, these nucleoporins are required for maintenance of proper Ulp1 levels at NPCs and for the establishment of the appropriate sumoylation of several cellular proteins, including the DNA repair factor Yku70. Moreover, restoration of nuclear envelope-associated Ulp1 in nucleoporin mutants reestablishes proper sumoylation patterns and suppresses DSB accumulation and genetic interactions with DNA repair genes. Our results thus provide a molecular mechanism that underlies the connection between NPC and genome stability.; This research was supported by a collaborative program between the Institut Curie and the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (PIC Paramètres Epigénétiques grant to V.D.)...

SUMOylation of the C-terminal domain of DNA topoisomerase IIα regulates the centromeric localization of Claspin

Ryu, Hyunju; Yoshida, Makoto M.; Sridharan, Vinidhra; Kumagai, Akiko; Dunphy, William G.; Dasso, Mary; Azuma, Yoshiaki
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/zip
Publicado em 01/07/2015
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DNA topoisomerase II (TopoII) regulates DNA topology by its strand passaging reaction, which is required for genome maintenance by resolving tangled genomic DNA. In addition, TopoII contributes to the structural integrity of mitotic chromosomes and to the activation of cell cycle checkpoints in mitosis. Post-translational modification of TopoII is one of the key mechanisms by which its broad functions are regulated during mitosis. SUMOylation of TopoII is conserved in eukaryotes and plays a critical role in chromosome segregation. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract, we demonstrated previously that TopoIIα is modified by SUMO on mitotic chromosomes and that its activity is modulated via SUMOylation of its lysine at 660. However, both biochemical and genetic analyses indicated that TopoII has multiple SUMOylation sites in addition to Lys660, and the functions of the other SUMOylation sites were not clearly determined. In this study, we identified the SUMOylation sites on the C-terminal domain (CTD) of TopoIIα. CTD SUMOylation did not affect TopoIIα activity, indicating that its function is distinct from that of Lys660 SUMOylation. We found that CTD SUMOylation promotes protein binding and that Claspin, a well-established cell cycle checkpoint mediator...