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Contextualização no ensino de física à luz da teoria antropológica do didático: o caso da robótica educacional; Contextualization in the teaching of physics in the light of the anthropological theory of didactics: the case of educational robotics

Schivani, Milton
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/10/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Um ensino de física contextualizado é fortemente identificado no discurso de professores, educadores e pesquisadores da área, reforçado também pelos próprios documentos oficiais do Ministério da Educação do Brasil. Entretanto, a própria noção de contextualização apresenta diferentes vertentes, algumas das quais têm uma visão simplista e acrítica sobre a contextualização no processo de ensino e aprendizagem. Defendemos, contudo, uma contextualização que passe pela problematização e modelização dos saberes disciplinares, partindo de objetos (abstratos ou concretos) de uma dada realidade ou de uma prática social de referência, permitindo ao indivíduo revisitar e perceber o mundo ao seu redor de modo diferenciado, com novas perspectivas e possibilidades de ação. Tal abordagem tende a exigir múltiplas estratégias metodológicas e recursos didático-pedagógicos, dentre os quais destacamos a Robótica Educacional (RE), a qual encontra no ensino de ciências um campo novo de aplicações ainda por ser explorado, seja no cenário nacional seja no internacional. Nossa hipótese é a de que materiais dessa natureza potencializam o desenvolvimento de atividades com problematizações que permeiam uma vasta gama de práticas sociais...

Expansão da arquitetura de conjunto de instruções MIPS para suporte à robótica; Instruction set architecture expansion of the mips processor for robotics support

Cruz, Vicente Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Arquitetura de computadores é uma área que tem se desenvolvido muito nos últimos anos, e as pesquisas são cada vez mais crescentes. Os avanços tecnológicos atuais nos permitem processar grandes quantidades de dados em pouco tempo, e também auxiliam diversas áreas do conhecimento, como a robótica. Este trabalho tem por objetivo propor a extensão da arquitetura de conjunto de instruções do processador de propósitos gerais MIPS através da inclusão de instruções que auxiliam nos cálculos necessários ao movimento de robôs. Para atingir esse objetivo fez-se um estudo na área da robótica para verificar os tipos de robôs existentes, seguido da análise matemática dos movimentos realizados por esses robôs, e da elaboração das novas instruções. A inclusão das operações robóticas no conjunto de instruções foi feita em duas etapas: a primeira envolveu a modificação e simulação do novo ISA no nível de arquitetura, ou seja, com a abstração dos detalhes físicos de aumento de área e velocidade, e a segunda, o desenvolvimento no nível de hardware para a obtenção desses valores físicos. A primeira etapa teve o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de velocidade do novo ISA em relação ao original, obtidos através da simulação de uma aplicação que emula o movimento de um braço robótico. Uma vez que se constatou um ganho significativo de desempenho de velocidade com esta inclusão...

O uso de Arduino na criação de kit para oficinas de robótica de baixo custo para escolas públicas; Using Arduino kit for creating robotics workshops for low cost public schools

Luiz Ariovaldo Fabri Junior
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2014 PT
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Neste trabalho apresentamos o desenvolvimento de um kit para aplicação de oficinas de robótica de baixo custo para introdução às engenharias nas escolas públicas de ensino médio brasileira. Para desenvolver este trabalho foi utilizado a placa microcontrolada Arduino, versão Uno, o Minibloq que é um ambiente de desenvolvimento gráfico para computação física que utiliza blocos para desenvolvimento de programação, também desenvolvemos uma apostila para acompanhamento passos a passo do desenvolvimento das oficinas. Com esta oficina de robótica educacional, pretendemos introduzir conceitos de física, matemática, programação e robótica básica, conceitos que estão estritamente relacionados com as engenharias.; This paper presents the development of a kit for implementing a robotics workshop for low cost introduction to engineering in the public schools of Brazilian high school. To develop this work microcontrolled Arduino Uno board version was used, Minibloq which is a graphical development environment for physics computation that uses blocks to development programming, we also developed a booklet to follow step by step the development of the workshop. With this educational robotics workshop, we plan to introduce concepts of physics...

New ways to learn science with enjoyment : robotics as a challenge

Ribeiro, António Fernando
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2009 ENG
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It is well known that during their learning process youngsters prefer and enjoy exciting challenges, so that they don’t get bored in school. Many of those challenges are blossoming all around the world in an annual basis, and they stimulate students because they create new objectives, they allow creativity, discovering new and unique solutions and allow comparison of the work carried out by other teams. The robotics interest has been growing quickly and many schools are adopting this knowledge area due to its multidisciplinary, for being stimulating, for allowing students creativity, for being so practical and hands-on, and it technologically sounds good. Many challenges have being created in the last few years, both pedagogical and competitive, and requiring different levels of know-how. This paper describes the most important robotics challenges in terms of it main objectives and rules, the age target, its geographical localization, its average budget and the first steps to be taken for new teams. After reading this paper teachers will be able to decide which robotic challenge is more suitable for his team.

Collaborative relaying strategies in autonomic management of mobile robotics

Barraca, João Paulo; Sadeghi, Rasool; Aguiar, Rui L.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Mobile robotics is a field that presents a surprising set of challenges to communications. One concept that can result in radically different solutions in mobile robotics is that of collaborative and cooperative communications. Cooperative techniques in wireless networks can enhance the performance of communication especially in cases where a small number of robots can be used to aid the establishment of reliable and efficient communication links. In this paper, we present a scenario for hybrid mobile robotics, where a small number of carriers are able to reposition nodes according to communication needs. We developed a common information management layer in order to coordinate cooperation (including communication aspects) between all units (information nodes and robots) according to high level self-established policies. We select IEEE 802.11 technology as the technology for the communication infrastructure and explore its potential for cooperative mobile environments in terms of power and spectrum efficiency presenting the rules required to reconfigure such a mobile robotic environment.

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

Brady, Michael
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 44 p.; 12146877 bytes; 9552738 bytes; application/postscript; application/pdf
EN_US
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Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a central role in Robotics if the connection is to be intelligent. Artificial Intelligence addresses the crucial questions of: what knowledge is required in any aspect of thinking; how that knowledge should be represented; and how that knowledge should be used. Robotics challenges AI by forcing it to deal with real objects in the real world. Techniques and representations developed for purely cognitive problems, often in toy domains, do not necessarily extend to meet the challenge. Robots combine mechanical effectors, sensors, and computers. AI has made significant contributions to each component. We review AI contributions to perception and object oriented reasoning. Object-oriented reasoning includes reasoning about space, path-planning, uncertainty, and compliance. We conclude with three examples that illustrate the kinds of reasoning or problem solving abilities we would like to endow robots with and that we believe are worthy goals of both Robotics and Artificial Intelligence, being within reach of both.

Robótica educacional aplicada ao ensino de química: colaboração e aprendizagem; Educational robotics applied to chemistry teaching: collaboration and learning

Pereira Júnior, Carlos Antônio
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação em Ciências e Matemática (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação em Ciências e Matemática (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This work aims to detail an experience of use of educational robotics in science education, specifically in teaching chemistry. The story begins with the historical aspects of robotics contemplating mythology, fiction and industry to understand where the idea of the robot, its applications and the development of the concept of robot and robotics arises in the course of history. In the second chapter we insert activity on the theoretical aspects of collaborative activity, as we believe that educational robotics applied in the classroom is best enjoyed when using this strategy of organization. It is argued that collaboration should be understood in this context as a state and not as a process and collaborative work has great influence on the organization and progress of the activity. In the third chapter characterized the search according to the method of qualitative research and also in the case study. Still clarifies the instruments of data collection and organization of field research , it is also present here the analysis categories . The next chapter details the analysis of the data from the selected categories. The categories are: analysis of conceptions of robot, the playful dimension of educational robotics and building concepts titration using the robot.; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES; O presente trabalho visa detalhar uma experiência de utilização da robótica pedagógica no ensino de ciências...

CRUSER News / Issue 30 / August 2013

Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.); Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research (CRUSER)
Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California
Tipo: Newsletter
EN_US
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Cruser News, Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research.

A low-cost classroom-oriented educational robotics system

Saleiro, Mário; Carmo, Bruna; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in using robots in education. The use of these tangible devices in combination with problem-based learning activities results in more motivated students, higher grades and a growing interest in the STEM areas. However, most educational robotics systems still have some restrictions like high cost, long setup time, need of installing software in children's computers, etc. We present a new, Iow-cost, classroom-oriented educational robotics system that does not require the installation of any software. It can be used with computers, tablets or smartphones. It also supports multiple robots and the system can be setup and is ready to be used in under 5 minutes. The robotics system that will be presented has been successfully used by two classes of 3rd and 4th graders. Besides improving mathematical reasoning, the system can be employed as a motivational tool for any subject.

The Ethics of Robotics

Agrawal, Kush
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/12/2010
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The three laws of Robotics first appeared together in Isaac Asimov's story 'Runaround' after being mentioned in some form or the other in previous works by Asimov. These three laws commonly known as the three laws of robotics are the earliest forms of depiction for the needs of ethics in Robotics. In simplistic language Isaac Asimov is able to explain what rules a robot must confine itself to in order to maintain societal sanctity. However, even though they are outdated they still represent some of our innate fears which are beginning to resurface in present day 21st Century. Our society is on the advent of a new revolution; a revolution led by advances in Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Nanotechnology. Some of our advances have been so phenomenal that we surpassed what was predicted by the Moore's law. With these advancements comes the fear that our future may be at the mercy of these androids. Humans today are scared that we, ourselves, might create something which we cannot control. We may end up creating something which can not only learn much faster than anyone of us can, but also evolve faster than what the theory of evolution has allowed us to. The greatest fear is not only that we might lose our jobs to these intelligent beings...

Challenges and Opportunities of Evolutionary Robotics

Sofge, D. A.; Potter, M. A.; Bugajska, M. D.; Schultz, A. C.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/06/2007
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Robotic hardware designs are becoming more complex as the variety and number of on-board sensors increase and as greater computational power is provided in ever-smaller packages on-board robots. These advances in hardware, however, do not automatically translate into better software for controlling complex robots. Evolutionary techniques hold the potential to solve many difficult problems in robotics which defy simple conventional approaches, but present many challenges as well. Numerous disciplines including artificial life, cognitive science and neural networks, rule-based systems, behavior-based control, genetic algorithms and other forms of evolutionary computation have contributed to shaping the current state of evolutionary robotics. This paper provides an overview of developments in the emerging field of evolutionary robotics, and discusses some of the opportunities and challenges which currently face practitioners in the field.; Comment: 6 pages

Systematic Derivation of Behaviour Characterisations in Evolutionary Robotics

Gomes, Jorge; Mariano, Pedro; Christensen, Anders Lyhne
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/07/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Evolutionary techniques driven by behavioural diversity, such as novelty search, have shown significant potential in evolutionary robotics. These techniques rely on priorly specified behaviour characterisations to estimate the similarity between individuals. Characterisations are typically defined in an ad hoc manner based on the experimenter's intuition and knowledge about the task. Alternatively, generic characterisations based on the sensor-effector values of the agents are used. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that allows for systematic derivation of behaviour characterisations for evolutionary robotics, based on a formal description of the agents and their environment. Systematically derived behaviour characterisations (SDBCs) go beyond generic characterisations in that they can contain task-specific features related to the internal state of the agents, environmental features, and relations between them. We evaluate SDBCs with novelty search in three simulated collective robotics tasks. Our results show that SDBCs yield a performance comparable to the task-specific characterisations, in terms of both solution quality and behaviour space exploration.; Comment: To appear in 14th International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems (ALife 14)

A Top-Down Approach to Managing Variability in Robotics Algorithms

Kchir, Selma; Ziadi, Tewfik; Ziane, Mikal; Stinckwich, Serge
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/12/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
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One of the defining features of the field of robotics is its breadth and heterogeneity. Unfortunately, despite the availability of several robotics middleware services, robotics software still fails to smoothly handle at least two kinds of variability: algorithmic variability and lower-level variability. The consequence is that implementations of algorithms are hard to understand and impacted by changes to lower-level details such as the choice or configuration of sensors or actuators. Moreover, when several algorithms or algorithmic variants are available it is difficult to compare and combine them. In order to alleviate these problems we propose a top-down approach to express and implement robotics algorithms and families of algorithms so that they are both less dependent on lower-level details and easier to understand and combine. This approach goes top-down from the algorithms and shields them from lower-level details by introducing very high level abstractions atop the intermediate abstractions of robotics middleware. This approach is illustrated on 7 variants of the Bug family that were implemented using both laser and infra-red sensors.; Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, Presented at DSLRob 2013 (arXiv:cs/1312.5952)

Future Robotics Database Management System along with Cloud TPS

S, Vijaykumar; G, Saravanakumar S
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/12/2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper deals with memory management issues of robotics. In our proposal we break one of the major issues in creating humanoid. . Database issue is the complicated thing in robotics schema design here in our proposal we suggest new concept called NOSQL database for the effective data retrieval, so that the humanoid robots will get the massive thinking ability in searching each items using chained instructions. For query transactions in robotics we need an effective consistency transactions so by using latest technology called CloudTPS which guarantees full ACID properties so that the robot can make their queries using multi-item transactions through this we obtain data consistency in data retrievals. In addition we included map reduce concepts it can splits the job to the respective workers so that it can process the data in a parallel way.; Comment: 12 pages,5 figures,First model; International Journal on Cloud Computing: Services and Architecture(IJCCSA),Vol.1, No.3, November 2011

Space Robotics Part 2: Space-based Manipulators

Ellery, Alex
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/11/2004
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
In this second of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of space robotics with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to the application of robotics to space infrastructure development. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and the concepts in this paper are developed from fundamental manipulator robotics. This second paper considers the application of space manipulators to on-orbit servicing (OOS), an application which has considerable commercial application. I provide some background to the notion of robotic on-orbit servicing and explore how manipulator control algorithms may be modified to accommodate space manipulators which operate in the micro-gravity of space.

Teaching Software Engineering through Robotics

Shin, Jiwon; Rusakov, Andrey; Meyer, Bertrand
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/06/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
This paper presents a newly-developed robotics programming course and reports the initial results of software engineering education in robotics context. Robotics programming, as a multidisciplinary course, puts equal emphasis on software engineering and robotics. It teaches students proper software engineering -- in particular, modularity and documentation -- by having them implement four core robotics algorithms for an educational robot. To evaluate the effect of software engineering education in robotics context, we analyze pre- and post-class survey data and the four assignments our students completed for the course. The analysis suggests that the students acquired an understanding of software engineering techniques and principles.

Historia de la robótica: de Arquitas de Tarento al robot da Vinci (Parte II); History of Robotics: From Archytas of Tarentum to Da Vinci Robot (Part II)

Sánchez-Martín, F. M.; Jiménez Schlegl, Pablo
Fonte: Asociación Española de Urología Publicador: Asociación Española de Urología
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 384905 bytes; application/pdf
SPA
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12 pages, 7 figures.-- et al.; [EN]: Robotic surgery is a reality. In order to to understand how new robots work is interesting to know the history of ancient (see part I) and modern robotics. The desire to design automatic machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.), Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Bacon, Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors. At 1942 Asimov published the three robotics laws. Mechanics, electronics and informatics advances at XXth century developed robots to be able to do very complex self governing works. At 1985 the robot PUMA 560 was employed to introduce a needle inside the brain. Later on, they were designed surgical robots like World First, Robodoc, Gaspar o Acrobot, Zeus, AESOP, Probot o PAKI-RCP. At 2000 the FDA approved the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), a very sophisticated robot to assist surgeons. Currently urological procedures like prostatectomy, cystectomy and nephrectomy are performed with the da Vinci, so urology has become a very suitable speciality to robotic surgery.; [ES]: La cirugía robótica es ya una realidad. Revisar la historia de la robótica antigua (ver parte I) y moderna es importante para conocer cómo funcionan los nuevos robots. La fabricación de máquinas que imitan al ser humano se ha mantenido desde hace más de 4000 años. En la robótica clásica destacaron inventores como Arquitas de Tarento (hacia 400 a.C.)...

The Evolution of Robotics Research: From Industrial Robotics to Field and Service Robotics

García Armada, Elena; Jiménez Ruiz, María Antonia; González de Santos, Pablo; Armada, Manuel
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 2120413 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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37.23%
This article surveys traditional research topics in industrial robotics and mobile robotics and then expands on new trends in robotics research that focus more on the interaction between human and robot. The new trends in robotics research have been denominated service robotics because of their general goal of getting robots closer to human social needs, and this article surveys research on service robotics such as medical robotics, rehabilitation robotics, underwater robotics, field robotics, construction robotics and humanoid robotics. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the evolution of research topics in robotics from classical motion control for industrial robots to modern intelligent control techniques and social learning paradigms, among other aspects.; The work of the first author is supported by a postdoctoral CSIC-I3P contract granted by the European Social Fund.; S2009/DPI-1559/ROBOCITY2030-II; Part of this work has been possible with the support of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science under Grant DPI2004-05824; Peer reviewed

Incremental active learning of sensorimotor models in developmental robotics

Ribes Sanz, Arturo; Toledo Morales, Ricardo
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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La rápida evolución de la robótica esta promoviendo que emerjan nuevos campos relacionados con la robótica. Inspirándose en ideas provinientes de la psicología del desarrollo, la robótica del desarrollo es un nuevo campo que pretende proveer a los robots de capacidades que les permiten aprender de una manera abierta durante toda su vida. Hay situaciones donde los ingenieros o los diseñadores no pueden prever todos los posibles problemas que un robot pueda encontrar. Tal como el número de tareas que un robot debe hacer crece, este problema se vuelve más evidente, y las soluciones de ingenería tradicionales pueden no ser completamente factibles. En tal caso, la robótica del desarrollo proporciona una serie de principios y directrices para construir robots que tienen las herramientas cognitivas adecuadas a fin de adquirir el conocimiento necesario. Auto-exploración, aprendizaje incremental, scaffolding social e imitación. Todas son herramientas que contribuyen a construir robots con un alto grado de autonomía. Mediante la auto-exploración internamente motivada, un robot descubre lo que su cuerpo es capaz de hacer. Las técnicas de aprendizaje incremental permite que un robot tenga conocimiento listo al instante, a partir de construir estructuras cognitivas encima de otras más viejas. El scaffolding o andamiaje social y las capacidades de imitación permiten aprovechar lo que los humanos --- u otros robots --- ya saben. De esta manera...

The emergence of care robotics ? A patent and publication analysis

Goeldner, Moritz; Herstatt, Cornelius; Tietze, Frank
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162514002753; Care robots are a means to support elderly people affected by physical or mental handicaps to remain as autonomous as possible or regain already lost autonomy (e.g. running stairs). They also support care-takers when working with handicapped. We review the emergence of care robotics and particularly offer answers to two research questions: Which organizations and individuals in which countries have been and are active in research and development? How has research and development emerged with regard to activity focus, intensity levels and cooperation? The analysis rests on PATSTAT patent and ISI Web of Science publication data. Bibliographic and network analyses are conducted on country, organization (i.e. universities and firms) and individual levels. We find that care robotics research and development activities have constantly increased since the late 1970s. Today Japanese universities and firms are the most active players, while in early stages US and European organizations pioneered care robotics research. Starting from six disjunctive small networks, several highly interconnected care robotics research networks have evolved. However...