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Prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Brazil

Machado,Márcia Sacramento Cunha; Silva,Bruno Fernando Borges da Costa e; Gomes,Igor Logetto Caetité; Santana,Iuri Usêda; Grassi,Maria Fernanda Rios
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents is increasing worldwide. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in young women, and undetected disease is highly associated with long-term complications in women. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sexually active population of female adolescents from Salvador, Brazil, and to describe their socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. 100 sexually active adolescents (10-19 years) were included in this study, between 2008 and 2010. Endocervical samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Inhouse polymerase chain reaction of cervical specimens was used for Chlamydia trachomatis detection. The overall prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 31% (95% CI 22-40). There were no statistically significant differences in the age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, and frequency of condom use between Chlamydia infected and uninfected adolescents. The prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection among adolescents from Salvador was the highest in Brazil up to the present date. These results demonstrate an urgent need for continued and comprehensive prevention strategies along with proper screening for Chlamydia in high-risk populations in order to decrease the rates of infection.

Infection by the human papillomavirus in teenagers sexually active: clinic and subclinic manifestations

Derchain,Sophie; Neves-Jorge,Jessé de Paula; Andrade,Liliana; Pinto-Neto,Aarão Mendes; Silva,João Pinto e
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
This research studies the association of the cervical condyloma with the intraepithelial neoplasia, during sex activity, pregnancy, diagnose methods, cytology and colposcopy in teenagers. The objective of this research is to study the propaedeutics for the uterine coli condyloma diagnose in a group of teenagers. For this purpose, we have studied 131 teenagers sexually active with ages between 14 and 19 years and presenting histologically confirmed uterine coli condyloma. Association with intraepithelial neoplasia, sexual ativity duration, method of diagnose, pregnancy analysis, cytology and colposcopy results and association with vulva and vagina injuries were evaluated. The high association rate with condyloma and intraepithelial neoplasia after a short time of sexual activity and the none presence of macroscopic warts in the genital organs in 80% of cases presenting cervical condyloma, demonstrate that: a more careful investigation with colposcopy.and biopsy of the inferior genitals of the women-teenagers sexually active is needed, when presenting modified cervical cytology.

Detection of Y Chromosome DNA as Evidence of Semen in Cervicovaginal Secretions of Sexually Active Women

Chomont, Nicolas; Grésenguet, Gérard; Lévy, Michel; Hocini, Hakim; Becquart, Pierre; Matta, Mathieu; Tranchot-Diallo, Juliette; Andreoletti, Laurent; Carreno, Marie-Paule; Kazatchkine, Michel D.; Bélec, Laurent
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
The detection of traces of semen in cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) from sexually active women practicing unprotected sex is a prerequisite for the accurate study of cervicovaginal immunity. Two semen markers, the prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) and the Y chromosome, were detected in parallel in CVS obtained by a standardized vaginal washing of consecutive women attending the principal medical center for sexually transmitted diseases of Bangui, Central African Republic. PSA was detected by immunoenzymatic capture assay in the cell-free fraction of CVS, and the Y chromosome was detected by a single PCR assay of DNA extracted by silica from the cell fraction (Y PCR). Fifty (19%) cell-free fractions of the 264 β-globin-positive CVS samples were positive for PSA, and 100 (38%) cell fractions of the CVS samples were positive for the Y chromosome. All the 50 (19%) PSA-containing CVS samples were also positive for the Y chromosome. Fifty (19%) CVS samples were positive only for the Y chromosome, with no detectable PSA. The remaining 164 (62%) CVS samples were both PSA and Y chromosome negative. These findings demonstrate that CVS from sexually active women may contain cell-associated semen residues unrecognized by conventional immunoenzymatic assays used to detect semen components. The detection of cell-associated male DNA with a highly sensitive and specific procedure such as Y PCR constitutes a method of choice to detect semen traces in female genital secretions.

High Prevalence of Genital Mycoplasmas among Sexually Active Young Adults with Urethritis or Cervicitis Symptoms in La Crosse, Wisconsin

Schlicht, Michael J.; Lovrich, Steven D.; Sartin, Jeffrey S.; Karpinsky, Patricia; Callister, Steven M.; Agger, William A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Sexually active young adults in the small college town of La Crosse, Wisconsin, were evaluated for conventional sexually transmitted pathogens and tested for infections with mycoplasmas. The prevalence in 65 symptomatic men or women and 137 healthy volunteers (67 men and 70 women) was compared. Urine specimens from both cohorts were tested by ligase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In addition, the urethral or cervical swabs from the symptomatic subjects were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma genitalium and cultured for Mycoplasma hominis and the ureaplasmas. The results confirmed a relatively low prevalence of gonorrhea among symptomatic men (12%) and chlamydia among symptomatic men (15%) and normal women (3%). In contrast, infections with mycoplasmas, especially the ureaplasmas (57%), were common and the organisms were the only potential sexually transmitted pathogen detected in 40 (62%) symptomatic subjects. Because of the high prevalence, we also evaluated urethral swabs from an additional 25 normal female volunteers and recovered ureaplasmas from 4 (16%) subjects. Additionally, the participants rarely used protection during sexual intercourse and some symptomatic subjects apparently acquired their infections despite using condoms regularly. The findings demonstrate a strong association between abnormal urogenital findings and detection of myoplasmas...

Screening Sexually Active Teenagers for Cervical Abnormalities: Its importance for sexually active teenagers

Erdstein, Julius; Pavilanis, Alan V.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Sexually active teenagers are at increased risk of developing cervical abnormalities. It is therefore important to screen them with an annual Pap smear. The techniques of this test are reviewed, as are the importance of sexually transmitted diseases in the development of cytologic abnormalities, the pathophysiology of virus-induced changes, and the terminology of reporting.

Estimation of HIV Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Testing Frequency among Sexually Active Men Who Have Sex with Men, Aged 18–64 Years—New York City, 2002

Manning, Susan E.; Thorpe, Lorna E.; Ramaswamy, Chitra; Hajat, Anjum; Marx, Melissa A.; Karpati, Adam M.; Mostashari, Farzad; Pfeiffer, Melissa R.; Nash, Denis
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Population-based estimates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) are valuable for HIV prevention planning but not widely available, especially at the local level. We combined two population-based data sources to estimate prevalence of diagnosed HIV infection, HIV-associated risk-behaviors, and HIV testing patterns among sexually active MSM in New York City (NYC). HIV/AIDS surveillance data were used to determine the number of living males reporting a history of sex with men who had been diagnosed in NYC with HIV infection through 2002 (23% of HIV-infected males did not have HIV transmission risk information available). Sexual behavior data from a cross-sectional telephone survey were used to estimate the number of sexually active MSM in NYC in 2002. Prevalence of diagnosed HIV infection was estimated using the ratio of HIV-infected MSM to sexually active MSM. The estimated base prevalence of diagnosed HIV infection was 8.4% overall (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.5–9.6). Diagnosed HIV prevalence was highest among MSM who were non-Hispanic black (12.6%, 95% CI = 9.8–17.6), aged 35–44 (12.6%, 95% CI = 10.4–15.9), or 45–54 years (13.1%, 95% CI = 10.2–18.3)...

HIV-Positive Men Sexually Active with Women: Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Risks

Aidala, Angela A.; Lee, Gunjeong; Howard, Joyce Moon; Caban, Maria; Abramson, David; Messeri, Peter
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
This study examines patterns of sexual behavior, sexual relating, and sexual risk among HIV-positive men sexually active with women. A total of 278 HIV-positive men were interviewed every 6–12 months between 1994 and 2002 and reported considerable variability in sexual behaviors over time. Many were not sexually active at all for months at a time; many continued to have multiple female and at times male partners. Over one-third of the cohort had one or more periods when they had engaged in unprotected sex with a female partner who was HIV-negative or status unknown (unsafe sex). Periods of unsafe sex alternated with periods of safer sex. Contextual factors such as partner relations, housing status, active drug use, and recently exchanging sex showed the strongest association with increased odds of unsafe sex. A number of predictors of unsafe sex among African American men were not significant among the Latino sub-population, suggesting race/ethnic differences in factors contributing to heterosexual transmission. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed.

Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Among Sexually Active Homeless Youth

Solorio, M. Rosa; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Higgins, Chandra; Gelberg, Lillian
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
We examined the association between sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing in a sample of homeless youth. Of 261 youth interviewed, 50% had been sexually active in the past 3 months. Gender variation in sexual behaviors and risk were found. Boys were more likely than girls to engage in anal sex (46% vs. 15%), to have 3 or more sexual partners (46% vs. 17%) and to engage in anonymous sex (38% vs. 21%). Girls were less likely to use condoms consistently and more likely to engage in sex with a partner suspected of having an STI (20% vs. 4%). In the past 3 months, the STI testing rates were similar for boys and girls (46%). However, girls were more likely to have positive STI results (46% vs. 9%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only variable that was an independent predictor of STI testing was having either gotten someone or having become pregnant in the past 3 months. High-risk sexual behaviors did not predict STI testing in our sample. Outreach programs are needed that target sexually active homeless youth for early STI testing and treatment.

Sexually Active Adolescent Women: Assessing Family and Peer Relationships Using Event History Calendars

Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by the adolescents prior to a clinic visit with a nurse practitioner at a school-based clinic in Southeast Michigan, and interviews were conducted after the visit. Constant comparative analysis of EHCs and interview data of 19 sexually active 15 to 19-year-old girls revealed that those with positive familial and peer support were less likely to report risk behaviors compared to those with poor family and peer relationships. School nurses and other providers working with adolescents to prevent risk behaviors could utilize the EHC to determine risks and develop education plans and interventions to reduce risk behaviors.

Examining the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda

Ybarra, Michele L.; Korchmaros, Josephine; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R.; Bull, Sheana
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
We tested the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and ninety adolescents across five secondary schools completed a self-report survey about their health and sexual experiences. Based upon results from structural equation modeling, the IMB model partially predicts condom use. Condom use was directly predicted by HIV prevention information and behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms. It was indirectly predicted (through behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms) by behavioral intentions regarding using condoms and talking to one‘s partner about safer sex. Aspects of one‘s first sexual experience (i.e., age at first sex, having discussed using condoms with first sex partner, willingness at first sex) are hugely influential of current condom use; this is especially true for discussing condoms with one‘s first partner. Findings highlight the importance of providing clear and comprehensive condom use training in HIV prevention programs aimed at Ugandan adolescents. They also underscore the importance of targeting abstinent youth before they become sexually active to positively affect their HIV preventive behavior at their first sexual experience.

Characteristics of Sexually Active Teenage Girls Who Would Be Pleased with Becoming Pregnant

Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
To investigate factors associated with favorable pregnancy attitudes among teenage girls. Participants were sexually active teenage girls aged 15–18 years old (n = 965) who took part in the 2002 or 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Multinomial multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Sixteen percent of sexually active teenage girls (n = 164) would be pleased (11 % a little pleased, 5 % very pleased) if they became pregnant. In a multivariable model, participants who had not yet discussed sexual health topics (i.e., how to say no to sexual intercourse or birth control) or had only discussed birth control with a parent were more likely to be very pleased with a teenage pregnancy than participants who had discussed both topics with a parent. Prior pregnancy, racial/ethnic group status, older age, and having parents with a high school education or less also increased the odds of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Being pleased with a teenage pregnancy was correlated with a lack of discussion of sexual health topics with parents, prior pregnancy, and sociodemographic factors (having less educated parents, racial/ethnic group status). Pregnancy prevention efforts can be improved by acknowledging the structural and cultural factors that shape teenage pregnancy attitudes.

Association of Hormonal Contraceptive Use With Reduced Levels of Depressive Symptoms: A National Study of Sexually Active Women in the United States

Keyes, Katherine M.; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M.; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2008), focusing on women aged 25–34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25–34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (β = −1.04, 95% confidence interval: −1.73, −0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted.

The Role of Maladaptive Cognitions in Hypersexuality among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
Cognitive appraisals about sex may represent an important component of the maintenance and treatment of hypersexuality, but they are not currently represented in conceptual models of hypersexuality. Therefore, we validated a measure of maladaptive cognitions about sex and examined its unique ability to predict hypersexuality. Qualitative interviews with a pilot sample of 60 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men and expert review of items yielded a pool of 17 items regarding maladaptive cognitions about sex. A separate sample of 202 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men completed measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, depression and anxiety, sexual compulsivity, the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory proposed by the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders (2010). Factor analysis confirmed the presence of three subscales: perceived sexual needs, sexual costs, and sexual control efficacy. Structural equation modeling results were consistent with a cognitive model of hypersexuality whereby magnifying the necessity of sex and disqualifying the benefits of sex partially predicted minimized self-efficacy for controlling one’s sexual behavior...

Childhood Sexual Violence and Consistent, Effective Contraception Use among Young, Sexually Active Urban Women

Nelson, Deborah B.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Unintended pregnancy (UP) is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem) and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence...

Is Food Insecurity Associated with HIV Risk? Cross-Sectional Evidence from Sexually Active Women in Brazil

Weiser, Sheri D.; Hung, Kristin Joyce; Tsai, Alexander
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Background: Understanding how food insecurity among women gives rise to differential patterning in HIV risks is critical for policy and programming in resource-limited settings. This is particularly the case in Brazil, which has undergone successive changes in the gender and socio-geographic composition of its complex epidemic over the past three decades. We used data from a national survey of Brazilian women to estimate the relationship between food insecurity and HIV risk. Methods and Findings: We used data on 12,684 sexually active women from a national survey conducted in Brazil in 2006–2007. Self-reported outcomes were (a) consistent condom use, defined as using a condom at each occasion of sexual intercourse in the previous 12 mo; (b) recent condom use, less stringently defined as using a condom with the most recent sexual partner; and (c) itchy vaginal discharge in the previous 30 d, possibly indicating presence of a sexually transmitted infection. The primary explanatory variable of interest was food insecurity, measured using the culturally adapted and validated Escala Brasiliera de Segurança Alimentar. In multivariable logistic regression models, severe food insecurity with hunger was associated with a reduced odds of consistent condom use in the past 12 mo (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.67; 95% CI...

Prevalência da infecção por Neisseria gonorrhoeae em adolescentes do sexo feminino no município de Goiânia, Goiás; Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital infection among female sexually active adolescents in Distrito Sanitário Noroeste from Goiânia, Brazil

DUARTE, Jannaína Karlla de Queiroz
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Medicina Tropical; Medicina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Medicina Tropical; Medicina
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
BACKGROUND: Adolescents are at great risk for genital Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. Although most infections are asymptomatic it can cause severe reproductive sequels to women. Few studies exist about prevalence of these infection in Brazil and fewer in adolescent population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital infection among female sexually active adolescents, in Distrito Sanitário Noroeste from Goiânia, Brazil and to identify demographic and behavioral profiles associated to gonococcal infection. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study among 427 sexually active female adolescents (15-19 years), random selected at Distrito Sanitário Noroeste and served by the Health Family Program. It were excluded pregnant adolescents, pos-partum, using antibiotics or on period. The gonococcal infection was determined by using polimerase chain reaction (PCR) of Amplicor Roche kit for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis applied to endocervical swab specimens. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were assessed by face-to-face questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age of 427 random selected adolescents was 17.2 ± 1.3 years, most female were single (67.9%). The mean age of menarch was 12.4 years and at first sexual intercourse was 15 years. 35...

Glue Sniffing and Other Risky Practices Among Street Children in Urban Bangladesh

Mahmud, Iffat; Ahsan, Karar Zunaid; Claeson, Mariam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
The inhalation of solvents among children and adolescents for recreational purposes has been a long standing problem in the developed world, although it is an emerging issue in South Asia, especially in urban areas. This study explores the linkage between glue sniffing and other drug use and high risk practices related to increased vulnerability and risk for HIV and AIDS in Bangladesh and also documents the serious health effects of glue sniffing. Although Bangladesh has an overall low prevalence of HIV, it is facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among injecting drug users. There is a risk that young children who inhale glue may also be more likely to use other drugs, and that this early introduction to drugs lead to injecting drug habits, associated with increased risk for transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other sexually transmitted diseases. This study aimed at assessing the nature of drug use and other risky practices among street children aged 11 to 19 years in Dhaka and Chittagong, the two major metropolises of Bangladesh. The study highlights the vulnerability of street children in general and the problems they face on the streets...

Sexually-transmitted disease risk in a Micronesian atoll population

Brewis, Alexandra A
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 60653 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The potential health threat of AIDS to the native island-based populations in the Pacific is now widely appreciated by those working in the public-health sector throughout the region. Although several countries in the region are yet to identify any cases of AIDS or HIV seropositivity, there is reason to suspect that heterosexual contact may emerge as a predominant mode of spread of HIV infection into native Pacific island populations. Sexual networks and their relationship to potentially ‘risky behaviours’ are described for a single native Micronesian atoll community on the basis of ethnographic observation and interviewing. This description is combined with the investigation of historic-demographic dimensions of the epidemiology of sexually-transmitted diseases in the same population to draw some conclusions about the opportunities for HIV transmission and acquisition among the sexually-active portions of this community. Although sexually-transmitted diseases have not had an appreciable epidemiological or demographic impact on the population in the past, the sexual networks within the community and beyond provide ample opportunity for the introduction and spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and its sequel AIDS.; yes

Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center

Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M.; Cohen, Elijah L.; LeClerc, M.; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12–29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD = 2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p = 0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF...

Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the sexually active university students in Zimbabwe

Nkomazana, Njabulo; Maharaj, Pranitha
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
The study sought to establish university students' perceptions of risk of HIV infections. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 345 sexually active students at two universities in Zimbabwe (one state and one private). Results revealed that above a quarter of the respondents felt at risk of getting HIV due to their regular partners' sexual behaviours and more than half felt at risk of getting HIV due to their casual partners' sexual behaviours. In addition, a third of the respondents acknowledged the HIV risk due to their own sexual behaviours. More state university respondents felt exposed to HIV infections due to own sexual behaviours than their private university counterparts. Despite these revelations, only 66.56% had earlier thought of their chances of getting infected with HIV. Personal HIV risk perceptions were low, reported by 27.76% of the sexually active respondents. Almost all respondents described their fellows' sexual behaviours as either risky or very risky.