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Energia, nutrientes e carotenóides disponíveis nos domicílios rurais e urbanos do Brasil; Energy, nutrients and carotenoids available in the rural and urban Brazilian residences

Morato, Priscila Neder
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/09/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.91%
O presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a disponibilidade domiciliar de energia, nutrientes e carotenóides para as famílias brasileiras residentes nas áreas rurais e urbanas, das grandes Regiões Geográficas e do Distrito Federal. Utilizou-se como base de dados as informações individuais obtidas por meio da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF 2002- 2003) do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Para a elaboração dos cálculos referentes ao conteúdo de energia e nutrientes, utilizou-se o software Virtual Nutri. Adotou-se como parâmetro para a avaliação da participação de macronutrientes no Valor Energético Total- VET e disponibilidade de vitaminas e minerais os valores preconizados pelo Institute of Medicine (1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004). Para a identificação do conteúdo de carotenóides, adotouse as informações contidas na tabela Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 19 - United States of Department Agriculture (USDA). A disponibilidade média diária de energia e nutrientes foi calculada utilizando o programa Statistical Analysis System – SAS. Os resultados revelam reduzida disponibilidade (domiciliar) de energia para as famílias, particularmente para aquelas moradoras nas áreas urbanas. No tocante à situação identificada para os grupamentos residentes nas áreas rurais foi observada expressiva participação de carboidratos no VET...

Disponibilidade de energia e nutrientes e participação dos grupos de alimentos no Valor Energético Total, nos domicílios rurais e urbanos das Regiões Nordeste e Sudeste do Brasil; Availability of energy and nutrients and the participation of the groups of foods in the Total Energy Value, in rural and urban domiciles from Northeast and Southeastern Regions in Brazil

Caroba, Daniela Cristina Rossetto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/04/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.76%
Objetivo - Analisar o conteúdo de energia e nutrientes disponível para as famílias rurais e urbanas das Regiões Nordeste e Sudeste e de seus respectivos estados; como também avaliar a participação relativa dos grupos de alimentos no Valor Energético Total (VET), para esses grupamentos, de acordo com o rendimento mensal familiar. Métodos - Foram utilizadas as informações da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF), realizada pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), entre julho de 2002 e junho de 2003. Para os cálculos nutricionais, adotou-se o software Virtual Nutri. Os recursos do software Statistical Analysis System foram utilizados para as demais análises. No tocante à análise qualitativa do VET disponível e avaliação da disponibilidade de vitaminas, minerais e fibras adotaram-se os valores preconizados pelo INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE. Quanto à avaliação do conteúdo de colesterol, seguiu-se a recomendação da WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Resultados - Os maiores conteúdos relativos à disponibilidade de energia foram observados para as famílias rurais de ambas as regiões, constantando-se tendência de aumento conforme ocorre o crescimento dos rendimentos. Entre as famílias residentes na Região Nordeste houve menor disponível...

Sobrepeso e obesidade: dieta, nicho alimentar e adaptabilidade em populações humanas rural e urbana de Piracicaba, SP; Overweight and obesity of rural and urban populations in Piracicaba, SP. Brazil

Nascimento, Ana Paula Branco do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/04/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
O presente trabalho investigou a dieta adotada por populações humanas, rural e urbana de Piracicaba, SP. Foi abordada a adaptabilidade humana, em relação à capacidade de uma população se adaptar a mudanças nutricionais, geralmente decorrentes de outras mudanças em seu ambiente. O indicador da adaptabilidade humana adotado foi o estado nutricional das mães de pré-escolares, dado que essas apresentam grande influência nos hábitos alimentares de toda a família. Dessa forma, tal população alvo é relevante em relação à população como um todo. O estado nutricional foi analisado a partir do peso e estatura, por meio do cálculo de Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC). Foram investigadas também a diversidade alimentar e amplitude de nicho destas populações em Piracicaba, SP (rural e urbana) através da composição da dieta (o que come), local das refeições (onde come), como também a presença de quintais domésticos nas residências e sua utilização. Também foram levantados fatores relacionados às escolhas de alimentos pelas mães, sua idade, nível de escolaridade e classe econômica, dentre outras. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas realizadas com as mães das crianças nas Escolas Municipais de Educação Infantil (E.M.E.I.) rurais e urbanas...

Marcha dialética do MST: formação política entre campo e cidade; MST dialectical march: political education between country and city.

Bastos, Pablo Nabarrete
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/04/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.83%
O objetivo desta tese é compreender como se desenvolve historicamente a relação e articulação política entre o MST e a cidade, entre trabalhadores rurais e urbanos na luta pela hegemonia popular, a hegemonia da classe trabalhadora. E o que representa esta articulação para a formação, a força, a prática e luta política dos Sem Terra. O que implica compreender a capacidade dialógica do MST, a disposição e intencionalidade pedagógica e comunicativa para as alianças políticas e de classe com o trabalhador urbano e suas instâncias de organização. A pesquisa identificou quatro principais níveis de luta: hegemonia do/no espaço social, hegemonia da/na arte e cultura, hegemonia da/na comunicação e hegemonia da/na educação. O espaço de pesquisa dessa tese é o espaço entre o campo e a cidade, com foco no eixo metropolitano do MST, no Estado de São Paulo. O foco é o espaço da fronteira política, lugar da alteridade, de encontro, desencontro e contradição, onde há maior potencial para o desdobramento da comunicação política emancipatória, para a integração crítica e a luta contra-hegemônica, desde que reconhecido este espaço comum de comarginalidade. A situação de comargilalidade é concreta, mas exige mediação política dos trabalhadores do campo e da cidade para que se configurem as alianças. Por isso o trabalho estratégico das organizações e movimentos como o MST. A pesquisa utiliza o método dialético e são aplicadas técnicas qualitativas...

Prevalência de morbidades e sintomas em idosos : um estudo comparativo entre zonas rural e urbana= The prevalence of morbidity and symptoms among the elderly: a comparative study between rural and urban areas; The prevalence of morbidity and symptoms among the elderly : a comparative study between rural and urban areas

Silva, Eveline Fronza da; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Laste, Gabriela; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
Realizou-se um estudo transversal, com a população idosa moradora nas zonas rural e urbana caracterizando a prevalência de morbidades e sintomas. Entrevistou-se 229 idosos, com média de idade de 72,3 anos, 57,2% residem na zona urbana, 56,3% são do sexo feminino. As morbidades mais relatadas por residentes da zona urbana foram: insônia (37,7%), ansiedade (32,1%), depressão (26,7%); e na rural, diabetes (13,3%). Nesta, a Doença de Alzheimer foi mais prevalente em idosos que utilizam agrotóxicos (21,7%). Os sintomas mais prevalentes por moradores da zona urbana foram: tosse/coriza e visão alterada (41,2%), alergia/coceira (11,4%). Na rural, boca seca (25,4%), visão alterada (35,6%) e dor nas pernas (66,1%) que também foram mais prevalentes em quem utilizava agrotóxicos. O uso de Equipamentos de Proteção Individual de forma incompleta foi de 85,4% e 45,1% descartam as embalagens de forma inadequada. Há a necessidade de desenvolvimento de programas de saúde pública que auxiliem na promoção de saúde do idoso, e que considere a possível exposição dessa população a agrotóxicos com um determinante em saúde.; A cross-sectional study was conducted with the elderly population in rural and urban areas characterized by the prevalence of morbidity and symptoms...

Cytogenetic and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Leptodactylus species from rural and urban environments (Anura, Amphibia)

Arruda, M. P.; Morielle-Versute, E.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 161-176
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.89%
Cytogenetic and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses carried out in the species Leptodactylus podicipinus, L. ocellatus, L. labyrinthicus, and L. fuscus from rural and urban habitats of the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil, showed that the karyotypes (2n = 22), constitutive heterochromatin distribution and nucleolus organizer region (NOR) location did not differ between the populations from the two environments. The in situ hybridization with an rDNA probe confirmed the location of the NORs on chromosome 8 revealing an in tandem duplication of that region in one of the chromosomes of L. fuscus. DAPI showed that part of the C-band-positive heterochromatin is rich in AT, including that in the proximity the NORs in L. podicipinus and L. ocellatus. The molecular analyses showed that the two populations (urban and rural) of L. podicipinus and L. fuscus are similar from a genetic point of view. The urban and rural populations of species L. ocellatus and L. labyrinthicus showed differences in genetic structures, probably due to urbanization which interferes with the dispersion of those frogs. The marked differences observed between the two populations of L. ocellatus can be representing the cryptic condition of the species. Unweighted pair-group method of analysis and genetic distance analysis detected the genetic proximity between L. ocellatus and L. fuscus. The results indicate that there was no reduction in the genetic diversity in the populations from the urban environment; however...

Efeito da escolarização na convergência de modelos e de comportamentos de saúde em jovens estudantes portugueses de meio rural e meio urbano; Schooling effect on the convergence of models and health behaviours in young rural and urban Portuguese students

Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Gonçalves, Artur
Fonte: ABRAPEC Publicador: ABRAPEC
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /09/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.85%
A concretização do direito fundamental à saúde implica assumir responsabilidades a nível societal, governamental e individual, para que todos os cidadãos tenham acesso à escola e assim possam desenvolver capacitação e literacia em saúde. Procurando verificar em que medida a escola influencia a homogeneização dos padrões e dos comportamentos em saúde nas populações infanto-juvenis de meio rural (Boticas) e meio urbano (Braga), foi constituída uma amostra de 800 alunos, 400 de meio rural e 400 de meio urbano. Na recolha de dados aplicou-se um questionário com 10 eixos de investigação abordando várias dimensões de saúde. No início da escolaridade (1º ano) as crianças de meio rural e de meio urbano apresentavam conceções substancialmente diferentes, que se foram esbatendo progressivamente ao longo da escolaridade, para, no final do ensino básico (9º ano), tenderem a convergir para valores aproximados em todas as dimensões analisadas, mostrando assim o efeito homogeneizador da ação educativa.; The realization of the fundamental rights to health involves responsibilities at societal, governmental and individual levels, so that all citizens have access to school and so they can develop skills and health literacy. In order to estimate to what extent the school influences the homogenization of standards and health behaviours in children and young people of rural (Boticas) and urban (Braga) areas...

Arterial Pressures in Rural and Urban Populations in Nigeria

Akinkugbe, O. O.; Ojo, O. A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/04/1969 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.82%
Surveys of arterial pressure carried out in rural and urban communities in Western Nigeria showed a steady rise in systolic values with age, this trend being less marked with diastolic pressures. Blood pressure levels were similar in women from rural and urban areas, but seemed much higher in urban than in rural men. The incidence of proteinuria was lowest in the female urban group. In general, the incidence of proteinuria or glycosuria was low and did not appear to be related to the blood pressure.

Prevalência de sintomas do climatério em mulheres dos meios rural e urbano no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil; Prevalence of climacteric symptoms in women living in rural and urban areas of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

Silveira, Inavan Lopes da; Petronilo, Patrícia Arboés; Souza, Maxwell de Oliveira; Silva, Thiago Demétrio Nogueira Costa e; Duarte, João Marcelo Brasil Pinheiro; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira; Azevedo, George Dantas de
Fonte: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia Publicador: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.92%
OBJETIVO: avaliar a sintomatologia climatérica e fatores relacionados entre mulheres dos meios urbano e rural do Rio Grande do Norte. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, descritivo, envolvendo casuística de 261 mulheres climatéricas residentes em Natal e Mossoró (grupo urbano; n=130) e Uruaçu, em São Gonçalo do Amarante (grupo rural; n=131). A sintomatologia climatérica foi avaliada pelo Índice Menopausal de Blatt-Kupperman (IMBK) e Escala Climatérica de Greene (ECG). A análise estatística constou de comparações das medianas dos escores entre os grupos e regressão logística. Defi niram-se como “muito sintomáticas” as pacientes com escores ≥20, para ambos instrumentos (variável dependente). As variáveis independentes foram: idade, procedência, alfabetização, obesidade e prática de atividade física. RESULTADOS: o grupo urbano apresentou escores signifi cativamente superiores ao grupo rural, tanto para o IMBK (medianas de 26,0 e 17,0, respectivamente; p<0,0001), quanto para a ECG (medianas de 27,0 e 16,0, respectivamente; p<0,0001). Na amostra total, evidenciou-se que 56,3% (n=147) das mulheres foram classifi cadas como “muito sintomáticas”. Na comparação intergrupos, essa prevalência foi signifi cativamente mais elevada nas mulheres urbanas em relação às rurais (79...

Variation in levels of uptake of Enhanced Primary Care item numbers between rural and urban settings, November 1999 to October 2001

Wilkinson, D.; McElroy, H.; Beilby, J.; Mott, K.; Price, K.; Morey, S.; Best, J.
Fonte: Australian Healthcare Association Publicador: Australian Healthcare Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
We aimed to report on variation in levels of uptake of enhanced primary care item numbers between rural and urban Divisions of General Practice between November 1999 and October 2001. Most providers of EPC services and most services (close to 70%) are located in capital cities and other metropolitan centres. The average number of health assessments done per provider was slightly lower (8-14) in remote than urban and rural (20-30) areas. A similar pattern was observed for care plans, but rates of case conferences were similar in rural and urban areas. However, adjusted for population aged 75 years and over, in all jurisdictions except South Australia, between 30% and 144% more health assessments were done per full time equivalent general practitioner (FTE GP) in rural divisions. For rural and urban Divisions of General Practice, there is a wide range in the rate of services provided, between and within Divisions. However, overall, more services are provided per FTE GP in rural Divisions.; David Wilkinson, Heather McElroy, Justin Beilby, Kathy Mott, Kay Price, Sue Morey and John Best; © Australian Healthcare Association

Social capital and health in rural and urban communities in South Australia

Ziersch, A.; Baum, F.; Darmawan, I.; Kavanagh, A.; Bentley, R.
Fonte: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc Publicador: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.94%
Objective: This paper seeks to compare the relationships between social capital and health for rural and urban residents of South Australia. Methods: Using data from a South Australian telephone survey of 2,013 respondents (1,402 urban and 611 rural), separate path analyses for the rural and urban samples were used to compare the relationships between six social capital measures, six demographic variables, and mental and physical health (measured by the SF-12). Results: Higher levels of networks, civic participation and cohesion were reported in rural areas. Education and income were consistently linked with social capital variables for both rural and urban participants, with those on higher incomes and with higher educational achievement having higher levels of social capital. However, there were also differences between the rural and urban groups in some of the other predictors of social capital variables. Mental health was better among rural participants, but there was no significant difference for physical health. Social capital was associated with good mental health for both urban and rural participants, but with physical health only for urban participants. Higher levels of social capital were significantly associated with better mental health for both urban and rural participants...

Older drivers in rural and urban areas: Comparisons of crash, serious injury, and fatality rates

Thompson, J.; Baldock, M.; Mathias, J.; Wundersitz, L.
Fonte: Australian Transport Council; www.rsconference.com Publicador: Australian Transport Council; www.rsconference.com
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.88%
Previous analyses of crash statistics have indicated that older drivers (aged 65 years and older) have fewer crashes than other age groups. However, they have an elevated crash risk on a per kilometre driven basis and are at an increased risk of death and serious injury from crashes. Rural older drivers may be particularly at risk due to a greater dependence on driving, which may create a reluctance to cease driving. It is often dem onstrated that motor vehicle crash fatality rates are higher in rural areas than urban areas. However, more research that compares the crash, serious injury, and fatality rates of rural and urban older drivers is required. A database of police-reported road crashes in South Australia, the Traffic Accident Reporting System, was used to obtain crash, serious injury, and fatality data for 2004 to 2008. The crash involvement of drivers of various age groups from both rural and urban areas was adjusted for population and licensure exposure measures. Crashes involving rural drivers aged 75 and over were more likely to have resulted in a serious or fat al injury than crashes involving their urban counterparts. The results indicate that rural older drivers present a unique road safety problem.; http://www.roadsafetyconference2010.com.au/program_new.html; Thompson...

Changes in depression-related mental health literacy in young men from rural and urban South Australia

Eckert, K.; Kutek, S.; Dunn, K.; Air, T.; Goldney, R.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
Objective: To examine rural and urban differences in depression-related mental health literacy, experience of depression and help-seeking. Design: Cross-sectional population-based survey stratified by rural and urban area. Setting: A random and representative sample of South Australian rural and urban young men aged between 15 and 30 years. Outcome measures: Mental health literacy as determined by recognition and exposure to classical symptoms of depression; perceived helpfulness of various interventions and treatment-seeking behaviour. Results: Recognition of depression increased significantly in rural and urban young men between 1998 and 2008. More rural young men than urban men identified symptoms of depression in 1998 (odds ratio (OR): 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–2.40, P < 0.05), but that was not evident in 2008 (OR: 1.32, 95% CI, 0.80–2.25, P = 0.30). Both groups were more likely to have a close friend experience symptoms of depression and to use antidepressant medications in 2008 compared with 1998. Rural young men experienced a significant increase in recognition of personal depressive symptoms (OR: 3.73, 95% CI, 1.72–8.40) and levels of confidence in psychiatrists and psychologists (OR: 2.40, 95% CI...

Financial costs for teaching in rural and urban Australian general practices: is there a difference?

Laurence, C.O.; Coombs, M.; Bell, J.; Black, L.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.88%
Objective: To determine if the financial costs of teaching GP registrars differs between rural and urban practices. Design: Cost-benefit analysis of teaching activities in private GP for GP vocational training. Data were obtained from a survey of general practitioners in South Australia and Western Australia. Setting and participants: General practitioners and practices teaching in association with the Adelaide to Outback General Practice Training Program or the Western Australian General Practice Training. Main outcome measures: Net financial effect per week per practice. Results: At all the training levels, rural practices experienced a financial loss for teaching GP registrars, while urban practices made a small financial gain. The differences in net benefit between rural and urban teaching practices was significant at the GPT2/PRRT2 (−$515 per week 95% CI −$1578, −$266) and GPT3/PRRT3 training levels (−$396 per week, 95% CI (−$2568, −$175). The variables contributing greatest to the difference were the higher infrastructure costs for a rural practice and higher income to the practice from the GP registrars in urban practices. Conclusion: There were significant differences in the financial costs and benefits for a teaching rural practice compared with an urban teaching practice. With infra- structure costs which include accommodation...

Rural and urban differentials in primary care management of chronic heart failure: new data from the CASE study

Robyn, S.; Eckert, K.; Stewart, S.; Phillips, S.; Yallop, J.; Tonkin, A.; Krum, H.
Fonte: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd Publicador: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.86%
Objective: To determine whether primary care management of chronic heart failure (CHF) differed between rural and urban areas in Australia. Design: A cross-sectional survey stratified by Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Areas (RRMA) classification. The primary source of data was the Cardiac Awareness Survey and Evaluation (CASE) study. Setting: Secondary analysis of data obtained from 341 Australian general practitioners and 23 845 adults aged 60 years or more in 1998. Main outcome measures: CHF determined by criteria recommended by the World Health Organization, diagnostic practices, use of pharmacotherapy, and CHF-related hospital admissions in the 12 months before the study. Results: There was a significantly higher prevalence of CHF among general practice patients in large and small rural towns (16.1%) compared with capital city and metropolitan areas (12.4%) (P < 0.001). Echocardiography was used less often for diagnosis in rural towns compared with metropolitan areas (52.0% v 67.3%, P < 0.001). Rates of specialist referral were also significantly lower in rural towns than in metropolitan areas (59.1% v 69.6%, P < 0.001), as were prescribing rates of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (51.4% v 60.1%, P < 0.001). There was no geographical variation in prescribing rates of β-blockers (12.6% [rural] v 11.8% [metropolitan]...

IT Based Innovation in Rural and Urban WSS : Sanitation Hackathon, Nov. 30-Dec. 2, 2012

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.83%
The need for innovative solutions to the chronic lack of sanitation worldwide is immense. Of those people who lack access to improved sanitation. 1.1 billion have no facilities at all and defecate in the open. These sanitation shortages account for thousands of deaths daily, especially among children. Additionally, poor sanitation costs billions of dollars in economic losses annually, as high as 7 percent of Gross Domestic Product, or GDP in some countries. 'That's billions of dollars that could educate poor children or help build infrastructure - like schools and roads,' said World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim. Conversely, more than 6 billion people worldwide have access to a mobile phone, including in rural and urban areas in developing countries. The surge in mobile phones in Africa, some 94 percent of urban Africans, for example, are near a GSM signal, is transforming the way people complete daily tasks, from knowing when to sell farm commodities, to finding easier ways to pay bills or send money to family and friends. With ever increasing mobile penetration and falling prices of smart phones...

Road safety and mobility of older drivers in rural versus urban areas.

Thompson, James Peter
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
Research indicates that older drivers have an increased risk of being seriously or fatally injured if they crash. However, it is important that older drivers do not cease driving prematurely because driving enables them to remain mobile, which is important for their independence, health and well-being. Older drivers who live in rural or remote areas are of particular interest because the nature of their driving environments may further increase their risk on the road and restrict their mobility. In terms of risk, certain factors that are more common in rural driving environments, such as roads with high speed limits, may contribute to an increased likelihood that older rural drivers will be seriously or fatally injured if they crash, compared to older urban drivers. With respect to mobility, the longer distances that older rural drivers have to travel to reach their destinations, compared to older urban drivers, may restrict their ability to undertake everyday lifestyle activities, particularly those activities that are discretionary in nature (e.g. social activities). The aim of this thesis was to examine the safety and mobility of older drivers who live in rural areas of South Australia, compared to their urban counterparts. This was achieved through five independent studies. Studies 1 and 2 involved the analysis of crash...

Transactional sex risk across a typology of rural and urban female sex workers in Indonesia: a mixed methods study

Puradiredja, Dewi Ismajani; Coast, Ernestina
Fonte: PLoS ONE Publicador: PLoS ONE
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/12/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.83%
Context-specific typologies of female sex workers (FSWs) are essential for the design of HIV intervention programming. This study develops a novel FSW typology for the analysis of transactional sex risk in rural and urban settings in Indonesia. Mixed methods include a survey of rural and urban FSWs (n = 310), in-depth interviews (n = 11), key informant interviews (n = 5) and ethnographic assessments. Thematic analysis categorises FSWs into 5 distinct groups based on geographical location of their sex work settings, place of solicitation, and whether sex work is their primary occupation. Multiple regression analysis shows that the likelihood of consistent condom use was higher among urban venue-based FSWs for whom sex work is not the only source of income than for any of the other rural and urban FSW groups. This effect was explained by the significantly lower likelihood of consistent condom use by rural venue-based FSWs (adjusted OR: 0.34 95% CI 0.13-0.90, p = 0.029). The FSW typology and differences in organisational features and social dynamics are more closely related to the risk of unprotected transactional sex, than levels of condom awareness and availability. Interventions need context-specific strategies to reach the different FSWs identified by this study's typology.

Land for the landless : conflicting images of rural and urban in South Africa’s land reform programme

James, Deborah
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.86%
South Africa’s land reform programme has been underpinned by ambivalence about land and what it signifies. One set of discourses and practices shows that ownership of or access to rural land is a key part of many African families’ well-being and livelihood. But it is only a part: small-scale agriculture in South – and southern – Africa has been shown over the past decades to have become impossible without inputs from labour migrant remittances. The corollary is that the desire to acquire or retain access to land exists alongside the (real or desired) capacity to earn money in the urban sector. Land represents a series of things – a sense of security, identity and history – rather than being an asset to be used for farming alone (or at all). But despite this, land has featured in the assumptions of some policy-makers (and some academic researchers, closely associated with them) as a key asset in its own right. Reforming its ownership, and redistributing it to poorer sectors of society is thought to provide the key to solving poverty and inequality, and is seen as the starting point in any real debate about redistributing wealth. Ignoring the interplay of rural and urban sources of income and identity, this set of assumptions is one which envisages the worlds of town and country as separate: it reconstitutes Africans either as rural ‘farmers’ or as urban ‘wage earners’. Ironically...

Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among rural and urban groups and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru: a cross-sectional study

Creber,Ruth M. Masterson; Smeeth,Liam; Gilman,Robert H; Miranda,J. Jaime
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns of rural-to-urban migrants in Peru versus lifetime rural and urban residents and to determine any associations between low physical activity and four cardiovascular risk factors: obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m²), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The PERU MIGRANT (PEru's Rural to Urban MIGRANTs) cross-sectional study was designed to measure physical activity among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). RESULTS: The World Health Organization (WHO) age-standardized prevalence of low physical activity was 2.2% in lifetime rural residents, 32.2% in rural-to-urban migrants, and 39.2% in lifetime urban residents. The adjusted odds ratios for low physical activity were 21.43 and 32.98 for migrant and urban groups respectively compared to the rural group. The adjusted odds ratio for being obese was 1.94 for those with low physical activity. There was no evidence of an association between low physical activity and blood pressure levels, hypertension, or metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: People living in a rural area had much higher levels of physical activity and lower risk of being overweight and obese compared to those living in an urban area of Lima. Study participants from the same rural area who had migrated to Lima had levels of physical inactivity and obesity similar to those who had always lived in Lima. Interventions aimed at maintaining higher levels of physical activity among rural-to-urban migrants may help reduce the epidemic of obesity in urban cities.