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Electric consumption in SHSs in rural communities of brazil and Peru and recommendations for sizing

MORANTE, Federico; ZILLES, Roberto
Fonte: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD Publicador: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
The lack of data records of electric power consumption of smallphotovoltaic home systems, independently of the method used for sizing them, drives to consider the demand as a constant. However, the existing data reveal the variability of the consumption due to the influences of some social, cultural and psychosocial aspects of the human groups. This paper presents records of consumption data obtainedfrom several solar home systems (SHSs) in Brazil and Peru, and it discusses about the Gamma distribution function that can express to a great extent the behaviour of the demand. By this analysis it was verified that `a lot of people consume little and few people consume a lot`. In that sense, a few recommendations for sizing procedures that can be useful in the implantation of extensive programmes of rural electrification by SHSs are presented. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

"Demanda de energia elétrica e desenvolvimento socioeconômico: O caso das comunidades rurais eletrificadas com sistemas fotovoltaicos" ; Electric Energy Consumption and Development Socioeconomic: the case of the electrified rural communities with photovoltaics systems.

Trigoso, Federico Bernardino Morante
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/10/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.83%
Este documento mostra uma interpretação do comportamento do consumo de energia elétrica baseada nos dados numéricos que foram coletados com o uso de contadores de Ah em 38 instalações fotovoltaicas domiciliares. A pesquisa envolveu igual número de famílias de 10 comunidades rurais com diferentes características sócioculturais localizadas nos Estados de São Paulo, Pernambuco e Amazonas, no Brasil, e adicionalmente na região Puno, no Peru. Também se discute diversas questões acerca do consumo de energia elétrica em sistemas fotovoltaicos domiciliares e sua relação com o desenvolvimento socioeconômico. O objetivo principal é propor um procedimento para dimensionar esses sistemas que inclua os múltiplos fatores que foram identificados e que exercem forte influência no comportamento do consumo. Estes foram denominados fatores técnicos, gerenciais, psicológicos, geográficos, demográficos, socioculturais e econômicos. O procedimento proposto leva em conta a constatação resultante da análise estatística dos dados por meio da qual a função de distribuição Gama é a que melhor caracteriza o comportamento desse consumo. Em sua essência, esta função indica que “muitas pessoas consomem pouco e poucas pessoas consomem muito”. ; This document shows an interpretation of the behavior of the electric energy consumption based on the numerical data collected with the use of Ah meter in 38 solar home systems. The research involved an equal number of families of 10 rural communities with different sociocultural characteristics located in the Brazilian States of São Paulo...

A eletrificação rural com sistemas individuais de geração com fontes intermitentes em comunidades tradicionais: caracterização dos entraves para o desenvolvimento local; Rural electrification by individual systems with intermittent sources in traditional communities: characterization of obstacles to local development.

Ribeiro, Tina Bimestre Selles
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/04/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
A partir do processo de implantação dos sistemas fotovoltaicos SIGFI 13 na comunidade do Varadouro, isolada na floresta tropical do litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, este trabalho identificou e caracterizou os principais entraves para difusão e adoção dos mesmos, com vistas ao desenvolvimento local e à melhoria da qualidade de vida. A fundamentação se baseia em referências teóricas sobre temas como comunidades tradicionais, exclusão social, atendimento de serviços públicos, dificuldade de implementação de projetos em comunidades isoladas e no relato da prática de experiências semelhantes em outros países. O método utilizado para pesquisa na comunidade foi o estudo de caso, que constou de revisões bibliográficas sobre trabalhos na região, visitas a campo e entrevistas com atores que trabalham na área. Os dados coletados foram analisados em uma abordagem voltada a compreender: a existência de barreiras no processo de implementação dos sistemas; os aspectos a considerar na superação dessas barreiras; e fatores positivos resultantes da implementação de tecnologia nessa comunidade tradicional. Os novos sistemas mostraram-se importantes e capazes de gerar sentimento de inclusão. Alguns usuários reclamam de não poder usar geladeira...

Análise da utilização de painéis fotovoltaicos em Timor-Leste

Costa, Nicolau Roberto da
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
Dissertação de mestrado em Engenharia de Sistemas; Timor Leste encontra-se num processo de reconstrução de infraestruturas, depois de décadas de subdesenvolvimento e uma onda de destruição violenta em 1999. Como parte deste processo, o Governo de Timor Leste visa melhorar o acesso à energia elétrica, a partir dos atuais cinco por cento da população até oitenta por cento em 2020. A principal área de preocupação será a reconstrução e expansão do setor energético de Timor Leste nas áreas rurais. Uma estratégia importante para se atingir esse objetivo será a utilização de sistemas solares domésticos (SSD’s) em localidades rurais remotas. A pobreza em Timor Leste continua a ser uma questão rural vital e uma característica típica de uma família rural pobre é a ausência ou inadequação do fornecimento de eletricidade. A dependência de outras fontes de energia, em particular lenha, tem consequências adversas para a ecologia da nação e do meio ambiente. A reabilitação e desenvolvimento da oferta de eletricidade rural é dificultada pelas limitações de opções de fornecimento de energia elétrica convencional em áreas rurais remotas, devido à distribuição demográfica, meio ambiente geográfico e físico e do clima/condições meteorológicas em Timor Leste. Este trabalho de investigação incidiu sobre os tipos e escalas de serviços energéticos necessários nas áreas rurais de Timor Leste e será comparado com possíveis opções de energias renováveis. A metodologia de investigação será baseada na revisão bibliográfica sobre a evolução rural de Timor Leste e as tecnologias de energias renováveis adequadas e uma revisão de casos de estudos sobre as questões de implementação de energias renováveis. As políticas e programas de energia renováveis referem-se à possibilidade de utilização de energias renováveis em aplicações para satisfazerem as necessidades e serviços de uma comunidade e incentivar as mudanças que podem melhorar a qualidade de vida da comunidade. Timor-Leste pode beneficiar de aplicações de energias renováveis...

Quantifying Carbon and Distributional Benefits of Solar Home System Programs in Bangladesh

Wang, Limin; Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Cosgrove-Davies, Mac; Samad, Hussain
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.29%
Scaling-up adoption of renewable energy technology, such as solar home systems, to expand electricity access in developing countries can accelerate the transition to low-carbon economic development. Using a purposely collected national household survey, this study quantifies the carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh. Three key findings are generated from the study. First, dissemination of solar home systems brings about significant carbon benefits: the total carbon emissions avoided from replacing kerosene use for lighting by solar home systems in non-electrified rural households was equivalent to about 4 percent of total annual carbon emissions in Bangladesh in 2007. This figure increases to about 15 percent if the grid-electricity generation is used as the energy baseline to estimate the carbon avoided from the installation of solar home systems. Second, solar home system subsidies in rural Bangladesh are progressive when the program is geographically targeted. Third...

A Review of Solar Energy : Markets, Economics and Policies

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Kurdgelashvili, Lado; Narbel, Patrick A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other renewable energy technologies, solar energy benefits from fiscal and regulatory incentives and mandates, including tax credits and exemptions, feed-in-tariff, preferential interest rates, renewable portfolio standards and voluntary green power programs in many countries. Potential expansion of carbon credit markets also would provide additional incentives to solar energy deployment; however, the scale of incentives provided by the existing carbon market instruments, such as the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, is limited. Despite the huge technical potential...

Output-based Aid in Bangladesh : Solar Home Systems for Rural Households

Kumar, Geeta; Sadeque, Zubair
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.11%
A renewable energy program in Bangladesh that brings solar power to rural households is one of the most successful solar home system (SHS) programs in the world. It has demonstrated an inexpensive and reliable way to bring electricity to rural households. Several output-based aid (OBA) features have contributed to the success. Notably, the subsidy payment makes the installation of a working solar home system affordable to poorer households, and is combined with longer-term consumer credit. This note explores the distinctive features and results of the program and draws lessons for future projects.

Promoting Energy Access Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism : Standardized Baselines and Suppressed Demand

Gadde, Harikumar; Platonova-Oquab, Alexandrina; Affouda, Leon Biaou; Godin, Julie; Oppermann, Klaus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
New concepts under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), namely standardized baselines and suppressed demand, should facilitate the implementation of CDM energy access projects, particularly in Least Developed Countries (LDCs), by reducing transaction costs and reflecting the real emission reductions achieved. Governments and authorities in LDCs can play a prominent role in making these new CDM opportunities available. The improvement of the regulatory framework can facilitate the development of innovative carbon-based financing schemes required for successful scaling-up of CDM energy access projects in LDCs. The main purpose of this paper is to outline how the new CDM concepts of standardized baselines and suppressed demand may be used to promote energy access projects under the CDM, in the context of new and expanded role of host country Designated National Authorities (DNAs). In the process, the paper also identifies challenges in the use of these concepts and opportunities for further simplification. By way of illustration...

Field Performance Evaluation of Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Photovoltaic Systems in Kenya : Methods and Measurements in Support of a Sustainable Commercial Solar Energy Industry

Duke, Richard D.; Graham, Shannon; Hankins, Mark; Jacobson, Arne; Kammen, Daniel M.; Osawa, Bernard; Pulver, Simone; Walther, Erika
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
The study reviews the active market for photo-voltaic (PV) solar home systems (SHSs) in Kenya, with cumulative sales in excess of 100,000 units, and current sales of approximately 20,000 modules per year. It further identifies that small single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) modules dominate the market, largely due to their lower retail price, relative to similar sizes of crystalline PV modules. Despite this commercial success, there is concern about the performance of single junction a-Si modules, both in terms of uneven technological quality record, and uncertain short-term degradation, which occurs when this type of PV module is initially exposed to the sun. The study confirms that modules made by two of the three companies dominating the Kenyan a-Si PV market, offer long-term performance, roughly compared to crystalline PV, confirming also that quality brands of single junction a-Si modules provide a highly cost-effective alternative to crystalline modules for SHSs, particularly for households only able to afford relatively small systems. The success of this brand...

Swaziland Solar Electrification Program 2001-2010 : Phase 1. 2001-2002 Solar Energy in the Pilot Area

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
The report presents the solar electrification program in Swaziland, aimed at meeting the basic electrical needs of rural communities, of which currently, less than five percent is connected to power grids. Although implementation efforts have been made towards the development of sustainable solar markets in the country, a number of constraints, and barriers hinder implementation, e.g., rigid product assortment, focused on photovoltaic technology, rather than service delivery, and, aggravated by poor access to credit. The initial step, creation of awareness will play a pivotal role, since acceptance of solar electrification by the rural community, the government, and the electricity utility Swaziland Electricity Board (SEC), is critical to the sustainability of the program. The deliverables of this solar electrification program include: basic needs assessment, focused on energy needs for both productive, and community activities; development, and implementation of a wide range of solar products, delivery modes...

Portable Solar Photovoltaic Lanterns : Performance and Certification Specification, and Type Approval

Varadi, Peter F.; Real, Markus; Wouters, Frank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
This project aimed to establish a performance test specification to ensure that when a PV-powered solar lantern (PVSL) successfully completed the tests, it would be expected to have an extended period of life without failure at the specified performance level. The project also aimed to establish a specification that could be used for the certification of PVSL performance. Since PVSLs are shipped worldwide, obviously the result should be global in scope so that all manufacturers in every country can use the specifications. The goal is to provide consumers with an easy visual recognition that the PVSL they intend to buy is a quality product and can be clearly distinguished from products of unknown quality.

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Lighting Africa

Murphy, Daniel; Sharma, Arsh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
This knowledge note is the first of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Lighting Africa, a joint IFC and World Bank program launched in 2007, was the first private-sector-oriented effort to leverage new LED lighting technologies to build sustainable markets that provide safe, affordable, and modern off-grid lighting to communities in Africa that lack access to electricity. By 2030 the program aims to enable the private sector to reach 250 million people who now depend on fuel-based lighting. The case study for Africa is important, because the continent faces a huge rural electricity deficit. Global electrification in 2010 was estimated to be about 83 percent. The deficit of 17 percent encompasses some 1.2 billion people. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Lighting Africa succeeded as a catalyst for the off-grid lighting market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Another success is apparent in the spectacular trajectory of solar lantern sales in Kenya. On the climate front...

Off-grid Rural Electrification and Fighting Poverty. A Comparative Impact Assessment of Solar Home Systems and Small Solar Home Systems in Rural Bangladesh

Brossmann, Michael
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Report (Bericht)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
As it is nowadays widely acknowledged that modern energy access plays an important role in promoting sustainable development and fighting poverty, the topic of (particularly rural) electrification has gained much attention among the international community throughout the last decade. One common approach for providing modern energy to rural areas is the dissemination of decentralised, small-scale photovoltaic systems – usually known as Solar Home Systems. This study evaluates how exactly Solar Home Systems (SHS) and the less expensive Small Solar Home Systems (SSHS) contribute to fighting poverty in rural Bangladesh. Based on the multidimensional poverty concept of the OECD, the impacts of these solar systems are analysed and compared by applying a quasi-experimental evaluation design. During the field research both quantitative and qualitative data was gathered through a combination of methodological tools including a household survey, qualitative appraisals of (non-)users and local stakeholders, as well as focus group discussions. The analysis of the different data sources indicates that both SHS and SSHS have positive impacts on most of the capability dimensions and thus indeed contribute to fighting poverty. However, they do not increase the economic capabilities of their users in the medium term and detrimental environmental effects due to inappropriate battery recycling are likely to occur in the near future. Women benefit more than men from some of the determined outcomes including the improved indoor air quality and the overall working conditions in the house. Yet...

Key Indicators for Mass Monitoring of the Quality of Service in Solar Home Systems

MERTEN Jens; SCHOLZ HARALD; VALLVE Xavier
Fonte: WIP Publicador: WIP
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
The global market for solar home systems is coming up with new requirements as a result of financing schemes and/or regulatory frameworks. A fee for service concept is based on a Renewable Energy Service Company (RESCO) who is responsible for the financing, installation and operation of a large number of solar home systems. This RESCO needs efficient tools to monitor the energy service provided to thousands of such small scale installations. Another requirement is a proof to local authorities that these services are provided correctly. This proof can be achieved by user surveys investigating the quality of service, especially in cases of frequent cut-offs due to battery low state of charge. Such disconnects can be caused by a failure of the system, which would represent a failure of the RESCO in providing the service contracted. However, they are often also caused by an excessive energy consumption by users, which do not respect the limits of the system. This paper proposes to monitor the energy consumption of the user in a simple, but effective way. The monitoring device can be integrated at minimum extra cost in the charge controller and the related data can be compressed according key monitoring indices proposed. These indices do not depend on system size...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Bangladesh

Sadeque, Zubair; Rysankova, Dana; Elahi, Raihan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
This knowledge note is the second of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Since its inception in 2003, Bangladesh's solar home system program has installed about three million electrification systems in rural households, two-thirds of them in the last three years. The program is the most dynamic off-grid electrification program in the world, benefitting more than 15 million people and contributing about 130 MW in renewable energy generation capacity. The case study for Bangladesh is interesting, because off-grid electrification is crucial to reaching universal access. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Bangladesh's rural electrification program was initiated in 1977 with the creation of the Rural Electrification Board (REB). Yet, it was estimated that at the prevailing pace of grid electrification, Bangladesh was going to take 50 years to reach universal access. By 2002...

Kenya - Implementation Manual : Financing Mechanisms for Solar Electric Equipment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
This manual is based on more than two year's worth of field experience in Kenya during which about 120 solar home systems (SHS) were installed through different financing mechanisms. It outlines two different finance approaches that address lighting and power needs of 1) rural households with regular cash income and 2) small businesses with the potential to increase their productivity with solar-powered electricity. This report found that it was feasible to establish financing mechanisms for solar electric systems for use in households and small businesses-once the right partners were identified and clear procedures were identified indicating each partner's responsibilities. The desire to have electricity is so deeply-rooted that households that have a chance to obtain loan to acquire a solar electric system will do so. In order to get these financing mechanisms off the ground, a certain amount of technical assistance for training and quality control is necessary, as is a limited financial assistance to slightly reduce the costs of the loans offered.

Surge in Solar-Powered Homes : Experience in Off-Grid Rural Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Sadeque, Zubair K.M.; Asaduzzaman, Mohammed; Yunus, Mohammad; Haque, A.K. Enamul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in raising living standards and reducing poverty, particularly in previously lagging regions. Rapid solar home system (SHS) expansion in Bangladesh to some 3 million rural households by early 2014 has drawn the attention of donors and governments of other countries. The book s broad aim is twofold: (a) to assess the welfare impact of SHS on households, and (b) to evaluate the present institutional structure and financing mechanisms in place, noting that households want cheaper systems and good quality service while suppliers require a reasonable market-based profit to stay in business. The study entailed an intensive empirical investigation based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data consisted mainly of a large-scale, nationally representative household survey with appropriate geographic spread. Conducted in 2012 by the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS) and assisted by the World Bank, the household survey was designed to examine SHS benefits and costs. The book addresses a number of research issues...

Mongolia : Development Impacts of Solar-Powered Electricity Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.05%
Mongolia is a vast landlocked country with a relatively small population. Other than those living in the capital city and a few urban centers, the rest of its citizens (about 35 percent or one million people) are geographically disbursed throughout the rural countryside. Among them about three quarters are nomadic herders living in portable tents (gers). Given the immense logistical and climatic challenges, rural electrification was largely undeveloped until the Government launched the National 100,000 Solar Ger Electrification Program in 1999. The World Bank-assisted Renewable Energy and Rural Electricity Access Project (REAP) was conceived in 2006 to help the Government revitalize the 100k Program and remove other barriers to rural electrification. The ultimate objective of the project was to increase electricity access and improve the reliability of services in off-grid soum centers and amongst the herder population. The main portion of this report is divided into two chapters (Chapters 2-3). Chapter 2 is a brief description of the two beneficiary surveys carried out after REAP was completed. It includes the methodologies used...

Output-Based Aid in Bolivia : Balanced Tender Design for Sustainable Energy Access in Difficult Markets

Reiche, Killian; Rysankova, Dana; Goldmark, Susan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
This newsletter looks at how Bolivia is implementing an innovative public-private approach to increase rural electricity access to extremely remote areas via Solar Home Systems (SHS) and how Novel Medium-term Service Contracts (MSCs) balance the Government's wish for sustainable service and maximum control with providers' aim for minimal risk exposure. The newsletter also provides information on the overall success of the MSC approach to bidding out SHS services, and how it can only be judged at a later stage, as installations have only just begun. In conclusion, the successful tender award and the efficiency gains achieved show that this new model merits closer analysis and the current administration has taken the underlying public-private approach as a cornerstone of its new universal access policy for the electricity sector.

The Benefits of Solar Home Systems : An Analysis from Bangladesh

Samad, Hussain A.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Yunus, Mohammad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.27%
The Government of Bangladesh, with help from the World Bank and other donors, has provided aid to a local agency called Infrastructure Development Company Limited and its partner organizations to devise a credit scheme for marketing solar home system units and making these an affordable alternative to grid electricity for poor people in remote areas. This paper uses household survey data to examine the financing scheme behind the dissemination of these solar home systems, in particular the role of the subsidy; the factors that determine the adoption of the systems in rural Bangladesh; and the welfare impacts of such adoption. The paper finds that while the subsidy has been declining over time, the demand for solar home systems has seen phenomenal growth, mostly because of technological developments that have made the systems increasingly more affordable. Households with better physical and educational endowments are more likely to adopt solar home systems than poor households. The price of the system matters in household decision making -- a 10 percent decline in the price of the system increases the overall demand for a solar panel by 2 percent. As for the benefits...