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Caracterização de secas em bacias hidrográficas de Portugal Continental: aplicação do índice de precipitação padronizada, SPI, a séries de precipitação e de escoamento

Santos, João Filipe; Portela, Maria Manuela
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Comunicação apresentada no 10º Congresso da Água, Associação Portuguesa dos recursos Hídricos, APRH, Alvor (Portugal); Uma seca pode ser entendida como um período suficientemente longo com ausência ou deficiência marcada de precipitação e que causa um desequilíbrio hidrológico acentuado. Consoante as suas consequências, distinguem-se entre secas meteorológicas, agrícolas, hidrológicas e socioeconómicas. A caracterização das secas pode incidir na sua intensidade, duração, frequência e área afectada. A intensidade relaciona-se com a gravidade da ausência ou insuficiência de precipitação, sendo normalmente avaliada por meio de índices de seca que caracterizem os défices hídricos, permitindo a sua comparação numa base comum. De entre tais índices, um dos mais utilizados, se não o mais utilizado, é o índice de precipitação padronizada, SPI (standardized precipitation index), que associa a precipitação a diferentes escalas temporais valores numéricos susceptíveis de serem comparados entre regiões com climas bastante distintos. No âmbito da caracterização de secas em Portugal Continental, apresenta-se o formalismo matemático inerente ao cálculo do índice de precipitação padronizado. Tendo por base séries longas de precipitação e de escoamento em três bacias hidrográficas (casos de estudo)...

Differential inhibition of the Fas- and granule-mediated cytolysis pathways by the orthopoxvirus cytokine response modifier A/SPI-2 and SPI-1 protein.

Macen, J L; Garner, R S; Musy, P Y; Brooks, M A; Turner, P C; Moyer, R W; McFadden, G; Bleackley, R C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/08/1996 EN
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Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are important effectors of antiviral immunity, and they induce target cell death either by secretion of cytoplasmic granules containing perforin and granzymes or by signaling through the Fas cell surface antigen. Although it is not known whether the granule-mediated and Fas-mediated cytolytic mechanisms share common components, proteinase activity has been implicated as an important feature of both pathways. The orthopoxviruses cowpox virus and rabbitpox virus each encode three members of the serpin family of proteinase inhibitors, designated SPI-1, SPI-2, and SPI-3. Of these, SPI-2 (also referred to as cytokine response modifier A in cowpox virus) has been shown to inhibit the proteolytic activity of both members of the interleukin 1 beta converting enzyme family and granzyme B. We report here that cells infected with cowpox or rabbitpox viruses exhibit resistance to cytolysis by either cytolytic mechanism. Whereas mutation of the cytokine response modifier A/SPI-2 gene was necessary to relieve inhibition of Fasmediated cytolysis, in some cell types mutation of SPI-1, in addition to cytokine response modifier A/SPI-2, was necessary to completely abrogate inhibition. In contrast, viral inhibition of granule-mediated killing was unaffected by mutation of cytokine response modifier A/SPI-2 alone...

Cytomegalovirus IE2 Protein Stimulates Interleukin 1β Gene Transcription via Tethering to Spi-1/PU.1

Wara-aswapati, Nawarat; Yang, Zhiyong; Waterman, Wayne R.; Koyama, Yoshinobu; Tetradis, Sotirios; Choy, Bob K.; Webb, Andrew C.; Auron, Philip E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
Potent induction of the gene coding for human prointerleukin 1β (il1b) normally requires a far-upstream inducible enhancer in addition to a minimal promoter located between positions −131 and +12. The transcription factor Spi-1 (also called PU.1) is necessary for expression and binds to the minimal promoter, thus providing an essential transcription activation domain (TAD). In contrast, infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can strongly activate il1b via the expression of immediate early (IE) viral proteins and eliminates the requirement for the upstream enhancer. Spi-1 has been circumstantially implicated as a host factor in this process. We report here the molecular basis for the direct involvement of Spi-1 in HCMV activation of il1b. Transfection of Spi-1-deficient HeLa cells demonstrated both the requirement of Spi-1 for IE activity and the need for a shorter promoter (−59 to +12) than that required in the absence of IE proteins. Furthermore, in contrast to normal, enhancer-dependent il1b expression, which absolutely requires both the Spi-1 winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) DNA-binding domain and the majority of the Spi-1 TAD, il1b expression in the presence of IE proteins does not require the Spi-1 TAD, which plays a synergistic role. In addition...

Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C Activates the Latent Membrane Protein 1 Promoter in the Presence of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2 through Sequences Encompassing an Spi-1/Spi-B Binding Site

Zhao, Bo; Sample, Clare E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.49%
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA-3C) protein is a transcriptional regulator of viral and cellular genes that is essential for EBV-mediated immortalization of B lymphocytes in vitro. EBNA-3C can inhibit transcription through an association with the cellular DNA-binding protein Jκ, a function shared by EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B. Here, we report a mechanism by which EBNA-3C can activate transcription from the EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) promoter in conjunction with EBNA-2. Jκ DNA-binding sites were not required for this activation, and a mutant EBNA-3C protein unable to bind Jκ activated transcription as efficiently as wild-type EBNA-3C, indicating that EBNA-3C can regulate transcription through a mechanism that is independent of Jκ. Furthermore, activation of the LMP-1 promoter is a unique function of EBNA-3C, not shared by EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B. The DNA element through which EBNA-3C activates the LMP-1 promoter includes a Spi-1/Spi-B binding site, previously characterized as an important EBNA-2 response element. Although this element has considerable homology to mouse immunoglobulin light chain promoter sequences to which the mouse homologue of Spi-1 binds with its dimerization partner IRF4, we demonstrate that the IRF4-like binding sites in the LMP-1 promoter do not play a role in EBNA-3C-mediated activation. Both EBNA-2 and EBNA-3C were required for transcription mediated through a 41-bp region of the LMP-1 promoter encompassing the Spi binding site. However...

SPI-1-Dependent Host Range of Rabbitpox Virus and Complex Formation with Cathepsin G Is Associated with Serpin Motifs

Moon, Kristin B.; Turner, Peter C.; Moyer, Richard W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
Serpins are a superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors which function to regulate a number of key biological processes including fibrinolysis, inflammation, and cell migration. Poxviruses are the only viruses known to encode functional serpins. While some poxvirus serpins regulate inflammation (myxoma virus SERP1 and cowpox virus [CPV] crmA/SPI-2) or apoptosis (myxoma virus SERP2 and CPV crmA/SPI-2), the function of other poxvirus serpins remains unknown. The rabbitpox virus (RPV) SPI-1 protein is 47% identical to crmA and shares all of the serpin structural motifs. However, no serpin-like activity has been demonstrated for SPI-1 to date. Earlier we showed that RPV with the SPI-1 gene deleted, unlike wild-type virus, fails to grow on A549 or PK15 cells (A. Ali, P. C. Turner, M. A. Brooks, and R. W. Moyer, Virology 202:306–314, 1994). Here we demonstrate that in the absence of a functional SPI-1 protein, infected nonpermissive cells which exhibit the morphological features of apoptosis fail to activate terminal caspases or cleave the death substrates PARP or lamin A. We show that SPI-1 forms a stable complex in vitro with cathepsin G, a member of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteinases, consistent with serpin activity. SPI-1 reactive-site loop (RSL) mutations of the critical P1 and P14 residues abolish this activity. Viruses containing the SPI-1 RSL P1 or P14 mutations also fail to grow on A549 or PK15 cells. These results suggest that the full virus host range depends on the serpin activity of SPI-1 and that in restrictive cells SPI-1 inhibits a proteinase with chymotrypsin-like activity and may function to inhibit a caspase-independent pathway of apoptosis.

SlyA Regulates Function of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI-2) and Expression of SPI-2-Associated Genes

Linehan, Sheena A.; Rytkönen, Anne; Yu, Xiu-Jun; Liu, Mei; Holden, David W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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During the systemic phase of murine infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, bacterial virulence is correlated with the ability to grow and survive within host macrophages. Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2), encoding a type three secretion system, has emerged as an important contributor to Salmonella intracellular growth. SPI-2 mutants have been proposed to be more accessible than wild-type Salmonella to oxyradicals generated by the NADPH phagocyte oxidase. We performed mixed infections of mice to investigate the relationship between SPI-2 and SlyA, a transcriptional regulator that confers resistance to oxyradicals. In mixed-infection experiments, the SPI-2 null mutant was severely attenuated in virulence, whereas slyA mutants were only mildly attenuated. Surprisingly, further experiments indicated that the function of SPI-2 was partially dependent on slyA. The intracellular behavior of a slyA mutant in infected cells was consistent with inefficient SPI-2 expression, as formation of Salmonella-induced filaments and the intracellular F-actin meshwork, features that depend on SPI-2, were present at abnormally low frequencies. Furthermore, the translocated levels of the SPI-2 effector SseJ were severely reduced in a strain carrying a mutation in slyA. We used flow cytometry to investigate the role of SlyA in expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from transcriptional fusions with promoters of either of two other SPI-2 effector genes...

The Ets protein Spi-B is expressed exclusively in B cells and T cells during development

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Spi-B and PU.1 are hematopoietic-specific transcription factors that constitute a subfamily of the Ets family of DNA-binding proteins. Here we show that contrary to previous reports, PU.1 and Spi-B have very different expression patterns. PU.1 is expressed at high levels in B cells, mast cells, megakaryocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and immature erythroid cells and at lower levels in mature erythrocytes. PU.1 is completely absent from peripheral T cells and most T cell lines based on sensitive RT-PCR assays. In contrast, Spi-B is expressed exclusively in lymphoid cells and can be detected in early fetal thymus and spleen. In situ hybridizations of adult murine tissues demonstrate Spi-B mRNA in the medulla of the thymus, the white pulp of the spleen, and the germinal centers of lymph nodes. Spi-B expression is very abundant in B cells and both Spi-B mRNA and protein are detected in some T cells. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis suggest that Spi-B gene expression increases during B cell maturation and decreases during T cell maturation. Gel-retardation experiments show that Spi-B can bind to all putative PU.1 binding sites, but do not reveal any preferred Spi-B binding site. Finally, both PU.1 and Spi-B function as transcriptional activators of the immunoglobulin light- chain enhancer E lambda 2.4 when coexpressed with Pip (PU.1-interaction partner) in NIH-3T3 cells. Taken together...

HilD-mediated transcriptional cross-talk between SPI-1 and SPI-2

Bustamante, Víctor H.; Martínez, Luary C.; Santana, Francisco J.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Puente, José L.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The acquisition of new genetic traits by horizontal gene transfer and their incorporation into preexisting regulatory networks have been essential events in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. An example of successful assimilation of virulence traits is Salmonella enterica, which acquired, at distinct evolutionary times, Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), required for efficient invasion of the intestinal epithelium and intestinal disease, and SPI-2, essential for Salmonella replication and survival within macrophages and the progression of a systemic infection. A positive regulatory cascade mainly composed of HilD, HilA, and InvF, encoded in SPI-1, controls the expression of SPI-1 genes, whereas the two-component regulatory system SsrA/B, encoded in SPI-2, controls expression of SPI-2 genes. In this study, we report a previously undescribed transcriptional cross-talk between SPI-1 and SPI-2, where the SPI-1–encoded regulator HilD is essential for the activation of both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulons but at different times during the stationary phase of growth in Luria-Bertani medium. Our data indicate that HilD counteracts the H-NS–mediated repression exerted on the OmpR-dependent activation of the ssrAB operon by specifically interacting with its regulatory region. In contrast...

Inhibition of cellular Shp2 activity by a methyl ester analog of SPI-112

Chen, Liwei; Pernazza, Daniele; Scott, Latanya M.; Lawrence, Harshani R.; Ren, Yuan; Luo, Yunting; Wu, Xin; Sung, Shen-Shu; Guida, Wayne C.; Sebti, Said M.; Lawrence, Nicholas J.; Wu, Jie
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.53%
The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) Shp2 (PTPN11) is an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery because it mediates growth factor signaling and its gain-of-function mutants are causally linked to leukemias. We previously synthesized SPI-112 from a lead compound of Shp2 inhibitor, NSC-117199. In this study, we demonstrated that SPI-112 bound to Shp2 by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and displayed competitive inhibitor kinetics to Shp2. Like some other compounds in the PTP inhibitor discovery efforts, SPI-112 was not cell permeable, precluding its use in biological studies. To overcome the cell permeation issue, we prepared a methyl ester SPI-112 analog (SPI-112Me) that is predicted to be hydrolyzed to SPI-112 upon entry into cells. Fluorescence uptake assay and confocal imaging suggested that SPI-112Me was taken up by cells. Incubation of cells with SPI-112Me inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated Shp2 PTP activity and Shp2-mediated paxillin dephosphorylation, Erk1/2 activation, and cell migration. SPI-112Me treatment also inhibited Erk1/2 activation by a Gab1-Shp2 chimera. Treatment of Shp2E76K mutant-transformed TF-1 myeloid cells with SPI-112Me resulted in inhibition of Shp2E76K-dependent cell survival, which is associated with inhibition of Shp2E76K PTP activity...

Spi-1/PU.1 activates transcription through clustered DNA occupancy in erythroleukemia

Ridinger-Saison, Maya; Boeva, Valentina; Rimmelé, Pauline; Kulakovskiy, Ivan; Gallais, Isabelle; Levavasseur, Benjamin; Paccard, Caroline; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Morlé, François; Nicolas, Alain; Hupé, Philippe; Barillot, Emmanuel; Moreau-Gachelin, Fran
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.53%
Acute leukemias are characterized by deregulation of transcriptional networks that control the lineage specificity of gene expression. The aberrant overexpression of the Spi-1/PU.1 transcription factor leads to erythroleukemia. To determine how Spi-1 mechanistically influences the transcriptional program, we combined a ChIP-seq analysis with transcriptional profiling in cells from an erythroleukemic mouse model. We show that Spi-1 displays a selective DNA-binding that does not often cause transcriptional modulation. We report that Spi-1 controls transcriptional activation and repression partially through distinct Spi-1 recruitment to chromatin. We revealed several parameters impacting on Spi-1-mediated transcriptional activation. Gene activation is facilitated by Spi-1 occupancy close to transcriptional starting site of genes devoid of CGIs. Moreover, in those regions Spi-1 acts by binding to multiple motifs tightly clustered and with similar orientation. Finally, in contrast to the myeloid and lymphoid B cells in which Spi-1 exerts a physiological activity, in the erythroleukemic cells, lineage-specific cooperating factors do not play a prevalent role in Spi-1-mediated transcriptional activation. Thus, our work describes a new mechanism of gene activation through clustered site occupancy of Spi-1 particularly relevant in regard to the strong expression of Spi-1 in the erythroleukemic cells.

Expressão e purificação do domínio Ets do fator de transcrição Spi-C humano recombinante: ensaios de ligação a promotores de linfócitos B

Gianniotis, Ekaterini
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
PORTUGUêS
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Os membros da família de fatores de transcrição Ets contêm um domínio de ligação ao DNA, chamado domínio Ets, que reconhece uma seqüência rica em purinas, cujo consenso central é formado pela seqüência 5’-GGAA/T-3’. O domínio Ets pode ser produzido como um fragmento de proteína que se enovela independentemente, numa estrutura estável, sendo suficiente para que ocorra ligação ao DNA. A proteína Spi-C pertence à subfamília Spi e se caracteriza por ser expressa durante diferentes estágios do desenvolvimento de células B e em macrófagos. Existem alguns trabalhos publicados que descrevem o reconhecimento por Spi-C de algumas seqüências de DNA, previamente estudadas para a proteína PU. 1, membro da mesma subfamília. A expressão de Spi-C sobrepõem-se com a de PU. 1 ao longo do desenvolvimento das células B. Existem promotores de genes envolvidos no desenvolvimento de células B que contêm sítios para a ligação de proteínas Ets. Estudos quanto à ligação da Spi-C nos mesmos podem contribuir para acrescentar dados sobre a função desse fator de transcrição e sobre a regulação da transcrição desses genes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos a construção do gene, a expressão heteróloga do domínio Ets da proteína Spi-C humana em Escherichia coli e a sua purificação por FPLC com rendimento de aproximadamente 0...

A study of software development team dynamics in SPI.

Basri, Shuib; O'Connor, Rory V.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Conference item; all_ul_research; none
ENG
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non-peer-reviewed; The software development team is a key factor in software projects, however, achieving and maintaining positive team dynamics in software development project especially when the software companies have fewer resources in term of people, money and time is a remarkable challenge. This paper explores the dynamics of software development teams (structure, process, communication, learning and sharing) and its impact on Software Process Improvement (SPI) in very small software organization, in order to understand the impact between these two variables. We undertook a series of interviews and focus groups with very small software companies and our results show that very small companies have a high level of team dynamics although their SPI initiatives are conducted on a small scale and in an informal and indirect manner. The results also indicated that this situation occurs due to the working and social relationship, willingness to share, having a good interpersonal skill and work closely each others.

Software development team dynamics in SPI: a VSE context

Basri, Shuib; O'Connor, Rory V.
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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peer-reviewed; Teams of software engineers working together in a collaborative manner to execute a software development process complete most software development work. Whilst there is much literature examining the software process and how to improve the software process, less attention has been paid to the issues of team working and specifically the impact of team dynamics on the software development process. Teamwork is more effective with the existence of positive team dynamic, as it encourages a better working environment with satisfied, fulfilled employees who will in turn be more productive. However, achieving and maintaining positive team dynamics in Very Small Entities (VSEs) is particularly challenging given the unique characteristics of VSE and limited resources in particular. This paper discusses the dynamics of software development teams (structure, process, communication, learning and sharing) and its impact on Software Process Improvement (SPI) in software VSEs based on empirical data collected in a groups of software VSEs. This paper shows that VSEs have a high level of team dynamics although their SPI initiatives are conducted on a small scale and in an informal and indirect manner. The results also indicated that this situation occurs due to the following factors in a team: working and social relationship...

A hierarchy of SPI activities for software SMEs: results from ISO/IEC 12207-based SPI assessments

Clarke, Paul; O'Connor, Rory V.; Yilmaz, Murat
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.44%
peer-reviewed; In an assessment of software process improvement (SPI) in 15 software small- and –medium-sized enterprises (software SMEs), we applied the broad spectrum of software specific and system context processes in ISO/IEC 12207 to the task of examining SPI in practice. Using the data collected in the study, we developed a four-tiered pyramidal hierarchy of SPI for software SMEs, with processes in the higher tiers undergoing SPI in more companies than processes on lower level tiers. The development of the hierarchy of SPI activities for software SMEs can facilitate future evolutions of process maturity reference frameworks, such as ISO/IEC 15504, in better supporting software development in software SMEs. Furthermore, the findings extend our body of knowledge concerning the practice of SPI in software SMEs, a large and vital sector of the software development community that has largely avoided the implementation of established process maturity and software quality management standards.

Naturalmente filmados : modos de atuar e de viver nos postos indígenas do SPI na década de 1940; Filmed naturally : ways of acting and of living in Indian Protection Service posts in Brazil in the 1940s

Lucybeth Camargo de Arruda
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/05/2012 PT
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Esta tese é um exercício de reflexão a partir de fotografias que compõem três coleções fotográficas produzidas pela Seção de Estudos (SE), do Serviço de Proteção aos Índios (SPI), em cinco Postos Indígenas localizados no estado de Mato Grosso, nos anos de 1942 e 1943. A partir de métodos e investigações nos campos da antropologia, fotografia e história, analisamos imagens que foram produzidas pela equipe de Foto-Cinematografia, tendo como suporte a documentação administrativa do SPI, no período de 1910 e 1945, referente aos postos indígenas São Lourenço, Córrego Grande, Cachoeirinha, Taunay e Simões Lopes. A tese tem como objetivo central perceber a participação indígena dentro do "bloco monolítico" chamado de posto indígena. Busca-se observar, refletir, interrogar e problematizar o movimento ambíguo da fotografia, que está para além da objetificação - premente, absoluta - em que ela foi concebida e utilizada. As coleções aqui estudadas foram produzidas a partir dessa compreensão de fotografia, no entanto, faz-se o exercício de partir do "índio" objetificado e, na contramão desse percurso, lançar luz sobre as fraturas que nos fazem encontrar com os Bororo, Bakairi, Terena etc., enquanto agentes do seu processo histórico e parte integrante e importante da formação histórica das regiões onde foram instalados dentro dos postos indígenas. Assim...

On the use of Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI) for drought intensity assessment

Kumar, M. Naresh; Murthy, C. S.; Sai, M. V. R. Sesha; Roy, P. S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/09/2015
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Monthly rainfall data from June to October for 39 years was used to generate Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values based on Gamma distribution for a low rainfall and a high rainfall district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Comparison of SPI, with actual rainfall and rainfall deviation from the mean indicated that SPI values under-estimate the intensity of dryness/wetness when the rainfall is very low/very high respectively. As a result, the SPI in the worst drought years of 2002 and 2006 in the low rainfall district has indicated only moderate dryness instead of extreme dryness. The range of SPI values of the high rainfall district indicated better stretching, compared to that of the low rainfall district. Further, the SPI values of longer time scale (2-, 3- and 4- months) showed an extended range compared to 1-month, but the sensitivity in drought years has not improved significantly. To ascertain whether non normality of SPI is a possible reason, normality tests were conducted. The Shapiro-Wilk statistic, p-values and absolute value of the median confirmed normal distribution of SPI in both the districts whereas cumulative probability distribution of SPI indicated deviation from normal probability in the lower and upper ranges. Therefore...

SPI Calculator

Beguería, Santiago; Vicente Serrano, Sergio M.
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Software Formato: 73728 bytes; 8350 bytes; 13532 bytes; 92367 bytes; 98745 bytes; application/octet-stream; text/plain; text/plain; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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Titular de la propiedad intelectual: CSIC, 2009. Artículo divulgativo relacionado: Vicente Serrano, S.M. y Cuadrat, J.M. Desarrollo de un método analítico para la obtención del SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) como herramienta para el seguimiento y prevención de sequías climáticas. Comunicación oral. VII Reunión nacional de Climatología. Albarracín (Teruel). 2002.; [EN] *Objectives: The program calculates time series of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPEI). *Technical Characteristics: The program is executed from the Windows console. From an input data file containing monthly time series of cumulative precipitation, the program computes the SPI accumulated at the time interval specified by the user, and generates a new data file with the SPI time series. It is easy to create a batch script for automating the calculation of the SPI over a large number of observatories or for several accumulated periods.; [ES] *Objetivos: Calcular series temporales del Índice Normalizado de Precipitación (SPI, en sus siglas inglesas). *Características Técnicas: El programa se ejecuta desde el intérprete de comandos de Windows (consola de sistema). A partir de un archivo de datos de precipitación mensual acumulada...

A ação do SPI e da FUNAI junto aos Kaiowá e Guarani, no MS

Brand, Antônio; Universidade Católica Dom Bosco; Azambuja de Almeida, Fernando Augusto; Universidade Católica Dom Bosco
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Pesquisa de campo; pesquisa histórica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/01/2014 POR
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O Serviço de Proteção aos Índios, SPI, inicia seus trabalhos junto aos Kaiowá e Guarani na região sul do atual Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, em 1915, com a demarcação da primeira reserva indígena. Outras sete reservas são reconhecidas até 1928, somando um total de 18. 297 ha. Em 1967, o SPI é substituído pela Fundação Nacional do Índio, FUNAI, permanecendo as mesmas premissas políticas – de órgão responsável pela execução da política indigenista oficial, voltada para a integração progressiva e harmoniosa à comunhão nacional, de acordo com os interesses maiores do país. Em 1988, a nova Constituição Federal define novos parâmetros para a ação do Estado junto aos povos indígenas, passando-lhe a atribuição de demarcar as terras indígenas, proteger e fazer respeitar todos os seus bens. O trabalho está apoiado em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, em descrições etnográficas e no depoimento de inúmeros informantes indígenas. Conclusões iniciais permitem afirmar que no trato das questões indígenas os órgãos públicos responsáveis pela execução da política indigenista do Governo, especialmente no Mato Grosso do Sul, ignoram as novas disposições constitucionais...

MEJORA DE PROCESOS DE SOFTWARE ÁGIL CON AGILE - SPI PROCESS

PARDO,CÉSAR; HURTADO,JULIO ARIEL; COLLAZOS,CÉSAR A
Fonte: DYNA Publicador: DYNA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 ES
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37.12%
Motivar la aplicación de proyectos de mejora de procesos en las empresas de desarrollo de software iberoamericanas, en su gran mayoría Micro, Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas Desarrolladoras de Software (MiPyMEs_DS) es una necesidad imperante para la búsqueda de una industria de software que sea competitiva no solo en contextos regionales sino también internacionales. Los modelos internacionalmente reconocidos, representan alto riesgo en su aplicación para una MiPyMES_DS, esto debido quizá a su gran inversión en dinero, tiempo, recursos, difícil gestión, además de la complejidad de las recomendaciones y un retorno de la inversión a largo plazo. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a Agile SPI - Process como un proceso de mejora de procesos basado principalmente en metodologías y principios ágiles, requerimientos livianos y adaptaciones de modelos internacionales. De la misma manera en el artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la implementación de Agile SPI - Process en varias MiPyMEs_DS de Iberoamérica y el sur occidente de Colombia.

Tratamiento de fractura coronorradicular con implante inmediato postextracción Thommen SPI® Element y revisión de la literatura

Delgado Muñoz,J.M.; Manso Platero,F.J.; Machuca Portillo,G.
Fonte: Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral Publicador: Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2013 SPA
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36.97%
Introducción. El implante inmediato postextracción es aquel que está indicado para sustituir al diente con patología sin posibilidad alguna de tratamiento o en casos tras exodoncia de inclusiones, retenciones y dientes temporales. Teniendo en cuenta que tras la extracción tiene lugar un período de recambio óseo en forma de reabsorción fisiológica reduciendo las dimensiones del reborde alveolar, optamos por la terapia regenerativa con el fin de disminuir las secuelas. En este artículo se revisa la técnica quirúrgica y el manejo de los tejidos blandos mediante el procedimiento protésico de los implantes inmediatos postextracción, ilustrado en un caso clínico con una nueva superficie de implante dental. Caso clínico. Mujer de 24 años de edad, no fumadora sin antecedentes médicos de interés, que acude a consulta con dolor agudo de 4 días de evolución en la zona del primer molar inferior derecho que se ha incrementado en el tiempo, con diagnóstico de fractura coronorradicular. El plan de tratamiento comprende: exodoncia de la pieza con el menor trauma posible respetando las paredes alveolares y legrado del alvéolo para la inserción de forma sumergida de un implante SPI® de titanio autorroscable con superficie rugosa pulida producida por chorreado de arena y grabada térmicamente al ácido de Thommen Medical y regeneración ósea guiada mediante injerto óseo particulado de origen bovino Bio-Oss®. Después de 6 meses cargamos funcionalmente el implante con corona unitaria atornillada observando su evolución a los 12 y 24 meses tras la intervención. Conclusión. Gracias a los avances en el campo de las superficies...