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In Vitro Sun Protection Factor Evaluation of Sunscreens Containing Rutin and its Derivative

PEDRIALI, Carla A.; IIZUKA, Samara S.; BALOGH, Tatiana S.; PINTO, Claudineia A. S. O.; KANEKO, Telma M.; BABY, Andre R.; VELASCO, Maria V. R.
Fonte: COLEGIO FARMACEUTICOS PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES Publicador: COLEGIO FARMACEUTICOS PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
This research aimed at determining spectrophotometrically (290 to 320nm) the in vitro Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of sunscreens developed with rutin (R) or succinate rutin (SR), in association or not with UVB filter. Formulations were developed based on phosphate-base O/W emulsions, with (B) or not (A) the presence of polyacrylamide/C13-14 isoparaffin/laureth-7 (PIL), in accordance with the following associations: (a) control; (b) 1.0 % SR; (c) 0.1 % R; (d) 7.5 % ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC); (e) 7.5 % EHMC + 0.1 % RS; (0 7.5 % EHMC + 0.1 % R. It was verified a statistical significative elevation of the SPF from 13.93 +/- 0.02 (Af) to 16.63 +/- 0.27 (Bf) and also in relation to 15.53 +/- 0.14 (Bd). According to the results, the EHMC had distinct behavior depending on the presence of bioactive substance and viscosity agent, thus, rutin obtained better profile as a SPF booster in these experimental conditions with the presence of PIL.; CAPES; PIBIQ

The influence of the amount of sunscreen applied and its sun protection factor (SPF): evaluation of two sunscreens including the same ingredients at different concentrations

SCHALKA, Sergio; REIS, Vitor Manoel Silva dos; CUCE, Luis Carlos
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.55%
Background To estimate labeled sun protection factor (SPF) for sunscreen, the amount of product applied on volunteers, according to food and drug administration (FDA) and International protocols, is 2 mg/cm(2). However, different studies have shown that consumers actually apply much less product when exposed to the sun. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings in an attempt to correlate the amount applied in relation to SPF. The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of the quantity of sunscreen applied in the determination of SPF, according to the FDA methodology. Subjects and methods Forty volunteers were included in two groups (SPF 15 and 30). The selected sunscreen was then applied in four different quantities (2, 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5 mg/cm(2)). All areas were irradiated with a solar simulator. After 24 h, the minimal erythemal dose (MED) and SPF were determined. Results In both groups, we observed that the SPF decreased when the amount of sunscreen applied was decreased. The differences between the 2 mg/cm(2) area and the others were significant in both groups (P < 0.001). The correlation between specified SPF and applied amount grew exponentially. Conclusion The protection provided by sunscreen is related to the amount of product applied. It is essential to educate consumers to apply larger amounts of sunscreen for adequate photoprotection.

Reliable and fast sensor for in vitro evaluation of solar protection factor based on the photobleaching kinetics of a nanocrystalline TiO(2)/dye UV-dosimeter

PAULA, Leonardo R. de; PARUSSULO, Andre L. A.; ARAKI, Koiti; TOMA, Henrique E.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
A reliable and fast sensor for in vitro evaluation of solar protection factors (SPFs) of cosmetic products, based on the photobleaching kinetics of a nanocrystalline TiO(2)/dye UV-dosimeter, has been devised. The accuracy, robustness and suitability of the new device was demonstrated by the excellent matching of the predicted and the in vivo results up to SPF 70, for four standard samples analyzed in blind. These results strongly suggest that our device can be useful for routine SPF evaluation in laboratories devoted to the development or production of cosmetic formulations, since the conventional in vitro methods tend to exhibit unacceptably high errors above SPF similar to 30 and the conventional in vivo methods tend to be expensive and exceedingly time consuming. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP; CNPq; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); PETROBRAS; PETROBRAS

Coronavirus em aves: detecção, caracterização molecular e filogenética e inoculação experimental em aves SPF; Avian coronaviruses: detection, molecular and phylogenetic characterization and experimental inoculation in SPF birds

Buitrago, Laura Yaneth Villarreal
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/03/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
Em uma unidade produtora de matrizes pesadas, localizada no Estado de São Paulo, foram colhidas duas amostras de conteúdo intestinal de aves com duas semanas de idade, quatro amostras de fezes da cama do mesmo lote às 18 semanas e uma amostra da cama às 30 semanas para pesquisa de coronavirus por uma técnica de nested RT-PCR dirigida a um segmento do gene codificador da RNA–polimerase RNA-dependente (gene pol). Destas, foram positivas 6 amostras correspondentes às duas aves de duas semanas, 3 às aves com 18 semanas e 1 às aves com 30 semanas. A análise filogenética da seqüência do c-DNA correspondente a uma das amostras das aves de duas semanas agrupou este vírus entre os coronavirus do grupo 2. Quando inoculado pelas vias ocular e oral em aves White Leghorn SPF, evidenciou-se diarréia moderada, despigmentação e atraso no crescimento. Os exames anátomo e histopatológicos dos órgãos colhidos revelaram predominantemente enterite e atrofia de vilosidades no reto e duodeno, com infiltração de células mononucleares e exposição de lâmina própria. Aves sentinela SPF alocadas entre os grupos inoculados apresentaram os mesmos sinais clínicos e achados anátomo e histopatógicos. O coronavírus inoculado foi evidenciado em todos os grupos experimentais em intestino delgado...

Influência da quantidade aplicada de protetores solares no fator de proteção solar (FPS): avaliação de dois protetores solares com os mesmos ingredientes em diferentes concentrações; The influence of the amount of sunscreen applied and its sun protection factor (SPF): evaluation of two different sunscreens including the same ingredients at different concentrations

Schalka, Sérgio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Introdução: Para determinação do Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS) de protetores solares, de acordo com o FDA e os protocolos internacionais, a quantidade aplicada de produto nos voluntários é de 2 mg/cm2. Diferentes estudos mostraram, entretanto, que os usuários aplicam quantidades muito inferiores a esta quando expostos ao sol. A relação entre a quantidade aplicada do fotoprotetor e o valor do FPS foi avaliada previamente em estudos anteriores, com resultados contraditórios. Objetivo: Avaliar a interferência da quantidade aplicada de dois protetores solares na determinação de seus fatores de proteção solar (FPS), de acordo com o método preconizado pelo FDA. Método: Quarenta voluntários sadios foram incluídos em dois grupos (FPS 15 e FPS 30). O fotoprotetor selecionado foi aplicado em quatro quantidades distintas (2,0 mg/cm2, 1,5 mg/cm2, 1,0 mg/cm2 e 0,5 mg/cm2). Todas as áreas foram irradiadas com Simulador solar e, após 24 horas, houve a leitura da Dose Eritematosa Mínima (DEM) da pele protegida e da pele não protegida, seguido pela determinação do FPS. Resultados: Em ambos os grupos foi observado a diminuição do valor do FPS com a redução da quantidade aplicada do protetor. As diferenças entre o FPS da área com aplicação de 2...

Características patogênicas e moleculares de variantes brasileiras do vírus de bronquite infecciosa inoculados em aves comerciais e SPF.; Pathogenic and molecular characteristics of brazilian variant infectious bronchitis isolates inoculated in commercial and SPF birds.

Assayag Júnior, Mário Sérgio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/12/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
A bronquite Infecciosa das galinhas (BIG) é uma doença respiratória aguda e altamente contagiosa que acomete galinhas de diferentes idades. Foram utilizadas duas amostras do VBIG de problemas respiratórios e entéricos em frangos. As amostras foram classificadas como variantes do VBIG através da técnica de RT-PCR multiplex e sequenciamento parcial do gene S1. As amostras foram inoculadas em frangos de corte e aves SPF (specific pathogen free). As aves apresentaram sinais respiratórios 36 horas após inoculação independente da origem viral, entérica ou respiratória, sendo mais discretos nas aves SPF. As alterações macroscópicas mais evidentes foram congestão da mucosa traqueal, pulmão e rins. A análise histopatológica mostrou lesões semelhantes àquelas encontradas em outros sorotipos. A análise filogenética mostrou que as duas amostras eram similares e diferentes das amostras Massachusetts. Esses resultados sugerem que os isolados classificados como variantes apresentam potencial patogênico para aves.; Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute respiratory disease, highly contagious which affects chickens of different ages. This study was composed with two isolates obtained from broilers with respiratory and enteric problems. These isolates were classified as IBV variants by the multiplex RT-PCR and by sequencing of S1 gene. Isolates were inoculated in broilers and SPF birds. The birds showed respiratory signs 36 hours post inoculation...

Uso cosmético de extratos glicólicos: avaliação da atividade antioxidante, estudo da estabilidade e potencial fotoprotetor; Cosmetic use of glycolic extracts: antioxidant activity evaluation, stability study and photoprotection potential

Balogh, Tatiana Santana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/06/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
Extratos vegetais glicólicos são amplamente utilizados em formulações cosméticas devido às várias atividades clínicas atribuídas aos mesmos. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo selecionar os seis extratos comerciais glicólicos não padronizados com maiores teores de polifenóis e flavonoides totais e com maior atividade antioxidante dentre doze extratos [açaí (Euterpe oleracea), acerola (Malpighia glabra L.), castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), chá verde (Camellia sinensis), erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil), framboesa (Rubus idaeus L.), ginco (Ginkgo biloba L.), menta (Mentha piperita L.), morango (Fragaria vesca L.), própolis, romã (Punica granatum L.) e uva (Vitis vinifera L.)] para realização de Estudo da Estabilidade e avaliação in vitro da eficácia fotoprotetora dos mesmos. A dissertação foi dividida em três capítulos. No primeiro capítulo, os doze extratos glicólicos foram avaliados quanto à presença e teor de flavonoides e polifenóis totais, bem como, quanto à atividade antioxidante determinada por DPPH e ORAC. Os extratos de romã, erva-mate, menta, própolis, ginco e chá verde apresentaram os maiores teores de polifenóis e flavonoides totais. Assim, os mesmos foram selecionados para as etapas seguintes do estudo. O capítulo 2 apresentou o estudo da estabilidade...

COMPARAÇÃO DE DE SUÍNOS CONVENCIONAIS E SPF (Specific pathogen Free)

Carvalho, Luiz Fernando De Oliveira E Silva; Carvalho, Marielda Bonafim; Rotava, Jorge; Meulman, Estephano Geraldo; Franceschini, Henrique
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 161-166
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.71%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); SUMMARY The authors compared several productivity indexes between conventional (CP) and Specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs. Age at 100kg body weight (AS), dayly weight gain (DWG), feed efficiency (FE) and lard thickness (LT) were evaluated. 42 conventional pigs and 113 SPF pigs were employed in the composition of the experimental groups. Feed, management and facilities were similar for both groups. Initial body weight averaged 30kg in both groups. Final results were compared by the F test. AS, DWG, FE and LT for CP and SPF groups were, respectively, 156.40 x 150.49 days, 897.78 x 955.19g, 2.39:1 x 2.17:1 and 13.95 x 16.13mm. There were significam differences between the achieved averages for each of the parameters studied, a fact which confirms the productivity superiority of the SPF group in relation to the conventional swine group. Such data mentioned that the use of this technology represents a viable and rewarding alternative to be employed in the swine production.; RESUMO O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de qualificar e quantificar possíveis diferenças entre a produtividade de suínos convencionais e suínos SPF (Specific Pathogen Free). Foram mensurados e comparados...

COMPARAÇÃO DE DE SUÍNOS CONVENCIONAIS E SPF (Specific pathogen Free)

Carvalho,Luiz Fernando de Oliveira e Silva; Carvalho,Marielda Bonafim; Rotava,Jorge; Meulman,Estephano Geraldo; Franceschini,Henrique
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1994 PT
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RESUMO O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de qualificar e quantificar possíveis diferenças entre a produtividade de suínos convencionais e suínos SPF (Specific Pathogen Free). Foram mensurados e comparados, para tanto, a idade aos 100 quilos (IA), o ganho de peso diário (GPD), a conversão alimentar (CA) e a espessura de toucinho (ET) de um grupo com 42 machos, provenientes de granjas convencionais (grupo SC) e outro com 113 machos, oriundos de granja SPF (grupo SPF). A média de peso corporal dos animais de ambos os grupos era de aproximadamente 30 quilos, ao início do experimento. A comparação entre as médias obtidas, para cada um dos parâmetros estudados, revelou produtividade estatisticamente significativa e superior em favor do grupo SPF. Assim, as IAs, os G PDs, as CAs e as ETs, obtidas para os grupos SPF e SC foram de, respectivamente, 150,49 e 156,4 dias, 897,78 e 955,19 gramas, 2,17:1 e 2,39:1 e 16,13 e 13,95mm. No grupo SPF, conforme evidenciado, observou-se um maior acúmulo de tecido adiposo, fato que sugere um menor dispêndio de energia para o combate a enfermidades crônicas, neste grupo de animais. Com base em projeção econômica dos resultados obtidos, os autores sugerem que a criação de animais SPF...

Determination of sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreens by ultraviolet spectrophotometry

Dutra,Elizângela Abreu; Oliveira,Daniella Almança Gonçalves da Costa e; Kedor-Hackmann,Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro,Maria Inês Rocha Miritello
Fonte: Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação do Conjunto das Químicas da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação do Conjunto das Químicas da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2004 EN
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27.55%
The aim of this research was to determine the sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreens emulsions containing chemical and physical sunscreens by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Ten different commercially available samples of sunscreen emulsions of various manufactures were evaluated. The SPF labeled values were in the range of 8 to 30. The SPF values of the 30% of the analyzed samples are in close agreement with the labeled SPF, 30% presented SPF values above the labeled amount and 40% presented SPF values under the labeled amount. The proposed spectrophotometric method is simple and rapid for the in vitro determination of SPF values of sunscreens emulsions.

Deletion of the spf (spot 42 RNA) gene of Escherichia coli.

Hatfull, G F; Joyce, C M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1986 EN
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To investigate the function of spot 42 RNA, a small RNA of Escherichia coli, we constructed a strain in which spf, the structural gene for this RNA, is deleted. We achieved this by using a delta att phage lambda carrying a DNA fragment spanning the spf region but with a precise deletion of spf. By integration of this phage at the spf locus and by its subsequent excision, we were able to cross the spf deletion onto the bacterial chromosome. The fact that such a deletion could be obtained indicated that spf is not an essential gene. We did not observe any major defect in delta spf cells, although in one strain background the deletion caused a slight growth impairment.

Ultrastructural study on the follicle-associated epithelium of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue in specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional environment-adapted (SPF-CV) rats

JEONG, KWANG IL; SUZUKI, HODAKA; NAKAYAMA, HIROYUKI; DOI, KUNIO
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2000 EN
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27.65%
Membranous (M) cells in follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) play an important role in the mucosal immunity through transport of a variety of foreign antigens to the underlying mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). We aimed to investigate the ultrastructure of M cells in the FAE covering nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) both in specific pathogen-free (SPF) rats and in conventional environment-adapted (SPF-CV) rats aged 8–38 wk. In NALT of both SPF and SPF-CV rats, FAE included the nonciliated microvillous cell, which appears to be an analogue of M cell previously described in other MALT. In SPF rats, M cells increased in number only slightly with age, and they maintained morphological uniformity irrespective of age. In SPF-CV rats, M cells selectively increased in number resulting in prominent expansion of FAE surface area in parallel with the duration of maintenance in a conventional environment. In addition, M cells in SPF-CV rats showed heterogeneity in their surface morphology such as the length and number of microvilli and cell surface area and outline. In addition, the FAE was stratified by various subtypes of M cells, which were characterised by several subcellular alterations including the presence of many keratin filaments...

Efficient mitochondrial import of newly synthesized ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) and correction of secondary metabolic alterations in spf(ash) mice following gene therapy of OTC deficiency.

Zimmer, K. P.; Bendiks, M.; Mori, M.; Kominami, E.; Robinson, M. B.; Ye, X.; Wilson, J. M.
Fonte: The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research Publicador: The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1999 EN
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27.45%
BACKGROUND: The mouse strain sparse fur with abnormal skin and hair (spf(ash)) is a model for the human ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, an X-linked inherited urea cycle disorder. The spf(ash) mouse carries a single base-pair mutation in the OTC gene that leads to the production of OTC enzyme at 10% of the normal level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant adenoviruses carrying either mouse (Ad.mOTC) or human (Ad.hOTC) OTC cDNA were injected intravenously into the spf(ash) mice. Expression of OTC enzyme precursor and its translocation to mitochondria in the vector-transduced hepatocytes were analyzed on an ultrastructural level. Liver OTC activity and mitochondrial OTC concentration were significantly increased (300% of normal) in mice treated with Ad.mOTC and were moderately increased in mice receiving Ad.hOTC (34% of normal). The concentration and subcellular location of OTC and associated enzymes were studied by electron microscope immunolocalization and quantitative morphometry. RESULTS: Cytosolic OTC concentration remained unchanged in Ad.mOTC-injected mice but was significantly increased in mice receiving Ad.hOTC, suggesting a block of mitochondria translocation for the human OTC precursor. Mitochondrial ATPase subunit c [ATPase(c)] was significantly reduced and mitochondrial carbamy delta phosphate synthetase I (CPSI) was significantly elevated in spf(ash) mice relative to C3H. In Ad.mOTC-treated mice...

Micromorphometrical analysis of rodent related (SPF) and unrelated (human) gut microbial flora in germfree mice by digital image processing.

Veenendaal, D.; de Boer, J.; Meijer, B. C.; van der Waaij, D.; Wilkinson, M. H.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1996 EN
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27.51%
Digital image processing (DIP) of bacterial smears is a new method of analysing the composition of the gut microbial flora. This method provides the opportunity to compare and evaluate differences in the complex highly concentrated anaerobic fraction of gut microbial flora, based on micromorphological differences. There is ample evidence that this fraction can be characterized as related or unrelated to the host organism by its immunogenicity. In this study germfree ND2 mice were associated with either related (rodent) SPF microflora (SPF-MF) or unrelated human MF (HUM-MF). DIP analysis was performed on original SPF-MF and HUM-MF and on the faeces of ex-germfree mice 4 weeks after association. The micromorphological pattern of highly concentrated anaerobic bacteria in faeces of HUM-MF associated ex-germfree mice was significantly different from SPF-MF associated counterparts with regard to the scores for elongation (P < 0.01) and morphological variety (P < 0.05). Moreover, gross morphological variability was present between individual HUM-MF associated mice but not between individual SPF-MF associated animals. No differences were found between original SPF and HUM-MF. The data are discussed with regard to differences in the presence of (non-)immunogenic bacteria and the ability for related and unrelated flora to colonize the murine gut. This study provides evidence that murine host specificity of microbial flora may not only be reflected in the number of non-immunogenic bacteria but also in the micromorphological pattern of highly concentrated anaerobic bacteria in faeces measured by DIP analysis.

Genetic Characterization of Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Populations at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC)

KANTHASWAMY, SREE; KOU, ALEX; SATKOSKI, JESSICA; PENEDO, MARIA CECILIA T.; WARD, THEA; NG, JILLIAN; GILL, LEANNE; LERCHE, NICHOLAS W.; ERICKSON, BETHANY J-A; SMITH, DAVID GLENN
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.67%
A study based on 14 STRs was conducted to understand intergenerational genetic changes that have occurred within the CNPRC’s regular SPF (Specific pathogen-free) and super-SPF captive rhesus macaque populations relative to their conventional founders. Intergenerational genetic drift has caused age cohorts of each study population, especially within the conventional population, to become increasingly differentiated from each other and from their founders. While there is still only minimal stratification between the conventional population and either of the two SPF populations, the separate derivation of the regular SPF and super-SPF animals from their conventional founders has caused the two SPF populations to remain marginally different from each other. The regular SPF and, especially, the super-SPF populations have been influenced by the effects of differential ancestry, sampling and lost rare alleles, causing a substantial degree of genetic divergence between these subpopulations. The country of origin of founders is the principal determinant of the MHC haplotype composition of the SPF stocks at the CNPRC. Selection of SPF colony breeders bearing desired genotypes of Mamu-A*01 or –B*01 has not affected the overall genetic heterogeneity of the conventional and the SPF research stocks.

Standard Operating Procedures for Maintaining Cleanliness in a Novel Compact Facility for Breeding SPF Mice

Sakuma, Kenji; Hayashi, Susumu; Otokuni, Keiko; Matsumoto, Izumi; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Saito, Mikako
Fonte: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science Publicador: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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27.37%
A compact facility for SPF mice that was not equipped with a large autoclave used disposable mouse cages instead. The SPF clean room was 5.7 × 8.1 × 2.7 m3, with a breeding capacity of 1008 cages (168 cages on each of 6 racks). We evaluated cleanliness in the SPF clean room under the conditions of an occupation rate of 60% to 70% and typically 1 to 3 personnel (maximum, 4 to 6) daily on weekdays. Personnel were taught standard procedures and received training beforehand. During the 15-mo study period, the maximal concentration of airborne particles 0.5 μm or larger was 1.0 × 104 particles/m3 and that of particles 5.0 μm or larger was 5.0 × 102 particles/m3—well below the maximal permissible concentrations of 3.52 × 105 and 2.93 × 103 particles/m3, respectively. During the study period, no mice exhibited clinical symptoms of infection. Testing of 2 representative, overtly healthy mice for 16 pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Helicobacter bilis failed to detect any of the target agents. The current study demonstrates the feasibility of the compact facility for breeding SPF mice in the academic environment.

Evaluation of Reproduction and Raising Offspring in a Nursery-Reared SPF Baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis) Colony

BUDDA, MADELINE L.; ELY, JOHN J.; DOAN, SANDRA; CHAVEZ-SUAREZ, MARIA; WHITE, GARY L.; WOLF, ROMAN F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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27.69%
Baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) of a conventional breeding colony were nursery-reared to create a specific pathogen-free (SPF) baboon breeding program. Because the founding generations were nursery-reared until two years of age, it was suspected that the SPF baboons would exhibit increased reproductive challenges as adults. Mothering behavior was of interest, because SPF females were not exposed to parental role models during the nursery-rearing process. We compared reproductive data from the SPF baboon breeding program during its first 10 years with data from age-matched baboons during the same period from an established, genetically-similar conventional breeding colony. We also evaluated records documenting mother-infant behaviors within the SPF colony. The average age of menarche in SPF females was 3.3 years. The overall live birth rate of both SPF and conventional females was approximately 90%, with no difference in pregnancy outcome between the two colonies. The average age at first conception for SPF females was earlier (4.2 years) than that of the conventional females (4.7 years). In both colonies, primiparous females were more likely to abort than multiparous females. Similarly, primiparous females were more likely to lose their infants to death or human intervention. A mothering score system was developed in the SPF colony to facilitate intervention of poor mother-infant relationships. Records revealed 70% of SPF mothers were able to raise one or more of their infants successfully to at least 180 days of age...

Infectious bursal disease virus: case report and experimental studies in vaccinated and unvaccinated SPF chickens and commercial broiler chicks

Scanavini Neto,H; Ito,NMK; Miyaji,CI; Lima,E de A; Okabayashi,S; Corrêa,ARA; Eleutério,GC; Zuanaze,MA
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2004 EN
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27.51%
IBDV Gm 11 (Simbios eleven-molecular group) has been detected since 1997 in many farms of commercial broilers and layers causing high mortality (2 to 15%) and severe macro and microscopic damage in cloacal bursae, spleen, thymus, kidney and liver. Five serial passages of 2050/97-Gm 11 IBDV sample by CAM route in SPF chicken's embryonated eggs did not elicit increased embryo mortality. High mortality (100%) of 21 day-old SPF leghorn chickens and severe bursal and splenic lesions were seen from 24 up to 48 hours after eye-drop inoculation of 2050/97 strain (50 mL of 10-2 dilution of 10% bursae homogenate). Mortality was not detected when vaccinated SPF and broiler chickens were inoculated. One dead bird was found among ten challenged unvaccinated broilers. Variations in the intensity of cloacal bursae injury and spleen response were found between unvaccinated and vaccinated broiler chickens. IBDV antibodies were detected by ELISA test in almost all vaccinated SPF chickens before challenge while low number of commercial vaccinated and unvaccinated broilers were serologically positive (0 to 3 birds in 18). Increasing IBDV antibody titers were detected after challenge with 2050/97 strain and highest GMTs were found in broilers. It was concluded that 2050/97 strain is a highly virulent IBDV and SPF leghorn chickens immunized with BV8 intermediate vaccine strain were resistant to the challenge. Increasing susceptibility was found from experimental groups of unvaccinated broilers to vaccinated broilers and to unvaccinated SPF birds. It is discussed that passive immunity was involved in the rate of protection of challenged unvaccinated broiler and in the immune response impairment after vaccination of broilers chicks. The use of a constant virus suspension with known potency to challenge the experimental birds was suitable to evaluate vaccination efficacy. Evaluation of bursal and splenic responses at early and delayed time after challenge were useful to estimate vaccination efficacy and field interactions.

Determination of sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreens by ultraviolet spectrophotometry; Determinação do fator de proteção solar (FPS) de protetores solares por espectrofotometria no ultravioleta

Dutra, Elizângela Abreu; Oliveira, Daniella Almança Gonçalves da Costa e; Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Inês Rocha Miritello
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2004 ENG
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The aim of this research was to determine the sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreens emulsions containing chemical and physical sunscreens by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Ten different commercially available samples of sunscreen emulsions of various manufactures were evaluated. The SPF labeled values were in the range of 8 to 30. The SPF values of the 30% of the analyzed samples are in close agreement with the labeled SPF, 30% presented SPF values above the labeled amount and 40% presented SPF values under the labeled amount. The proposed spectrophotometric method is simple and rapid for the in vitro determination of SPF values of sunscreens emulsions.; O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar o Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS) de emulsões contendo filtros solares físicos e químicos por espectrofotometria no ultravioleta. Foram analisadas dez amostras comerciais de emulsões de diferentes fabricantes. Os valores de FPS rotulados foram na faixa de 8 a 30. Das emulsões analisadas, 30% apresentaram valores de FPS próximos do valor rotulado, 30% apresentaram valores acima e 40% apresentaram valores abaixo do valor rotulado. O método espectrofotométrico proposto é simples e rápido para determinação preliminar in vitro do FPS de emulsões protetoras solar.

Determinación de la influencia de la altitud en el Índice de Protección Natural (IPN) de la piel y el Factor de Protección Solar requerido (SPF)

Pasquale,Sara A; Cordero,Atilio M; Nuñez,Dubraska V; Fernández,Cormarie R; Signorelli,Isabella
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Higiene Rafael Rangel Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Higiene Rafael Rangel
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 ES
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37.26%
Se evalúa la influencia de la altitud sobre el Índice de Protección Natural (IPN) y el Factor de Protección Solar requerido (SPF) comparando niños de Mucuchies, Mérida, Venezuela (3100 m.s.n.m.) y Palmarito, Mérida, Venezuela (5 m.s.n.m.), utilizando el equipo Sun Protection Diagnostic SP 37®. Según el análisis de los resultados a través de estadísticas descriptivas, se evidencia que el IPN y el SPF son variables dependientes de la altitud de la localidad en que se encuentran los niños, ya que en las localidades más altas los rayos solares inciden de forma más directa que en las más bajas.