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Not all adolescents are sleep deprived: A study of rural populations

PEREIRA, Erico Felden; LOUZADA, Fernando Mazzilli; MORENO, Claudia R. C.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of environmental factors in sleep duration among adolescents living in rural areas. A total of 1140 students (569 males), aged 10-19 years, and attending two schools in rural regions in southern Brazil, completed a questionnaire about their sleep habits. Demographic data were also obtained. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated for the cases of more than 9 h of sleep on weekdays. Sleep duration in adolescents with and without electric lighting at home was analyzed. Average sleep duration at night was 9.63 (1.64) h on school-going days and 10.14 (2.42) h on weekends. The prevalence of adolescents sleeping for more than 9 h at night on school-going days was 58.3%. Older adolescents showed a tendency to delay their sleep onset times, which is associated with a reduction of sleep duration. Adolescents without electric lighting at home slept longer on school-going days (P < 0.001) and on weekends (P = 0.013) when compared to those with electric lighting at home. From multivariate analysis, age (P < 0.001), school schedule (P = 0.007) and work (0.042) were factors affecting sleep duration. In contrast to the data previously reported for urban populations, we found a high prevalence of adolescents sleeping for more than 9 h on school nights. Data on populations living in less industrialized regions reinforce the idea that technological advances are associated with the negative impact of sleep phase delay in adolescents.

Cytogenetic and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Leptodactylus species from rural and urban environments (Anura, Amphibia)

Arruda, M. P.; Morielle-Versute, E.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 161-176
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Cytogenetic and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses carried out in the species Leptodactylus podicipinus, L. ocellatus, L. labyrinthicus, and L. fuscus from rural and urban habitats of the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil, showed that the karyotypes (2n = 22), constitutive heterochromatin distribution and nucleolus organizer region (NOR) location did not differ between the populations from the two environments. The in situ hybridization with an rDNA probe confirmed the location of the NORs on chromosome 8 revealing an in tandem duplication of that region in one of the chromosomes of L. fuscus. DAPI showed that part of the C-band-positive heterochromatin is rich in AT, including that in the proximity the NORs in L. podicipinus and L. ocellatus. The molecular analyses showed that the two populations (urban and rural) of L. podicipinus and L. fuscus are similar from a genetic point of view. The urban and rural populations of species L. ocellatus and L. labyrinthicus showed differences in genetic structures, probably due to urbanization which interferes with the dispersion of those frogs. The marked differences observed between the two populations of L. ocellatus can be representing the cryptic condition of the species. Unweighted pair-group method of analysis and genetic distance analysis detected the genetic proximity between L. ocellatus and L. fuscus. The results indicate that there was no reduction in the genetic diversity in the populations from the urban environment; however...

Populações rurais na Huíla e resiliência social em contexto de guerra o caso do município da Humpata (sudoeste angolano)

Fátima, Maria de
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Tese de doutoramento em Estudos Africanos; Este trabalho analisa os aspectos relacionados com a Resiliência Social das Populações rurais da Humpata pertencentes ao grupo étnico muila na perspectiva de um país (Angola) assolado pela guerra durante vários anos e a forma como as populações procuraram encontrar soluções para superar as adversidades. Trata-se de um estudo focado na captação de certas dinâmicas empreendidas pelas populações rurais da Humpata para viabilizar a sua sobrevivência. O estudo analisa a presença de militares estrangeiros na Humpata nomeadamente as tropas cubanas (FAR), da Namíbia (SWAPO) e da África do Sul (ANC), tal como os deslocados de guerra cuja presença no território da Humpata constituiu um importante factor de perturbação social. São analisadas as formas de relacionamento entre esses militares e as populações locais bem como entre estas e os deslocados nomeadamente a influência recíproca verificada através das múltiplas trocas entretanto surgidas. O estudo privilegiou a pesquisa qualitativa combinando observação directa e participante, entrevistas dirigidas e semi-dirigidas, histórias de vida, análise bibliográfica e documental o que permitiu compreender, até certo ponto...

Health and health care of rural populations in the UK: is it better or worse?

Watt, I S; Franks, A J; Sheldon, T A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
OBJECTIVE--To review available evidence on the problems facing rural health care in the UK. In particular, to determine whether the health of rural populations is worse than that of town dwellers and how the quality of health care is influenced by rurality. CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION OF ARTICLES--A wide variety of publications and data sources were used. A number of computerised databases with different specialisations (for example medical, health care management) were used to identify relevant published articles. In addition, reports, reviews, and surveys produced by agencies for local circulation were identified by approaching academic, service, and voluntary bodies thought likely to have an interest in rural health. Although this "grey" literature is not subject to peer review, the relative lack of relevant UK publications made it a useful data source for illustrative purposes. Similarly, published articles based on rural health in other developed countries were used when UK data were lacking. CONCLUSIONS--Although the evidence concerning the health and health care of the UK rural populations is suggestive, it is very general and further research is needed. Levels of urban health seem to be generally worse than in rural areas...

Acute Traumatic Injuries in Rural Populations

Peek-Asa, Corinne; Zwerling, Craig; Stallones, Lorann
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2004 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2004
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
In the United States, injuries are the leading cause of death among individuals aged 1 to 45 years and the fourth leading cause of death overall. Rural populations exhibit disproportionately high injury mortality rates. Deaths resulting from motor vehicle crashes, traumatic occupational injuries, drowning, residential fires, and suicide all increase with increasing rurality.

Campylobacter infection in urban and rural populations in Scotland.

Sibbald, C. J.; Sharp, J. C.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1985 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
A review of campylobacter infection in Scotland over five years (1978-82), during which 7808 human isolates were recorded (mean annual isolation rate of 30 per 100000), revealed differences in the epidemiology of the disease between rural and urban populations which were not apparent in the national data. The incidence of infection in the two rural areas studied was greatest in the early months of the year, whereas that in the two urban areas showed a third-quarter predominance. In both urban and rural populations, age-specific infection rates were highest in children less than 5 years old, but this trend was more pronounced in rural than urban populations. Conversely, secondary peaks in age-specific infection rates observed in young adults were more pronounced in the urban than rural populations. It is postulated that rural children were being infected by campylobacters at an early age by drinking contaminated raw milk which was not normally available to city residents. The lower incidence in adults in the rural populations is interpreted as indicating more widespread immunity, resulting from greater exposure to infection during childhood. The effect of compulsory heat treatment of milk sold in Scotland, introduced in August 1983...

The Invisible Poor : A Portrait of Rural Poverty in Argentina

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Many of the poorest Argentines are invisible in official statistics. Four million rural residents and another 12 million in small urban areas lie outside the reach of the Permanent Household Survey (EPH), which is the basis for poverty figures and most data on social conditions in the country. According to the best estimate, roughly a third of rural residents, more than a million people, live in poverty. The urban bias common too many countries have been accentuated by the lack of data on the rural poor. With little information on their condition, it is exceedingly difficult for policy makers to design policies and programs to help move people out of poverty. The report is organized as follows: chapter one profiles rural poverty base on the limited existing data, including the first in-depth analysis of rural poverty ever conducted with the 2001 population census. Chapter two presents findings from the new qualitative study of the rural poor conducted in the first half of 2007. Finally, chapter three concludes with a discussion of methodology for rural poverty analysis...

Making Poor Haitians Count : Poverty in Rural and Urban Haiti Based on the First Household Survey for Haiti

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
This paper analyzes poverty in Haiti based on the first Living Conditions Survey of 7,186 households covering the whole country and representative at the regional level. Using a USD1 a day extreme poverty line, the analysis reveals that 49 percent of Haitian households live in absolute poverty. Twenty, 56, and 58 percent of households in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas, respectively, are poor. At the regional level, poverty is especially extensive in the northeastern and northwestern regions. Access to assets such as education and infrastructure services is highly unequal and strongly correlated with poverty. Moreover, children in indigent households attain less education than children in nonpoor households. Controlling for individual and household characteristics, location, and region, living in a rural area does not by itself affect the probability of being poor. But in rural areas female headed households are more likely to experience poverty than male headed households. Domestic migration and education are both key factors that reduce the likelihood of falling into poverty. Employment is essential to improve livelihoods and both the farm and nonfarm sector play a key role.

Natural Capital, Ecological Scarcity and Rural Poverty

Barbier, Edward B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Much of the rural poor -- who are growing in number -- are concentrated in ecologically fragile and remote areas. The key ecological scarcity problem facing such poor households is a vicious cycle of declining livelihoods, increased ecological degradation and loss of resource commons, and declining ecosystem services on which the poor depend. In addition, developing economies with high concentrations of their populations on fragile lands and in remote areas not only display high rates of rural poverty, but also are some of the poorest countries in the world today. Policies to eradicate poverty therefore need to be targeted at the poor where they live, especially the rural poor clustered in fragile environments and remote areas. The specific elements of such a strategy include involving the poor in payment for ecosystem services schemes and other measures that enhance the environments on which the poor depend; targeting investments directly to improving the livelihoods of the rural poor, thus reducing their dependence on exploiting environmental resources; tackling the lack of access of the rural poor in less favored areas to well-functioning and affordable markets for credit...

Closing Rural-Urban MDG Gaps in Low-Income Countries : A General Equilibrium Perspective

Lofgren, Hans
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
This paper addresses policies aimed at closing the rural-urban gap for one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the under-five mortality rate (U5MR). The paper relies on the Maquette for MDG Simulations (MAMS), a computable general equilibrium model, applied to the database of an archetypical low-income country. The scenarios, which focus on the period 2013-2030, include a "business-as-usual" base scenario and policy scenarios that analyze efforts to raise the rural population up to the urban level in terms of health services or the under-five mortality rate. The policy scenarios are implemented with alternative sources of fiscal space. The results indicate that, if current trends continue, considerable progress for MDGs should be expected by 2030. If the government raises rural health services, then the decline in the rural U5MR would accelerate. If most additional resources come from foreign grants or government efficiency gains, then the repercussions for other development indicators, including poverty reduction...

Transformative Power : Meeting the Challenge of Rural Electrification

Barnes, Douglas F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
This brief is designed to illustrate in summary how a variety of countries have addressed the problems inherent in having successful rural electrification. By providing a snapshot of various programs and the many different ways in which these programs provide electricity to their rural populations, this note attempts to highlight best practices that should be emulated, and those factors that should be avoided.

Poverty and the Spatial Distribution of Rural Population

Barbier, Edward B.; Hochard, Jacob P.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
According to global spatial data sets in 2000 more than one-third of the rural population in developing countries was located on less favored agricultural land and areas. Less favored agricultural lands are susceptible to low productivity and degradation, because their agricultural potential is constrained biophysically by terrain, poor soil quality, or limited rainfall. Less favored agricultural areas include less favored agricultural lands plus favorable agricultural land that is remote, that is, land in rural areas with high agricultural potential but with limited access. The paper presents tests of whether these spatial distributions of rural population influence poverty directly or indirectly via income growth in 83 developing countries from 2000 to 2012. The analysis finds no evidence of a direct impact on poverty, but there is a significant indirect impact via the elasticity of poverty reduction with respect to growth. Reducing poverty requires targeting rural populations in less favored lands and remote areas...

Risk indicators for periodontal disease and tooth loss among two rural communities in India.

Bhat, Meghashyam
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Introduction: Chronic periodontal disease is a frequently occurring disease among middle-aged adults. It results from a complex interplay of host, environmental and local factors. There are no published data on the risk indicators for periodontal disease in rural Indian populations. Hence, the present study was conducted to identify the risk indicators for periodontal disease and tooth loss in two rural populations, which were diverse in nature with respect to their occupation, education, habits and diet. The hypotheses of the study were as follows: 1. Prevalence, extent and severity of periodontal disease and tooth loss vary between the fishing and farming communities. 2. Tobacco use, psycho-social factors, alcohol consumption, diet and poor oral hygiene are risk indicators for periodontal disease in the Indian rural population. 3. Risk indicators for periodontal disease show clustering in the Indian rural population. 4. Tooth loss is associated with dental visiting behaviour in the Indian rural population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Two coastal districts in rural Karnataka state where the fishing and farming populations formed a majority were chosen for the study. A multistage (stratified cluster random) sampling design was followed. Men and women in the age group of 35-54 years were randomly selected and recruited in each cluster. Data were collected by conducting face-face interviews and oral examinations for consenting participants. For statistical analyses...

The Poverty and Welfare Impacts of Climate Change Quantifying the Effects, Identifying the Adaptation Strategies

Skoufias, Emmanuel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
The continued decline in global poverty over the past 100 years particularly in the past three decades is a remarkable achievement. In 1981, 52 percent of the world population lived on less than $1.25 a day. By 2005, that rate had been cut in half, to 25.0 percent, and by 2008 to 22.2 percent (World Bank 2012). Preliminary estimates for 2010 indicate that the extreme poverty rate has fallen further still; if follow-up studies confirm this, the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving world poverty will have been reached five years early (World Bank 2010). In recent years, poverty reduction has continued in most countries, even after the financial, food, and fuel shocks of 2008-09. Although poverty remains widespread in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, progress has been substantial: extreme poverty fell in South Asia from 54 percent in 1990 to 36 percent in 2008 (World Bank 2012). In Sub-Saharan Africa, where population growth exceeded the rate of poverty reduction, the number of extremely poor people increased from 290 million in 1990 to 356 million in 2008...

Managing Risks in Rural Senegal : A Multi-Sectoral Review of Efforts to Reduce Vulnerability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
The main objective of the study is to provide the Government of Senegal the analyses and information to implement policies towards reducing the rural poor's vulnerability. While during the latest years, economic growth reduced poverty in the country, this has been less noticeable among the rural population, who actually account for 6 million people over a total population of 10 million. The rural economy remains essentially agrarian, with a 65 percent of its population living in poverty. Natural risks are intimately linked to the agrarian nature of the rural economy, and to its "Sahelian" environment. Drought cycles reduce agricultural production, thus such impact varies according to the agricultural season, the agro-ecological zone, the type of crops, and the presence - or not - of irrigation systems. In addition, insects, and the disease these carry, affect plants and animals, adding to the natural risks. Economic risks occur, as elsewhere, due to changes in the agricultural production and trade systems...

The Elderly and Old Age Support in Rural China : Challenges and Prospects

Cai, Fang; Giles, John; O'Keefe, Philip; Wang, Dewen
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Although average incomes in China have risen dramatically since the 1980s, concerns are increasing that the rural elderly have not benefited from growth to the same extent as younger people and the urban elderly. Concerns about welfare of the rural elderly combine spatial and demographic issues. Large gaps exist between conditions in coastal and interior regions and between conditions in urban and rural areas of the country. In addition to differences in income by geography, considerable differences exist across demographic groups in the level of coverage by safety nets, in the benefits received through the social welfare system, and in the risks of falling into poverty. This book aims to do two things: first, it provides detailed empirical analysis of the welfare and living conditions of the rural elderly since the early 1990s in the context of large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and second, it explores the evolution of the rural pension system in China over the past two decades and raises a number of issues on its current implementation and future directions. Although the two sections of the book are distinct in analytical terms...

Managing the Miombo Woodlands of Southern Africa : Policies, Incentives and Options for the Rural Poor, Volume 2. Technical Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
Miombo woodlands stretch across Southern Africa in a belt from Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the west to Mozambique in the east. The miombo region covers an area of around 2.4 million km. In some areas, miombo has been highly degraded as a result of human use (southern Malawi and parts of Zimbabwe), while in others, it remains relatively intact (such as in parts of northern Mozambique, and in isolated areas of Angola and the DRC). From a conventional forester's perspective, miombo is fundamentally uninteresting. It supports relatively few good commercial timber species. The management of commercial species has been problematic. The best areas were logged over long ago. Except in a few areas, remaining commercially viable stocks are relatively small and difficult to access. Public forestry institutions have, for the most part, failed to put in place effective management systems for forests, preferring instead to limit their role to regulation and revenue collection, rather than to management per se. The objectives of this paper are threefold...

Evaluation of organochlorine pesticide residues in human serum from an urban and two rural populations in Portugal

Cruz, Susana; Lino, Celeste; Silveira, Maria Irene
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Organochlorine pesticide residues were measured in human serum from an urban and two rural populations in Portugal, in an attempt to evaluate the contamination level of Portuguese population. Serum levels of 12 residues were determined using a validated methodology that included gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. It was made an attempt to point out the differences of contamination between rural and urban populations; and among these, if it could be established a relation with sex and with age of individuals. p,p'DDE, [alpha]-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), p,p'DDD, and [beta]-HCH were the most frequently identified residues. p,p'DDE concentrations ranged from undetected to 390.5 [mu]g/l in urban samples, and from undetected to 43.5 [mu]g/l and to 171.2 [mu]g/l in both rural samples. Maximum [alpha]-HCH concentration level was 114.4 [mu]g/l in urban samples, 261.3 and 45.5 [mu]g/l in both rural samples. Mean total DDT levels were always higher than mean total HCH levels. About p,p'DDE, in all three populations, the majority of the results above the limit of quantification were found among female sex. The analysis of different aged groups showed that younger groups continue to reveal contamination. Comparing obtained results with others from Europe...

Climate Change Impacts on Rural Poverty in Low-Elevation Coastal Zones

Barbier, Edward B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion, and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the low-elevation coastal zone, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90 percent of the world’s low-elevation coastal zone rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower-middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper-middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific, and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world’s low-elevation coastal zone rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural low-elevation coastal zone populations. Although fostering growth...

Factors influencing specialist outreach and support services to rural populations in the Eden and Central Karoo districts of the Western Cape

Schoevers,Johan; Jenkins,Louis
Fonte: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine Publicador: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
BACKGROUND: Access to health care often depends on where one lives. Rural populations have significantly poorer health outcomes than their urban counterparts. Specialist outreach to rural communities is one way of improving access to care. A multifaceted style of outreach improves access and health outcomes, whilst a shifted outpatients style only improves access. In principle, stakeholders agree that specialist outreach and support (O&#38;S) to rural populations is necessary. In practice, however, factors influence whether or not O&S reaches its goals, affecting sustainability AIM AND SETTING: Our aim was to better understand factors associated with the success or failure of specialist O&S to rural populations in the Eden and Central Karoo districts in the Western Cape METHODS: An anonymous parallel three-stage Delphi process was followed to obtain consensus in a specialist and district hospital panel RESULTS: Twenty eight specialist and 31 district hospital experts were invited, with response rates of 60.7% - 71.4% and 58.1% - 74.2% respectively across the three rounds. Relationships, communication and planning were found to be factors feeding into a service delivery versus capacity building tension, which affects the efficiency of O&S. The success of the O&#38;S programme is dependent on a site-specific model that is acceptable to both the outreaching specialists and the hosting district hospital CONCLUSION: Good communication...