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Are men more resilient than women after a road traffic accident?

Pires, Tânia Sofia Fernandes; Maia, Ângela
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
Background: Men are involved on road traffic accidents (RTA) more frequently than women, but both genders can show psychological disorders. Our aim was to identify gender differences in psychological responses after a RTA. Methods: 101 victims of serious RTA (76 male) were evaluated 5 days, 4 and 12 months after RTA. They were evaluated on Peritraumatic Dissociation, Acute Stress Disorder, PTSD, neuroticism and global psychopathology. Findings: 13 women and 20 men reported symptoms for ASD diagnosis (t1). 17 women and 42 men at t2 and 12 women and 35 men at t3 met PTSD diagnosis. Women reported more ASD and (t1), PTSD symptoms (t2 and t3), global psychopathology (t1 and t2) and neuroticism (t2) than men.. There were no gender differences on peritraumatic dissociation. Discussion: Overall RTA seems to have more impact on women. Health professionals should take into account this data and screen victims of RTA, especially women.

Assessing road traffic expression

Silva, Fábio; Analide, César; Novais, Paulo
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.; This work was developed in the context of the project CAMCoF - Context-aware Multimodal Communication Framework funded by ERDF - European Regional Development Fund through the COMPETE Programme (operational programme for competitiveness) and by National Funds through the FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) within project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-028980

Impact of road traffic emissions on air quality of the Lisbon region

Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.; Barros, N.; Miranda, A. I.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.61%
The main purpose of this paper is to present the study of traffic emissions impact on the Lisbon region air quality. Two approaches of emission data generation with high spatial and temporal resolution are presented and compared. Main roads were processed as line sources and hot on-road emissions were calculated based on daily mean traffic and emission factors distinguished for several road classes and vehicle types. Also, the disaggregation of national CORINAIR inventory has been performed on the basis of statistical information of fuel consumption and population density. The comparison of emission data obtained by these two approaches demonstrates a good agreement for total values, but a significant difference for spatial distribution of the data. To ensure completeness of the data, to improve their spatial resolution and also to analyse the impact of the traffic emissions, a combination of the two approaches was applied to generate the emission data used by a photochemical numerical system to simulate the atmospheric circulation and the air pollution pattern in Lisbon under summer meteorological conditions, having different emission scenarios. It was possible to conclude that an air pollution abatement strategy is urgently needed and it should take into account the strong contribution of road traffic emissions to the Lisbon air pollution levels.

The impact of biofuels for road traffic on air quality : a modelling approach; Modelação do impacto do uso de biocombustíveis nos transportes rodoviários na qualidade do ar

Ribeiro, Isabel Lavrador
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
The selection of the energy source to power the transport sector is one of the main current concerns, not only relative with the energy paradigm but also due to the strong influence of road traffic in urban areas, which highly affects human exposure to air pollutants and human health and quality of life. Due to current important technical limitations of advanced energy sources for transportation purposes, biofuels are seen as an alternative way to power the world’s motor vehicles in a near-future, helping to reduce GHG emissions while at the same time stimulating rural development. Motivated by European strategies, Portugal, has been betting on biofuels to meet the Directive 2009/28/CE goals for road transports using biofuels, especially biodiesel, even though, there is unawareness regarding its impacts on air quality. In this sense, this work intends to clarify this issue by trying to answer the following question: can biodiesel use contribute to a better air quality over Portugal, particularly over urban areas? The first step of this work consisted on the characterization of the national biodiesel supply chain, which allows verifying that the biodiesel chain has problems of sustainability as it depends on raw materials importation...

Acute subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury in fatal road traffic accident victims: a clinico-pathological study of 15 patients

Gusmão,Sebastião Nataniel Silva; Pittella,José Eymard Homem
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.62%
OBJECTIVE: Although acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) are commonly associated in victims of head injury due to road traffic accidents, there are only two clinico-pathological studies of this association. We report a clinical and pathological study of 15 patients with ASDH associated with DAI. METHOD: The patients were victims of road traffic accidents and were randomly chosen. The state of consciousness on hospital admission was evaluated by the Glasgow coma scale. For the identification of axons the histological sections of the brain were stained with anti-neurofilament proteins. RESULTS: Twelve of the 15 patients were admitted to hospital in a state of coma; in three patients, the level of consciousness was not evaluated, as they died before hospital admission. CONCLUSION: The poorer prognosis in patients with ASDH who lapse into coma immediately after sustaining a head injury, as described by several authors, can be explained by the almost constant association between ASDH and DAI in victims of fatal road traffic accidents.

The conformation of the brain plays an important role in the distribution of diffuse axonal injury in fatal road traffic accident

Pittella,José Eymard Homem; Gusmão,Sebastião Nataniel da Silva
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
OBJECTIVE: A study was made of the brain lesions in 120 random victims of fatal road traffic accidents to determine the frequency and topographic distribution of diffuse axonal damage (DAI) in relation to the midline brain structures. METHOD: The identification of axons was carried out with a mouse antibody anti-neurofilament proteins 70-, 160-, and 210-kD. RESULTS: DAI was identified in 96 (80%) brains and classified as Grade 1 in 21.9%, as Grade 2 in 51%, and as Grade 3 in 27.1% of the patients. In spite of the diffuse distribution that is characteristic of DAI, damage occurred preferentially in the interhemispheric formations (corpus callosum and fornix) and rostral portion of the brainstem, usually to one side of the midline. CONCLUSION: From a mechanical point of view, the interhemispheric formations and the rostral portion of the brainstem act as fixating structures for the cerebral hemispheres during rotational acceleration of the head. It is known that the motion of the cerebral hemispheres is delayed at the points of fixation, where greater stress would be produced, particularly on the side subjected to greater displacement. The frequent involvement by DAI of deep, center-medial brain structures, usually to one side of the midline...

Road Safety

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.88%
In 1999, between 750 000 and 880 000 persons died in road crashes worldwide, and another 23 to 34 million people were injured. The situation is particularly critical in low and middle income countries (LMCs) where about 86 percent of deaths from road traffic injuries occur even though these countries account for only 40 percent of all motor vehicles. The graph shows that the situation has been worsening in LMCs since 1987. There are strong social, health and economic reasons to reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs): a) casualties affect mostly economically active persons and have a ripple effect on their dependents, causing suffering and poverty; and b) crash victims represent between 30 and 86 percent of all trauma admissions. They tend to stay in hospital longer than average patients. Developed countries have been relatively successful in reducing the burden of RTIs. This shows that more, better targeted and sustainable investment can prevent RTIs and reduce the damage that results from crashes. Poorer countries clearly need a new and broader approach to road safety.

Alcohol, Drugs, and Road Traffic Crashes in India : A Systematic Review

Das, Ashis; Gjerde, Hallvard; Gopalan, Saji S.; Normann, Per T.
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.76%
Objective: India reported the highest number of road traffic crashes, related injuries, and deaths among all countries in the world, with 105,725 road traffic fatalities and 452,922 nonfatal road traffic injuries in 2007. In this report we present a systematic review of available literature on the use of psychoactive substances (alcohol and drugs) among road users, particularly those involved in road traffic crashes (RTCs). Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ind Medica, and several other databases were searched for reports published between 1980 and 2011 that present data on the prevalence or extent of substance use among road users in India. Results: Among the 23 studies eligible for the review, alcohol was reported by all, but only 2 mentioned the use of drugs. Most of the studies were hospital based, included injured or killed road users, and belonged to southern parts of India. Seven studies did not report any method for detecting alcohol use, whereas 7 used analytical testing, 7 used self-reporting, and 2 used observation. Utilizing the various means of verification, the studies reported that 2 to 33 percent of injured and 6 to 48 percent of killed RTC victims had consumed alcohol or drugs; only 2 mentioned drugs without specifying which types. Most studies did not distinguish between drivers...

The Challenge of Non-Communicable Diseases and Road Traffic Injuries in Sub-Saharan Africa : An Overview

Marquez, Patricio V.; Farrington, Jill L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.77%
This report draws on a comprehensive review of the literature and on input from policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to address four questions: (1) how is the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and road traffic injuries (RTIs) changing the epidemiology of Sub-Saharan Africa? (2) What determines and drives this burden, and what are the commonalities with communicable diseases? (3) What is the rationale for public intervention? (4) How could resource-constrained governments approach NCD prevention and treatment and road safety in a comprehensive, effective and efficient way? The data show that action against NCDs and RTIs in Sub-Saharan Africa is needed, together with continued efforts to address communicable diseases and maternal and child health as well as to reach the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The report suggests that NCDs and RTIs should not be tackled separately as a vertical program, nor should they displace communicable diseases as priorities. Instead, given resource constraints...

Road Traffic Injuries : A Public Health Crisis in MENA

Dahdah, Said; Bose, Dipan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.88%
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has made dramatic progress in lowering premature death and disability from most communicable, newborn, nutritional, and maternity causes. However, non-communicable diseases are still extremely high. Road traffic injuries, for example, are the fourth leading cause of death in MENA. Compared to other developing countries, the composition of road injury deaths in the MENA region is much greater. This brief sheds light on the occurrences of such road injuries in MENA, and the possible measures to reduce the frequency of these occurrences.

Transport for Health : The Global Burden of Disease from Motorized Road Transport

Global Road Safety Facility, The World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Fonte: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Publicador: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.87%
This report summarizes the findings of a long and meticulous journey of data gathering and analysis to quantify the health losses from road deaths and injuries worldwide, as part of the path-finding Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. It is important, first, to acknowledge the profound contribution made by the lead authors and global team of injury prevention professionals to estimate the disease burden of road trauma, before absorbing their findings and recommendations. Without their dedication and tenacity, the way forward would be less certain. The first GBD study, published nearly two decades ago, signaled an emerging road safety crisis in developing regions of the world. It triggered a remarkable program of global advocacy that culminated in the United Nations decade of action for road safety and global plan to bring road safety outcomes under control in these regions by 2020. However, limited investment has been mobilized so far to implement the UN initiative. The second GBD studies, and related analyses presented in this report...

China : Road Traffic Safety, the Achievements, the Challenges, and the Way Ahead

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.95%
Road traffic injuries are a major but neglected global public health problem. Worldwide, the number of people killed in road traffic accidents each year is estimated at almost 1.2 million, while the number injured could be as high as 50 million. Without increased efforts and new initiatives, the total number of road traffic injuries and fatalities worldwide is forecast to rise by 65 percent between 2000 and 2020, while in low and middle-income countries, road traffic fatalities are expected to increase by as much as 80 percent over the same period. In 2002, road traffic injuries were the ninth leading cause of years lost worldwide, equal to 2.6 percent of the global burden of disease. On current trends, by 2020, road traffic injuries are likely to be the third leading cause of years lost. Part one of this reports presents the achievements of the Chinese Government in the last five years and the challenges it faces. Part two reviews the World Bank's experience with road safety in China over the last 20 years and summarizes the legacy of its efforts and the lessons learned. Finally...

Guidelines for Mainstreaming Road Safety in Regional Trade Road Corridors

Breen, Jeanne; Humphreys, Richard Martin; Melibaeva, Sevara
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.94%
The global crisis of road traffic injury is escalating in low-income and middle income countries to devastating effect; with road traffic crashes a leading cause of death. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.24 million people were killed on the world's roads in 2010 and between 20-50 million more suffer non-fatal injuries from road traffic collisions each year. Among young people aged 15-44 years, road traffic crashes are the second leading cause of death after HIV/AIDS. The guidelines presented here are an important contribution to addressing the challenge of road safety management in regional trade corridors. Developed jointly by the Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Program (SSATP) and the World Bank, they are intended to serve as a guide for mainstreaming road safety in regional trade corridor investment programs in developing countries. The guidelines present a roadmap and set of tools with templates for terms of reference to assist in the identification, preparation and implementation of effective road safety projects in regional trade corridors...

Non-fatal Road Traffic Crashes and Near Misses among Adolescents Aged 16-18 in Galle, Sri Lanka

Gong, Enying
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.84%

Background: Sri Lanka is experiencing an epidemic of road traffic crashes and injuries but little is known about the burden among adolescents and associated risk factors. The objective of this paper is to assess the prevalence of road traffic crashes and injuries among adolescents aged 16-18 years old and to estimate the effect of risk factors, including demographic characteristics, behaviors and built environment characteristics around school, on the occurrence of both crashes and near misses. Methods: First, A survey was anonymously administered to determine demographics, behavior, and experience of road traffic crashes and related injuries among adolescents from 16 public high schools in Galle, Sri Lanka. Second, a built environment observation was also conducted near school surroundings. Descriptive analysis and multivariate regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between built environment and road traffic crashes/near misses by using STATA. The results were displayed in the map by using ArcGIS. Results: Among 1307 students from 16 public high schools aged between 16-18 years old, 206 students self-reported road traffic crash involvement in the past 6 months with 98 students reporting minor injury and 7 students suffering severe injury. In addition...

An assessment of road traffic safety in Kosovo : {presentation given on September 6, 2011]; Assessment of road traffic safety in Kosovo; Road traffic safety in Kosovo

Bislimi, Mentor
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Capstone Project
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.79%
During the last decade, Kosova has not developed clear and sufficient policies to improve road traffic safety. In the long term, in relation to this matter no strategies, plans, and adequate programs have been drafted. This issue is not yet a priority of Government, although there are some signs that this situation is soon to be reassessed. The lack of road information system, collision of laws, lack of the laws implementation and coordination among designated mechanisms, make this issue more complicated. Furthermore, there are many unregulated issues which are not in compliance with the EU Directives. This capstone project conduct extended surveys producing substantial amounts of significant data ... Based on this survey related to five different groups of respondents, one of the most important measures which should be undertaken to reduce road traffic accidents are put signs and lightning in the roads. Secondly, improve road condition and third one strengthening the procedure to obtain driver license and onwards.; Chapter 1 Overview of road safety -- Chapter 2 Background of legislation -- Chapter 3 Driver questionnaires -- Chapter 4 Institutional obstacles & responses from police questionnaires -- Chapter 5 Health emergency services & response from health professionals questionnaires -- Chapter 6 Emergency services & emergency call numbers -- Chapter 7 Training & equipment -- Chapter 8 Road traffic safety in other countries -- Chapter 9 Road traffic prevention -- Chapter 10 Discussion & recommendations

A drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents

Riewpaiboon,Arthorn; Piyanuch,Piyauthakit; Srijariya,Witsanuchai; Chaikledkaew,Usa
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.54%
Objective: This study aimed to develop a drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents for patients receiving treatment at a regional hospital in Thailand. Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive analysis. The cases were all from road traffic accidents receiving treatment at a public regional hospital in the fiscal year 2004. Results: Three thousand seven hundred and twenty-three road accident patients were included in the study. The mean drug cost per case was USD18.20 (SD=73.49, median=2.36). The fitted drug cost model had an adjusted R2 of 0.449. The positive significant predictor variables of drug costs were prolonged length of stay, age over 30 years old, male, Universal Health Coverage Scheme, time of accident during 18:00-24:00 o’clock, and motorcycle comparing to bus. To forecast the drug budget for 2006, there were two approaches identified, the mean drug cost and the predicted average drug cost. The predicted average drug cost was calculated based on the forecasted values of statistically significant (p<0.05) predictor variables included in the fitted model; predicted total drug cost was USD44,334. Alternatively, based on the mean cost, predicted total drug cost in 2006 was USD63,408. This was 43% higher than the figure based on the predicted cost approach. Conclusions: The planned budget of drug cost based on the mean cost and predicted average cost were meaningfully different. The application of a predicted average cost model could result in a more accurate budget planning than that of a mean statistic approach.

Urban road traffic deaths: data linkage and identification of high-risk population sub-groups

Paixão,Lúcia Maria Miana Mattos; Gontijo,Eliana Dias; Mingoti,Sueli Aparecida; Costa,Dário Alves da Silva; Friche,Amélia Augusta de Lima; Caiaffa,Waleska Teixeira
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.55%
Abstract This study analyzes the profile of deaths from road traffic accidents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, by linking two public databases, the Information System of the Urban Transportation and Transit Company (BH10) and the Mortality Information System (SIM). The linked database (n = 306) identified a 24% under-recording rate for deaths and differed in the age distribution from the BH10 database and in roadway user category when compared to the mortality database. The mortality rate for road traffic accidents within the city limits was 10.2 per 100,000 thousand, and was higher among men, young adults, and the elderly. Poisson multivariate regression showed a higher mean death rate for motorcycle occupants (rate ratio – RR: 1.81); pedestrians (RR: 1.32); males (RR: 1.24); single/divorced (RR: 1.27); young adults 18-29 years of age (RR: 1.75); elderly (RR: 1.59); and deaths at the crash site (RR: 1.39) when compared to the reference categories. The study unveils the city’s traffic violence, expressed by the large proportion of deaths at the crash site and within the first 24 hours, and confirms the relevance of database linkage for characterizing vulnerable groups and traffic accident mortality in the urban setting.

Economic impact of fatal and nonfatal road traffic injuries in Belize in 2007

Pérez-Núñez,Ricardo; Híjar-Medina,Martha; Heredia-Pi,Ileana; Jones,Sandra; Silveira-Rodrigues,Eugênia Maria
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic cost of road traffic injuries in Belize in 2007. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary cost data, assuming the health system and social perspectives. Epidemiologic information was obtained from the mortality database, the national hospital discharge database, and administrative records from police and the Ministry of Health. A health provider survey was carried out in order to estimate the postdischarge ambulatory utilization figures. Direct cost was estimated with the World Health Organization WHO-CHOICE (CHOosing Interventions that are Cost Effective) database. Prehospital costs were obtained from the Belize emergency response team. After estimating years of potential life lost using the Belize life expectancy for 2008 and methodology proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, the indirect cost associated with premature death was estimated with the human capital approach. Total estimation of road traffic injuries' economic costs used a decision tree model approach. Multiway sensitivity analysis was used to incorporate uncertainty in the estimations. RESULTS: Sixty-one people died due to road traffic injuries during 2007, 338 were hospitalized, and 565 people were estimated to be slightly injured. A total of 2 501 years of potential life were lost in Belize due to premature death...

A road traffic injury surveillance system using combined data sources in Peru

Medina,Yliana Rojas; Espitia-Hardeman,Victoria; Dellinger,Ann M.; Loayza,Manuel; Leiva,Rene; Cisneros,Gloria
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
A national hospital-based nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance system was established at sentinel units across Peru in 2007 under the leadership of the Ministry of Health. Surveillance data are drawn from three different sources (hospital records, police reports, and vehicle insurance reports) and include nonfatal road traffic injuries initially attended at emergency rooms. A single data collection form is used to record information about the injured, event characteristics related to the driver of the vehicle(s), and the vehicle(s). Data are analyzed periodically and disseminated to all surveillance system participants. Results indicated young adult males (15-29 years old) were most affected by nonfatal road traffic injuries and were most often the drivers of the vehicles involved in the collision. Four-wheeled vehicle occupants comprised one-half of cases in most regions of the country, and pedestrians injured in the event accounted for almost another half. The system established in Peru could serve as a model for the use of multiple data sources in national nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance. Based on this study, the challenges of this type of system include sustaining and increasing participation among sentinel units nationwide and identifying appropriate prevention interventions at the local level based on the resulting data.

Human resources for the control of road traffic injury

Mock,Charles; Kobusingye,Olive; Anh,Le Vu; Afukaar,Francis; Arreola-Risa,Carlos
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these strategies, there is need for adequate institutional capacity, including funding, legal authority, and human resources. Several categories of human resources need to be developed: epidemiologists who can handle injury data, design surveillance systems, and undertake research; engineers and planners versed in safety aspects of road design, traffic flow, urban planning, and vehicle design; police and lawyers who understand the health impact of traffic law; clinicians who can develop cost-effective improvements in the entire system of trauma treatment; media experts to undertake effective behaviour change and social marketing; and economists to assist with cost-effectiveness evaluations. RTI control can be strengthened by enhancing such training in these disciplines...