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Pro-cyclical Fiscal Policy in Brazil : Evidence from the States

Arena, Marco; Revilla, Julio E.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
The empirical literature on budget cyclicality has generally focused more on assessing the degree of pro-cyclicality in federal (central government) revenues and expenditures and less on budget cyclicality at the sub-national level in multi-tiered systems. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on budget cyclicality by examining how sub-national fiscal revenues and expenditures are linked to the business cycle in Brazil, particularly after the introduction of the Fiscal Responsibility Law. It explains the degree of pro-cyclicality across Brazilian states, and assesses whether intergovernmental transfers help to stabilize states finances. These issues are addressed using both a time-series and a cross-section dimension at the Brazilian state level for the period 1991-2006. The empirical evidence suggests the existence of a pro-cyclical fiscal policy in Brazil at the state level. However, the introduction of the Fiscal Responsibility Law helped to reduce Brazilian states spending-side pro-cyclicality. For the Brazilian states...

How Close Is Your Government to Its People? Worldwide Indicators on Localization and Decentralization

Ivanyna, Maksym; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
This paper is intended to provide an assessment of the impact of the silent revolution of the last three decades on moving governments closer to people to establish fair, accountable, incorruptible and responsive governance. To accomplish this, a unique data set is constructed for 182 countries by compiling data from a wide variety of sources to examine success toward decentralized decision making across the globe. An important feature of this data set is that, for comparative purposes, it measures government decision making at the local level rather than at the sub-national levels used in the existing literature. The data are used to rank countries on political, fiscal and administrative dimensions of decentralization and localization. These sub-indexes are aggregated and adjusted for heterogeneity to develop an overall ranking of countries on the closeness of their government to the people. The resulting rankings provide a useful explanation of the Arab Spring and other recent political movements and waves of dissatisfaction with governance around the world.

The Amhara Regional Report : Public Finance Review

Alebachew, Abebe; Alemu, Getnet
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
The objective of this study is explore in depth public finance issues and their impact on decentralized service delivery at the regional and woreda level in Amhara region. The study is carried out as part of the federal and some regional case studies designed to examine effectiveness of public finances of sub-national governments. This study was expected to (i) review the institutional arrangement for managing public finances at the regional level including policies, budgetary institutions, systems and processes; (ii) assess the level, trend, and composition of public spending (both functional and economic classification) in per capita terms over the past five years and identify key achievements and limitations; (iii) assess the level, trend, and, composition of revenue at the regional level and examine the financing framework, including ways to increase local revenue generation capacity; (iv) assess the role of external aid in supporting decentralized service delivery and the sustainability of the program in absence of external aid; (v) review the planning and budgeting process as well as the quality of PFM system; and (vi) data permitting...

Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State : Public Finance Review

Kidane, Chekol; Alemu, Getnet
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
The objective of this study is to explore in depth public finance issues and their impact on decentralized service delivery at the regional and woreda levels in Benishangul Gumuz (BG) region. The study is carried out as part of the federal and some regional case studies designed to examine effectiveness of public finances of sub-national governments. This study was expected to (i) review the institutional arrangement for managing public finances at the regional level including policies, budgetary institutions, systems and processes; (ii) assess the level, trend, and composition of public spending (both functional and economic classification) in per capita terms over the past five years and identify key achievements and limitations; (iii) assess the level, trend, and, composition of revenue at the regional level and examine the financing framework, including ways to increase local revenue generation capacity; (iv) assess the role of external aid in supporting decentralized service delivery and the sustainability of the program in absence of external aid; (v) review the planning and budgeting process as well as the quality of PFM system; and (vi) data permitting...

Republic of Sierra Leone Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability : Performance Assessment Report 2010, Sub-National Governments (Local Councils)

Mulit Donor Budget Support Partners
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.14%
This Public Financial Management (PFM) Performance Assessment Report is based on the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) PFM Performance Measurement Framework, Sub National Level, which includes a performance rating on 32 indicators covering the entire PFM cycle in Local Government, as in Sierra Leone, and assesses impact on budget goals. This assessment is intended to provide a comprehensive, integrated and candid assessment of Sierra Leone s PFM at the local council level, and to make recommendations for improving the local council PFM framework, institutional performance and capacity building.

Belarus Public Expenditure Review : Enhancing Public Services in Times of Austerity

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, Dc Publicador: Washington, Dc
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
This report is the second volume of the programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER) in Belarus. In 2010 the Ministry of Finance requested that the Bank provide sequenced and targeted advice on the fiscal reform options across priority areas of the budget. Responding to this request, a programmatic PER was agreed upon. The first volume was delivered in November 2011 and focused on providing policy options for a sustainable pension system, better targeted social assistance and rationalization of energy and agricultural subsidies. The objective of this volume is to identify reform opportunities to enhance the quality of key public services in a fiscally constrained environment. Specifically, the second PER will analyze three key areas of the budget: intergovernmental fiscal relations and public spending in the education and health sectors. These three areas were chosen because they are significant from a fiscal perspective. More than half of government spending is channeled through sub-national governments, while education and health spending together account for a quarter of government spending (largely at the sub-national level). Beyond their fiscal importance...

Implementing EITI at the Sub National Level : Emerging Experience and Operational Framework

Aguilar, Javier; Caspary, Georg; Seiler, Verena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
The fundamental rationale behind Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) is that increased transparency and knowledge of revenues from the extractive industries will empower citizens and institutions to hold governments accountable. By implementing EITI at the sub national level, countries could reduce opportunities for mismanagement or diversion of funds from sustainable development purposes, especially for prominent oil, gas, or mining regions. It is also an effective way of strengthening EITI local ownership among stakeholders. This report presents a preliminary analysis of emerging experiences in EITI countries implementing sub national EITI. Six countries have been selected as case studies: Ghana, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Peru. Based on these experiences, the report proposes a common operational framework for implementing EITI at the sub national level, laying the ground for further practical guidelines on deepening or strengthening the sub national plans or activities of implementing countries.

Decentralization and Deconcentration in Morocco : Cross-Sectoral Status Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
This report will look at how the Government of Morocco (GoM) has addressed the issues of decentralization and deconcentration in recent years. It discusses how these processes have affected public policies at the sub-national level and a number of strategic sectors, including agriculture, irrigation, water and waste water, health, education, energy, transport, urban, housing, and solid waste management. Specifically, the report will analyze the current legislative and institutional arrangements governing sub-national accountability, revenue and spending powers, and public service management at the sub-national level and within the strategic sectors. It is to serve as background input for the World Bank team preparing the new Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) 2010/2013. The Report builds on the findings from project appraisal documents, economic and sector work, policy notes, mission aide memoires, and implementation completion reports already completed by the World Bank.

Decentralization and Local Governance in MENA : A Survey of Policies, Institutions, and Practices

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
Entering the 21st century, the 1999-2000 World Development Report (WDR), identifies two main forces that are shaping the world in which development policy is being defined and implemented: (i) globalization, the increasing worldwide integration of private sector interaction and commercial relationships; and (ii) localization, a process of devolving fiscal and administrative roles and responsibilities from central to sub-national tiers of government. It goes on to note that these global-private and local-public pressures are not only reinforcing, but also challenging traditional paradigms and forms of intergovernmental systems. Political decentralization, often associated with pluralistic politics and representative government, aims to give citizens more say in public policy and decision-making. Its advocates assume that decisions made with greater participation will be better informed and more relevant to diverse interests in society than those made only by national political authorities. The concept implies that the selection of representatives from local electoral jurisdictions allows citizens to know better their political representatives and allows elected officials to know better the needs and desires of their constituents. Administrative decentralization aims to redistribute authority...

Fiscal Adjustment and Income Inequality : Sub-national Evidence from Brazil

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; David, Antonio C.; Rodrigues Bastos, Fabiano; Pineda, Emilio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
The paper combines state-level fiscal data with household survey data to assess the links between sub-national fiscal policy and income inequality in Brazil over the period 1995-2011. The results indicate that a tighter fiscal stance at the sub-national level is not associated with a deterioration in inequality measures. This finding contrasts with the conclusions of several papers in the burgeoning literature on the effects of fiscal consolidation on inequality using national data for OECD economies. In addition, the authors find that a tighter stance is typically positively associated with a measure of "shared prosperity". Hence, the results caution against extrapolating policy implications of the literature focusing on advanced economies to other settings.

Belarus Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability : Public Financial Management Performance Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
The main objective of the present public financial management performance report (PFM-PR) is to provide the Government of Belarus with an objective up-to-date diagnostic of PFM performance based on the internationally recognized public expenditure and financial accountability (PEFA) methodology. The report is expected to inform the development of the government medium-term program for PFM reform. As a lead donor the World Bank provided a qualified team that undertook the assessment in accordance with the methodology and following the process described in the concept note agreed with the ministry of finance (MoF). The World Bank was also responsible for quality assurance of the PFM-PR using the standard procedures for Bank funded analytical work and PEFA check requirements. The report justifies the scoring and describes the analytical work which has been carried out and the sources of information used for each indicator. The report takes into account the changes in PFM performance since 2009 and documents the reasons for changes in indicator scores from the previous assessment. PEFA framework focuses primarily on the national level of a country s PFM system. At the national level it seeks to cover the entire PFM system...

Spending for Development : Making the Most of Indonesia's New Opportunities, Indonesia Public Expenditure Review 2007

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
This Public Expenditure Review (PER) 2007 examines and explains some of the constraints facing the government in public resource management and allocation, and offers recommendations for improvements in six critical areas: fiscal space, education, health, infrastructure, public financial management and decentralization. Although Indonesia has made important progress in reforming its public finances and increasing transparency, Indonesia's reform agenda, as highlighted by the PER, is far from complete. Equity and efficiency of spending remain major issues, for instance finding an optimal allocation of resources that reflects development priorities, and achieving an annual spending pattern that is no longer strongly skewed towards the end of the financial year. This report tries to establish the facts about Indonesia's public expenditures, presenting trends over time and analyzing the composition across sectors and levels of government. It presents comprehensive information on key sectors, including sub-national governments and state-owned enterprises in key infrastructure sectors. Based on these facts...

Will Consolidation Improve Sub-National Governments?

Fox, William F.; Gurley, Tami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.2%
Local government size varies dramatically around the world. In Sudan, Cote d'Ivoire, and the United Kingdom, municipalities average more than 125,000 people. Those in many European countries have less than 10,000 people. Countries often consider consolidation of local governments as a means to lower service delivery costs, improve service quality, enhance accountability, improve equity, or expand participation in government. The authors review a number of theoretical arguments and empirical findings concerning the size of sub-national governments. Countries should not presume that amalgamation will solve problems because benefits and costs are situation specific. Success depends on many factors, including getting incentives right for the various players and managing the transition properly. The effects on costs must be examined in terms of all changes occurring with consolidation, including geographic size. Size economies appear service specific and are most likely to result for infrastructure intensive services such as water and sewerage. Size economies are less likely for services such as education that are provided in numerous small production units near the population. Also, the potential for savings depends on other factors, such as willingness to eliminate redundant workers. Consolidation reduces the potential for local government competition...

South East Europe Municipal Finance Review : Local Government Finance in the Western Balkans

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
This report addresses the limited access to local governments of data and knowledge of municipal finance issues in South East Europe (SEE). The objective of the analytical work under the SEE Municipal Finance Review (MFR) aims to (i) contribute to improved understanding of local government management and finance in the SEE Region; and (ii) contribute to improving the quality and consistency of key municipal finance data for improved evidence based policy making. The analysis presented in this report comprises the first attempt to review and analyze a regional set of disaggregated sub-national finance data in the SEE Region. Main findings of the MFR are presented in this report. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 provides an overview of the decentralization framework in the SEE Region, including on the administrative and political structure of sub-national governments, their population size and distribution, and the service functions assigned to local governments. Chapter 3 explains in more detail the local government finance framework. This includes an overview of the structure and composition of sub-national finances...

Issues in Sub-National Borrowing in Nigeria

Ekpo, Akpan H.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.32%
Since 1991 the share of sub-national outlays in total government spending has increased, reflecting their active role in service delivery and greater autonomy in policy-making and implementation. As a result, sub-national economic policies have taken on an increasingly important role in ensuring macroeconomic stability. The rising share of sub-national finance, including sub-national Governments (SNGs) debt as a share of general public debt abundantly reflects this trend of greater devolution of spending responsibilities, revenue - raising authority and the capacity to incur debt. The growing importance of SNG finances and the recognition that the trend can pose dangers to macroeconomic stability have informed different institutional responses to the difficulties of decentralized decision-making, especially addressing the need to improve policy coordination across levels of government and contain sub-national borrowing. The purpose of this paper is to articulate some issues in SNG borrowing arising from the peculiarities of the Nigerian situation. To this end...

Service Delivery and Financial Management in a New Province : Gorontalo Public Expenditure Analysis 2008

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
As one of Indonesia's recently established provinces, 2001 Gorontalo has faced numerous challenges, the most daunting being one of the country's highest levels of poverty. Gorontalo's sub-national governments shoulder a heavy responsibility in ensuring the rapid development of the region, alleviating poverty and improving the provision of basic public services especially in education and health and making sure those services reach the poorest and most vulnerable groups. In performing these crucial tasks, the success of sub-national governments depends to a large degree on three factors: the ability of sub-national governments to define and then translate their visions for development into effective development plans; the existing capacity of the government bureaucracy; and the availability of budgetary resources. A clear and well-articulated vision is needed to guide regional development, one that should serve to synergize the efforts of multiple stakeholders to make full use of the latent potential that exists in Gorontalo. Moreover...

Spending for Development : Making the Most of Indonesia's New Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
This Public Expenditure Review (PER) examines and explains some of the constraints facing the government in public resource management and allocation, and offers recommendations for improvements in six critical areas: fiscal space, education, health, infrastructure, public financial management, and decentralization. Although Indonesia has made important progress in reforming its public finances and increasing transparency, Indonesia's reform agenda, as highlighted by the PER, is far from complete. Equity and efficiency of spending remain major issues, for instance finding an optimal allocation of resources that reflects development priorities, and achieving an annual spending pattern that is no longer strongly skewed towards the end of the financial year. This report tries to establish the facts about Indonesia's public expenditures, presenting trends over time and analyzing the composition across sectors and levels of government. It presents comprehensive information on key sectors, including sub-national governments and state-owned enterprises in key infrastructure sectors. Based on these facts...

Restructuring Indonesia's Sub-national Public Debt: Reform or Reversion?; Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies

Lewis, Blane; Woodward, David
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Borrowing can be an efficient way for sub-national governments to acquire capital assets, but it also carries risks of fiscal distress and insolvency for borrowers. To minimise these risks, many governments around the world have developed ex-post insolvency remedies, including, most importantly, debt-restructuring mechanisms. In an effort to resurrect borrowing for local infrastructure development, the Indonesian government has designed and begun to implement debt-restructuring programs for sub-national government and sub-national government-owned water supply company defaulters. These programs constitute a major effort to reform an important, long-neglected and problematic aspect of sub-national public finances in Indonesia. There are a number of potential difficulties with the design and execution of the reforms, however, which collectively do not inspire much optimism for rapid progress in reviving financial flows to the sub-national public sector. Still, even halting advances in debt restructuring can substantially increase local infrastructure investment in the long run.

Assessment of the Financing Framework for Municipal Infrastructure in Vietnam; Danh gia khung tai tro cho co so ha tang dia phuong o Viet Nam bao cao cuoi cung

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Infrastructure Framework
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
A fundamental challenge for Vietnam is to improve the affordability and efficiency of infrastructure investment. The fragmentation of public infrastructure investment results in duplication and waste, and is a major underlying cause of investment inefficiency. Bond issuance has been the most prominent form of debt financing at the sub-national level. At the provincial level, significant disconnects exist between total planned investment needs in infrastructure, and the effective demand for such investment. The success of any initiative to improve the financing of municipal infrastructure in Vietnam hinges on advances in the broader landscape of policy reform as part of the country's long-term development. Meeting these challenges requires a comprehensive approach that addresses issues of governance, financing, and execution. This report has been formulated with the objective of informing the Government of Vietnam (GOV) on how the financing framework for municipal infrastructure in the country can be strengthened. It is based on an assessment of the constraints and opportunities that sub-national governments face in accessing financing for infrastructure development. It also draws upon lessons and good practices from international experience in this area...

The veto power of sub-national governments in Brazil: political institutions and parliamentary behaviour in the post-1988 period

Arretche,Marta
Fonte: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online) Publicador: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
The article analyses the veto power of territorial governments in Brazil, by examining the parliamentary behaviour of state caucuses (bancadas) as well as their institutional veto opportunities when it comes to matters related to sub-national governments’ revenues and decision-making authority over their own taxes, policy responsibilities and expenditures. The " imposition of losses" upon territorial governments characterized legislative production during the 1989-2006 period, even though these decisions were intensely negotiated. The article concludes that the decision-making centralization at the central arenas, the absence of additional veto arenas and the ease with which constitutional amendments may be approved characterize decision-making on federal issues in Brazil. Furthermore, state caucuses (bancadas) do not act as collective players, since they vote divided along party lines. These institutional factors limit the veto power of territorial governments in Brazil.