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Multivariate analysis of the energy cycle of the South American rainy season

GUTIERREZ, Enver Ramirez; DIAS, P. L. Silva; VEIGA, J. A.; CAMAYO, R.; SANTOS, A. dos
Fonte: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD Publicador: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The South American (SA) rainy season is studied in this paper through the application of a multivariate Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis to a SA gridded precipitation analysis and to the components of Lorenz Energy Cycle (LEC) derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis. The EOF analysis leads to the identification of patterns of the rainy season and the associated mechanisms in terms of their energetics. The first combined EOF represents the northwest-southeast dipole of the precipitation between South and Central America, the South American Monsoon System (SAMS). The second combined EOF represents a synoptic pattern associated with the SACZ (South Atlantic convergence zone) and the third EOF is in spatial quadrature to the second EOF. The phase relationship of the EOFs, as computed from the principal components (PCs), suggests a nonlinear transition from the SACZ to the fully developed SAMS mode by November and between both components describing the SACZ by September-October (the rainy season onset). According to the LEC, the first mode is dominated by the eddy generation term at its maximum, the second by both baroclinic and eddy generation terms and the third by barotropic instability previous to the connection to the second mode by September-October. The predominance of the different LEC components at each phase of the SAMS can be used as an indicator of the onset of the rainy season in terms of physical processes...

Effects of the season of the year, truck type and location on truck on skin bruises and meat quality in pigs

dalla Costa, O. A.; Faucitano, L.; Coldebella, A.; Ludke, J. V.; Peloso, J. V.; dalla Roza, D.; Paranhos da Costa, M. J. R.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 29-36
ENG
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the season of the year (summer vs winter), type of truck (A: single decker vs B : double-decker) and pig location on the truck (front, middle, rear) on the incidence of skin bruising and pork quality variation. For this purpose, 2660 gilts of an average weight of 126.7 (+/- 6.6) kg originating from 19 different farms were used. No interaction between season of the year, type of truck and location on truck was observed. A higher number of bruises on the body at unloading and slaughter (P < 0.0001) and a higher number of bruises on the carcass (P < 0.01) were observed in winter. At unloading a higher number of bruises on the body and on the carcass after slaughter was observed in pigs transported on Truck A (P=0.004 and P=0.05). A higher, although not significant, number of bruises was found on the body of pigs transported in the rear compartment of both trucks. Higher paleness value was found in the longissimus and semimembranosus muscles in summer (P=0.0001) than in winter. Cold and heat stress have a negative influence on skin bruises and meat quality, respectively. Poor vehicle design increases the incidence of bruised carcasses without detracting from pork quality regardless of the climate conditions tested and location of the animal it] the truck. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Breed and season influence on milk quality parameters and in mastitis occurrence

Nóbrega, Diego B.; Langoni, Helio
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1045-1052
ENG
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Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar a performance das raças Jersey e Holandesa em diferentes condições de pluviosidade (estações seca e chuvosa) através do monitoramento de aspectos relacionados com a mastite subclínica (contagem de células somáticas, isolamento microbiológico, tipo de patógeno isolado), qualidade do leite (lactose, proteína, gordura e sólidos totais) e produção (media da produção de leite) de ambas as raças. O estudo foi conduzido em propriedade leiteira localizada no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Oito visitas foram realizadas a propriedade, quatro em período de alta pluviosidade e outro em período de baixa pluviosidade. Amostras de leite foram colhidas de todos os animais para contagem eletrônica de células somáticas e determinação dos principais componentes do leite (proteína, gordura, sólidos totais, lactose). Gordura, proteína, sólidos totais e produção leiteira foram influenciadas tanto pela raça como pela estação, apresentando tendências similares para ambas raças em ambas estações. A contagem de células somáticas (CCS) apresentou resultados similares para ambas as raças. Vacas holandesas com infecção intramamária (IIM) apresentaram um maior aumento na CCS quando comparadas as vacas Jersey (P<0.001). Na estação seca...

The effect of season on serum testosterone concentrations in dogs

Mello Martins, Maria Isabel; de Souza, Fabiana Ferreira; Oba, Eunice; Lopes, Maria Denise
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1603-1605
ENG
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Photoperiod and environmental temperature are two important factors that may influence the reproductive cycle of various species. The objective of this study was to investigate seasonal influences on serum testosterone concentrations in dogs in a tropical zone, where the variation in day length between winter and summer solstice was approximately 2.5 h. Blood samples were collected every 15 days from seven adult dogs over a 14-month interval and serum testosterone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The year was divided into four seasons and mean testosterone concentrations for each season were related to the mean environmental temperature and rainfall during that season. Mean testosterone concentrations were 1.81 ng/mL (winter 2002), 1.93 ng/mL (spring 2002),1.31 ng/mL (summer 2003), 2.02 ng/mL (autumn 2003) and 1.93 ng/mL (winter 2003). The temperature ranged from 10.2 to 32.8 degrees C and the rainfall from 33 to 476 mm. Serum testosterone concentrations were lower in summer 2003 than in both spring 2002 (P = 0.05) and autumn 2003 (P = 0.0 16). In a tropical zone, a combination of high temperature and substantial rainfall may have reduced serum testosterone concentrations in dogs. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Impact of overseeding cool-season annual forages on spring regrowth of tifton 85 bermudagrass

Reis, R. A.; Sollenberger, L. E.; Urban, D.; Gomide, J. A.; Mattos, WRS; DaSilva, S. C.
Fonte: Fundação Estudos Agrarios Luiz Queiroz (fealq) Publicador: Fundação Estudos Agrarios Luiz Queiroz (fealq)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 295-297
ENG
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Field observations have shown stand reduction and slow spring regrowth of Tifton. 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) pastures overseeded with temperate forages for grazing during the cool season. This experiment compared the effect of cool-season management programs, including overseeding and use of different grazing treatments, on productivity of Tifton 85 the following warm season. There were seven treatments: four were bermudagrass overseeded with a cool-season annual forage mixture (two grasses and two legumes) and grazed differentially, and three were bermudagrass controls With differences in amount of residual stubble remaining at beginning of autumn. There was only a slight delay in initiation of Tifton 85 spring regrowth relative to the unseeded controls and no apparent stand loss resulting from overseeding cool-season forages. Late spring and summer Tifton 85 production generally was greater on seeded than non-seeded areas, possibly resulting from the nitrogen (N) release from decaying cool-season legumes. Grazing management of winter species in seeded plots and stubble height of bermudagrass in control plots had no effect on bermudagrass performance. Nutritive value responses generally favored overseeded plots. These data, though from one year...

Season of birth as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis in Brazil

Becker, Jefferson; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Ferreira, Maria Lúcia B.; Melo, Ailton; Diniz Da Gama, Paulo; Souza, Doralina G.B.; Teixeira, Carlos A.C.; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio Ramón; Gonçalves, Marcus Vinícius; Matta, André P
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 6-10
ENG
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Risk factors for development of multiple sclerosis (MS) are still a matter of debate. Latitude gradient, vitamin D deficiency and season of birth are among the most investigated environmental factors associated with the disease. Several international studies suggest that birth in spring is a substantial risk factor for MS. We investigated the season of birth as a potential risk for MS in different geographical regions of Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study with 2257 clinically definite MS patients enrolled in 13 Brazilian MS clinics in the south, southeast, and northeast regions of Brazil. Demographic and clinical data relating to date of birth and clinical features of the disease were collected and analysed, and subsequently compared with birth date among the general Brazilian population. The distribution of date of birth of MS patients showed an increase in spring and a decrease in autumn, with no difference being observed in the other seasons. In conclusion, season of birth is a probable risk factor for MS in most parts of Brazil. These findings may be related to the role that vitamin D plays in MS pathogenesis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

First data on feeding ecology of Goshawk Accipiter gentilis during the breeding season in the natura 2000 site Dunas de Mira, Gândara e Gafanhas (Beira Litoral, Portugal)

Petronilho, João M. S.; Vingada, José V.
Fonte: SPEA Publicador: SPEA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 ENG
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This study describes the diet of the Goshwak Accipiter gentilis within littoral ecosystems dominated by pine trees. Samples were collected during the breeding season of 2001 in Dunas de Mira, Gândara e Gafanhas, located in the littoral centre of Portugal and recently included in the Portuguese Natura 2000 network (PTCON 055). Diet composition was assessed from the analysis of 89 pellets and 154 prey remains, collected between the 15th of April and the 25th of July of 2001. Birds represented 86.6% of the total prey items. The remaining prey items were coleoptera (6.5%), mammals (3.6%) and reptiles (3.3%). In terms of biomass birds comprised 90.9%, followed by mammals (7.3%), reptiles (1.7%) and coleoptera (0.05%). Results show that this raptor has a predominantly ornitophagous diet. Domestic pigeon Columba livia var is the most important prey in this area both in terms of frequency and biomass (42.2% and 49.9%, respectively). During the breeding season the diet of the Goshawk is largely connected to Man.; Este trabalho pretendeu obter informação relativa à ecologia trófica do Açor Accipiter gentilis, de modo a tentar compreender o papel desempenhado por esta espécie de ave de rapina em ecossistemas litorais. O estudo decorreu durante a época de nidificação de 2001...

Assessment of proteolysis and lipolysis in Serra cheese: effects of axial cheese location, ripening time and lactation season

Macedo, A. C.; Costa, M. L.; Malcata, F. X.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 ENG
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The degrees of proteolysis and Iipolysis in Serra cheese were measured in cheese samples obtained from experiments laid out as a three-way facto rial design replicated twice. The independent variables studied were the location within the cheese (from the center to the surface), the position in the lactation season (from October to June) and the ripening time (from 0 to 35 days). Ali three variables had statistically significant effects on the concentration of water soluble peptides (WSP), but only the ripening time and the period within the lactation season affected the fat acidity (FA). The extents (alter the given ripening period) and the rates (averaged over the ripening period) of generation of WSP and FA were highest for spring and lowest for autumn. The lowest values for both the proteolysis extent and the proteolysis rate were obtained for the rind. The rates of proteolysis and lipolysis tended to decrease with ripening time; most of the lipolysis occurred during the first week, but proteolysis was still in progress by 35 days of ripening.

Female gender but not season of birth is associated with mood seasonality in a near-equatorial Brazilian city

Milfont,Taciano L.; Tilyard,Benjamin A.; Gouveia,Valdiney V.; Tonetti,Lorenzo; Natale,Vincenzo
Fonte: Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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OBJECTIVE: Studies conducted mainly in countries located in the Northern Hemisphere have shown that season of birth influences mood seasonality. Greater mood seasonality has been observed for individuals born during spring/summer months than those born during autumn/winter months. Expanding past research to the Southern Hemisphere, in this study we examine the influence of season of birth on mood seasonality in a sample of 1,247 healthy young Brazilians. METHOD: The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire was used to compute a global seasonality score as a measure of mood seasonality in a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Analysis of covariance was conducted to examine the effects of month of birth and gender on mood seasonality, with age entered as a covariate. A main effect of gender was observed, F (1, 1197) = 17.86, p < .01; partial Eta-squared = .02, with mood seasonality being higher for females (M = 8) than for males (M = 7). Contradicting previous findings, no significant main effect for month of birth was observed, F (1, 1197) = 0.65, p > .05. CONCLUSION: The unexpected finding is tentatively explained by differences in geographic location and weather fluctuations between the sampling location in Brazil and other countries where season of birth has been found to influence mood seasonality. Additional studies with larger samples from the Southern Hemisphere are necessary to shed additional light on the possible significant influence of season of birth on mood.

Breed and season influence on milk quality parameters and in mastitis occurrence

Nóbrega,Diego B.; Langoni,Hélio
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
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The aims of the present study were to evaluate the performance of Jersey and Holstein cows under different rainfall conditions (dry and rainy seasons) by monitoring aspects related to subclinical mastitis (somatic cell count, microbiological isolation, type of isolated pathogen), milk quality (lactose, protein, fat, total solids) and production (mean milk production) of both breeds. The study was carried out in a dairy farm located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eight visitations were done to the farm, four in a period of high rainfall and four in a period of low rainfall. Milk samples were collected from 79 Holstein cows and 37 Jersey cows for electronic somatic cell count and determination of the main milk components (protein, fat, total solids, lactose). Milk fat, protein, total solids and production were influenced by breed and the season, with similar tendencies for both breeds in both seasons. Somatic cell count (SCC) showed similar results for both breeds. Holstein cows with intramammary infections (IMI) presented a higher increase in SCC when compared to Jersey cows (P<0.001). In the dry season, 53 animals had IMI in at least one month during the study, which 32 were Holstein and 21 were Jersey cows. In the rainy season...

Population Study of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Fall / Winter Season

Ventura,Maurício Ursi; Gomes,Marcos Roberto
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2004 EN
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Population studies of D. speciosa on fall / winter crops were conducted. Larvae were monitored on maize (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.) and beetles on soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Mill., maize, common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), wheat and black oats from March 23, 2001 to August 24, 2001. Soybean, maize, common beans, wheat and oats were sown on December 28, 2000; February 9, 2001; March 2, 2001; April 26, 2001 and May 11, 2001, respectively. Maize and common beans were grown on latter growing season. Adult beetles of D. speciosa were collected throughout the sampling period. Greatest beetles population peak occurred on wheat in August 3, 2001 which coincided with flowering period. Population dynamics of males and females was similar on common beans and soybeans. Females on maize predominate mostly after the first 30 days after the plant emergence (dae) (before were not detected) until about 45 dae. Males appeared to predominate during the flowering period. Similar population dynamics of males and females were found on wheat and black oats. Greatest peak of larvae occurred on maize roots. The growing season corn farm system was recently introduced, what probably explains the reports of increasing populations of adults during almost the whole year. Probable applications of the results are discussed.

Quality of pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis) eggs and larvae in captivity throughout spawning season

Chalde,Tomás; Elisio,Mariano; Miranda,Leandro A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The aim of this work was to assess the quality of pejerrey eggs and larvae throughout its spawning season. Fertilized eggs were taken on September, October, November, and December from a captive broodstock. The egg diameter, yolk diameter, and oil droplets area decreased along the spawning season, with higher values in September. Fertilization and hatching rates decreased throughout this period, with highest values in September (88.0%; 55.2%) and the lowest values on December (43.0%; 25.2%). The larvae hatched from eggs obtained on October were the heaviest and longest (1.57 mg; 8.24 mm). The survival rate at 30 days post hatching (dph) was similar in larvae from September and October eggs (66.1%; 62.9%) with a sharp decrease in larvae from November and December eggs (22.4%; 23.3%). Furthermore, the highest body weight (15.1 mg) and total length (15.25 mm) at 30 dph were obtained in larvae from October eggs. The results obtained showed that overall eggs quality was better at the beginning of the spawning period, influencing the larvae performance.

Evaluation of Furrow Diking and Early-Season Insecticide Applications on Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Bollworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and Cotton Yield in the Texas Rolling Plains

Slosser, J. E.; Price, J. R.; Puterka, G. J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Boll weevil, Antoninus grandees Bohemian, and boll worm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), damage and yield were compared in conventional dry land, furrow-diked dryland and irrigated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., production systems from 1983 to 1986. Boll weevil damage to squares was statistically similar in conventional dryland and furrow-diked dryland cotton during the overwintered generation during July. However, damage to squares and bolls was significantly higher in furrow-diked cotton during the first weevil generation in August compared with conventional dryland cotton. A combined analysis of variance indicated that damage was highest in irrigated cotton in both generations from 1984 to 1986. Bollworm damage was significantly higher in irrigated cotton, but there were no significant differences between furrow-diked and conventional dryland cotton. Yields were statistically similar in conventional dry land and furrow-diked dryland cotton, but significantly higher yields were obtained in irrigated cotton. The lack of significant yield increases in furrow-diked cotton compared with conventional dry land cotton was probably the result of increased weevil damage in the diked cotton. Three subplots within each of the three water management treatments consisted of untreated cotton and two schedules of insecticide application. Two applications of azinphosmethyl at 281 g (AI)/ha were applied at or a few days after first one-third-grown square stage to suppress overwintered weevils. These early-season applications suppressed damage caused by overwintered weevils in three of four years...

Understanding influenza vaccine protection in the community: an assessment of the 2013 influenza season in Victoria, Australia

Carville, Kylie S.; Grant, Kristina A.; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Fielding, James E.; Lane, Courtney R.; Franklin, Lucinda; Druce, Julian; Kelly, Heath A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 6 pages
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BACKGROUND The influenza virus undergoes frequent antigenic drift, necessitating annual review of the composition of the influenza vaccine. Vaccination is an important strategy for reducing the impact and burden of influenza, and estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) each year informs surveillance and preventative measures. We aimed to describe the influenza season and to estimate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in Victoria, Australia, in 2013. METHODS Routine laboratory notifications, general practitioner sentinel surveillance (including a medical deputising service) data, and sentinel hospital admission surveillance data for the influenza season (29 April to 27 October 2013) were collated in Victoria, Australia, to describe influenza-like illness or confirmed influenza during the season. General practitioner sentinel surveillance data were used to estimate VE against medically-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. VE was estimated using the case test negative design as 1-adjusted odds ratio (odds of vaccination in cases compared with controls) × 100%. Cases tested positive for influenza while non-cases (controls) tested negative. Estimates were adjusted for age group, week of onset, time to swabbing and co-morbidities. RESULTS The 2013 influenza season was characterised by relatively low activity with a late peak. Influenza B circulation preceded that of influenza A(H1)pdm09...

Season of birth and risk of endometrial cancer

Rowlands, I.J.; Weinstein, P.; Nagle, C.M.; Spurdle, A.B.; Webb, P.M.; Oehler, M.K.
Fonte: National Cancer Center, Korea Publicador: National Cancer Center, Korea
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVES: Season of birth has been associated with adult morbidity and mortality, but few epidemiological studies have examined whether season of birth contributes to the development of cancer. Using data from the Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of 1399 cases and 1539 controls, we examined the association between season of birth and risk of endometrial cancer. METHODS: Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between season of birth and endometrial cancer. Additional analyses were stratified by state of birth. RESULTS: Season of birth was not associated with endometrial cancer overall, but there was an increased risk among women born in summer in Tasmania, the most southerly state (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.24-16.06) and non-significant increases in the other southern states. CONCLUSION: Further data are required to confirm these findings, however the observed associations may be due to the longer days and/or greater hours of sunshine in Australia's southerly states in summer, suppressing melatonin levels in summer-born infants and predisposing them to cancer in adulthood.; Ingrid J Rowlands, Philip Weinstein...

Caracterização e distribuição de cronotipos no sul do Brasil: diferenças de gênero e estação de nascimento; Characterization and distribution of chronotypes in southern Brazil: gender and season of birth differences

ALAM, Marilene Farias; TOMASI, Elaine; LIMA, Maurício Silva de; AREAS, Roberta; MENNA-BARRETO, Luiz
Fonte: Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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OBJETIVO: Investigar a tipologia circadiana e as diferenças de gênero em universitários do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Voluntários (736) de 17 a 49 anos preencheram a versão brasileira do Questionário de Cronotipo (QC), tradução do Morningness-eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) de Horne e Östberg. Medidas de tendência central e dispersão e curva de distribuição dos escores do QC (Kolmogorov-Smirnov) foram calculadas de acordo com gênero (teste t de Student), idade, estação de nascimento e desconforto com o horário de verão (qui-quadrado). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 648 indivíduos (36% homens, 64% mulheres), com perdas de 12% por questionários incorretos. A distribuição dos escores do QC evidenciou uma curva normal (amplitude = 18-77; média = 46,6; desvio-padrão = 10,8). Nesta amostra, 32% foram vespertinos, 54% intermediários e 14% matutinos. As médias do QC foram significativamente diferentes (p = 0,003): homens (44,9 ± 10,8) comparados com mulheres (47,5 ± 10,7) e 70% dos que nasceram na primavera e no verão foram vespertinos (p = 0,015), sem associação gênero-estação do ano. CONCLUSÃO: Homens e nascidos na primavera-verão evidenciaram preferência pela vespertinidade, não havendo diferença de gênero com relação à estação de nascimento. Nossos resultados estão de acordo com estudos realizados no hemisfério norte que mostraram...

Influência da época de plantio e corte na produtividade da cana-de-açúcar.; Influence of planting and harvesting season on sugarcane productivity.

Marchiori, Luís Fernando Sanglade
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/10/2004 PT
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O planejamento de colheita na cultura da cana-de-açúcar busca otimizar o retorno econômico, baseado no conceito de que a cana tem uma época, durante o ano, onde ocorre máxima concentração de sacarose nos colmos. Realizaram-se neste trabalho estudos enfocando as influências dos fatores edafo-climáticos sobre o rendimento e açúcares totais recuperáveis. Foram testadas as hipóteses de que há interação entre as épocas de plantio e corte, bem como a hipótese de que há interação do tratamento muda inteira e picada com cada época de plantio. Utilizaram-se dados de pesquisa conduzida, no Campo de experimentação da COPERSUCAR – Piracicaba/SP, num solo Latossol Vermelho Eutrófico. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas em faixas e sub-subparcelas dentro das faixas. Os tratamentos foram épocas de plantio (Novembro, Janeiro, Março, Maio), as faixas foram épocas de corte (Maio, julho, Setembro, Novembro), e os sub-subtratamentos foram mudas picada e inteira. Mediram-se as variáveis: toneladas de colmos (TCH) e toneladas de açúcar por hectare (TAH), e açúcar total recuperável (ATR). A soqueira foi avaliada da mesma forma que o 1º corte, aos (12) meses de idade. Foram instalados três experimentos...

CMIP5 model simulations of Ethiopian Kiremt-season precipitation: current climate and future changes

Li, Laifang; Li, W; Ballard, Tristan; Ge Sun; Jeuland, Marc
Fonte: Springer Verlag (Germany) Publicador: Springer Verlag (Germany)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/07/2015
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Kiremt-season (June–September) precipitation provides a significant water supply for Ethiopia, particularly in the central and northern regions. The response of Kiremt-season precipitation to climate change is thus of great concern to water resource managers. However, the complex processes that control Kiremt-season precipitation challenge the capability of general circulation models (GCMs) to accurately simulate precipitation amount and variability. This in turn raises questions about their utility for predicting future changes. This study assesses the impact of climate change on Kiremt-season precipitation using state-of-the-art GCMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. Compared to models with a coarse resolution, high-resolution models (horizontal resolution <2°) can more accurately simulate precipitation, most likely due to their ability to capture precipitation induced by topography. Under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario, these high-resolution models project an increase in precipitation over central Highlands and northern Great Rift Valley in Ethiopia, but a decrease in precipitation over the southern part of the country. Such a dipole pattern is attributable to the intensification of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) in a warmer climate...

Onset and end of the rainy season and corn yields in São Paulo State, Brazil

Franchito,S. H.; Brahmananda Rao,V.; Gan,M. A.; Santo,C. M. E.
Fonte: Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM Publicador: Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
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The relationships between the rainy season and corn yields in São Paulo State were investigated. The results showed that rainfall and corn yields are strongly positively correlated in most of the region, particularly in the northeastern, eastern, northwestern and western parts of the state (i.e. values are higher than 0.5 signifcant at 95% confdence level). The analysis of the trends in the duration of the rainy season and the associated accumulated precipitation showed a tendency of higher precipitation and shorter rainy seasons. It has been suggested to be due to global warming. Although rainfall and crop yields were positively correlated, an increase in heavy rainfall events in future may lead to landslides, fash foods and consequently crop damage. During the period 1970-2003 there was an increase of the rainy season and rainfall in strong El Niño episodes while in the case of La Niña events the rainy season was shorter and the rainfall decreased. Results of case studies considering the 1997-98 El Niño and the 1998-99 La Niña suggested that the increase (decrease) of the duration of the rainy season during the El Niño (La Niña) event is associated with the increase (decrease) of corn yields in São Paulo State. Further studies with a record of corn yields longer than 14 years and considering other El Niño/La Niña episodes are needed to obtain a frm connection between corn yields and ENSO events in São Paulo State.

Influence of season on intramuscular fatty acid profile of fighting bull

Horcada-Ibáñez,Alberto; Polvillo-Polo,Oliva; Valera-Córdoba,Mercedes; Juárez-Davila,Manuel
Fonte: Colegio de Postgraduados Publicador: Colegio de Postgraduados
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
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In Spain, beef from Fighting Bulls is traditionally consumed during spring and summer festivals but there are few studies on fatty acid profile from of these bulls. The objective this study was to evaluate the effect of slaughtering season and year of breeding on fatty acid composition of Spanish Fighting Bull intramuscular fat. The study was carried out during 2006 and 2009 seasons in Seville and Pamplona using a sampling survey methodology. Fighting Bulls (n=150) were raised in a traditional production system (Spanish dehesa) and slaughtered in spring (Sevilla) and summer (Pamplona). Supraespinatus muscle was collected at the abattoir 24 h postmortem for fatty acid analysis. Statistical analysis included location and slaughter as main effects and livestock farm as random effect. Bulls slaughtered in summer were older (p = 0.027) and heavier (p=0.002), but spring carcasses were heavier (p=0.008), with higher yields (p≤0.001), and a higher degree of fatness (p≤0.001). However, meat from bulls slaughtered in spring showed lower (p≤ 0.001) intramuscular fat content, leading to a higher (p≤ 0.001) polyunsaturated/ saturated fatty acid ratio. Intramuscular fat showed seasonal differences (p≤ 0.05) in most fatty acid concentrations. There were significant interactions (p≤ 0.05) between the slaughter season and years for several fatty acids...